1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

active replica: A name given to a server that hosts content and is expected to serve that content to clients.

address type: An identifier for the type of email address, such as SMTP and EX.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

attachments table: A Table object whose rows represent the Attachment objects that are attached to a Message object.

bookmark: A data structure that the server uses to point to a position in the Table object. There are three pre-defined bookmarks (beginning, end, and current). A custom bookmark is a server-specific data structure that can be stored by the client for easily navigating a Table object.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

contents table: A Table object whose rows represent the Message objects that are contained in a Folder object.

Deferred Action Message (DAM): A hidden message indicating to a client that it needs to execute one or more rules on another user-visible message in the store.

distinguished name (DN): A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.

Embedded Message object: A Message object that is stored as an Attachment object within another Message object.

entry ID: See EntryID.

FastTransfer download context: A Server object that represents a context for a FastTransfer download.

FastTransfer upload context: A Server object that represents a context for a FastTransfer upload.

flags: A set of values used to configure or report options or settings.

folder associated information (FAI): A collection of Message objects that are stored in a Folder object and are typically hidden from view by email applications. An FAI Message object is used to store a variety of settings and auxiliary data, including forms, views, calendar options, favorites, and category lists.

Folder object: A messaging construct that is typically used to organize data into a hierarchy of objects containing Message objects and folder associated information (FAI) Message objects.

Gateway Address Routing Table (GWART): A list of values that specifies the address types that are supported by transport gateways.

ghosted folder: A folder whose contents are located on another server.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

handle: Any token that can be used to identify and access an object such as a device, file, or a window.

hard delete: A process that removes an item permanently from the system. If an item is hard deleted, a server does not retain a back-up copy of the item and a client cannot access or restore the item. See also soft delete.

hierarchy table: A Table object whose rows represent the Folder objects that are contained in another Folder object.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

local replica: A copy of the data in a mailbox that exists on the client.

Logon object: A Server object that provides access to a private mailbox or a public folder. A client obtains a Logon object by issuing a RopLogon remote operation (ROP) to a server.

lowest-cost server: A server whose communication cost to access is the lowest in a list of servers.

mailbox: A message store that contains email, calendar items, and other Message objects for a single recipient.

message class: A property that loosely defines the type of a message, contact, or other Personal Information Manager (PIM) object in a mailbox.

Message object: A set of properties that represents an email message, appointment, contact, or other type of personal-information-management object. In addition to its own properties, a Message object contains recipient properties that represent the addressees to which it is addressed, and an attachments table that represents any files and other Message objects that are attached to it.

message store: A unit of containment for a single hierarchy of Folder objects, such as a mailbox or public folders.

messaging object: An object that exists in a mailbox. It can be only a Folder object or a Message object.

named property: A property that is identified by both a GUID and either a string name or a 32-bit identifier.

non-read receipt: A message that is generated when an email message is deleted at the expiration of a time limit or due to other client-specific criteria.

permissions table: A Table object whose rows represent entries  in a permissions list for a Folder object.

property ID: A 16-bit numeric identifier of a specific attribute. A property ID does not include any property type information.

property name: A string that, in combination with a property set, identifies a named property.

property tag: A 32-bit value that contains a property type and a property ID. The low-order 16 bits represent the property type. The high-order 16 bits represent the property ID.

public folder: A Folder object that is stored in a location that is publicly available.

Receive folder: A Folder object that is configured to be the destination for email messages that are delivered.

recipient: (1) An entity that can receive email messages. 

(2) An entity that is in an address list, can receive email messages, and contains a set of attributes. Each attribute has a set of associated values.

remote operation (ROP): An operation that is invoked against a server. Each ROP represents an action, such as delete, send, or query. A ROP is contained in a ROP buffer for transmission over the wire.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

replica: (1) A server that hosts an instance of a message item in a folder. 

(2) A copy of the data that is in a user's mailbox at a specific point in time.

replica GUID (REPLGUID): A value that represents a namespace for identifiers. If a REPLGUID is combined with a GLOBSET, the result is a set of global identifiers. A REPLGUID value has an associated replica ID (REPLID) that is used in its place on disk and on the wire.

replica ID (REPLID): A value that is mapped to a replica GUID (REPLGUID) that identifies a namespace for IDs within a given logon. REPLIDs are used on disk and on the wire for compactness, and are replaced with the corresponding REPLGUID for external consumption.

restriction: A filter used to map some domain into a subset of itself, by passing only those items from the domain that match the filter. Restrictions can be used to filter existing Table objects or to define new ones, such as search folder or rule criteria.

ROP buffer: A structure containing an array of bytes that encode a remote operation (ROP). The first byte in the buffer identifies the ROP. This byte is followed by ROP-specific fields. Multiple ROP buffers can be packed into a single remote procedure call (RPC) request or response.

ROP request: See ROP request buffer.

ROP request buffer: A ROP buffer that a client sends to a server to be processed.

ROP response: See ROP response buffer.

ROP response buffer: A ROP buffer that a server sends to a client to be processed.

rule: A condition or action, or a set of conditions or actions, that performs tasks automatically based on events and values.

rules table: A Table object whose rows represent the rules that are contained in a Folder object.

search criteria: A criteria used to determine which messages are included in a folder with specific characteristics. It is composed of a restriction, which is the filter to be applied, and a search scope, which are the folders that contain the content to search.

search folder: A Folder object that provides a means of querying for items that match certain criteria. The search folder includes the search folder definition message and the search folder container.

server object: A class of object in the configuration naming context (config NC). A server object can have an nTDSDSA object as a child.

Server object handle: A 32-bit value that identifies a Server object.

Server object handle table: An array of 32-bit handles that are used to identify input and output Server objects for ROP requests and ROP responses.

server replica: A copy of a user's mailbox that exists on a server.

special folder: One of a default set of Folder objects that can be used by an implementation to store and retrieve user data objects.

Stream object: A Server object that is used to read and write large string and binary properties.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.