1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.

address book container: An Address Book object that describes an address list.

address book hierarchy table: A collection of address book containers arranged in a hierarchy.

Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values.

address list: A collection of distinct Address Book objects.

address type: An identifier for the type of email address, such as SMTP and EX.

alias: An alternate name that can be used to reference an object or element.

ambiguous name resolution (ANR): A search algorithm that permits a client to search multiple naming-related attributes on objects by way of a single clause of the form "(anr=value)" in a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) search filter. This permits a client to query for an object when the client possesses some identifying material related to the object but does not know which attribute of the object contains that identifying material.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

attribute: A characteristic of some object or entity, typically encoded as a name/value pair.

Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives, order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].

binary large object (BLOB): A discrete packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

common name (CN): A string attribute of a certificate that is one component of a distinguished name (DN). In Microsoft Enterprise uses, a CN must be unique within the forest where it is defined and any forests that share trust with the defining forest. The website or email address of the certificate owner is often used as a common name. Client applications often refer to a certification authority (CA) by the CN of its signing certificate.

contact: A person, company, or other entity that is stored in a directory and is associated with one or more unique identifiers and attributes, such as an Internet message address or login name.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

Department object: An Address Book object that describes a department within an organization.

departmental group: A distribution list that describes a department within an organization.

display template: A template that describes how to display or allow a user to modify information about an Address Book object.

distinguished name (DN): A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.

distribution list: A collection of users, computers, contacts, or other groups that is used only for email distribution, and addressed as a single recipient.

endpoint: A communication port that is exposed by an application server for a specific shared service and to which messages can be addressed.

entry ID: See EntryID.

flags: A set of values used to configure or report options or settings.

Global Address List (GAL): An address list that conceptually represents the default address list for an address book.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

hierarchy table: A Table object whose rows represent the Folder objects that are contained in another Folder object.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

locale: A collection of rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographical area. A locale can include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.

mail tip: A note that is presented to the author of a message when the author is composing the message. A mail tip provides information about the recipients of a message and issues that might impact delivery of the message, such as moderation or delivery restrictions.

mail user: An Address Book object that represents a person or entity that can receive deliverable messages.

mailbox: A message store that contains email, calendar items, and other Message objects for a single recipient.

meeting request: An instance of a Meeting Request object.

message store: A unit of containment for a single hierarchy of Folder objects, such as a mailbox or public folders.

Minimal Entry ID: A property of an Address Book object that can be used to uniquely identify the object.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): A set of extensions that redefines and expands support for various types of content in email messages, as described in [RFC2045], [RFC2046], and [RFC2047].

name service provider interface (NSPI): A method of performing address-book-related operations on Active Directory.

named property: A property that is identified by both a GUID and either a string name or a 32-bit identifier.

offline address book (OAB): A collection of address lists that are stored in a format that a client can save and use locally.

Organization object: An Address Book object that describes an entire organization.

Permanent Entry ID: A property of an Address Book object that can be used to uniquely identify the object.

property ID: A 16-bit numeric identifier of a specific attribute. A property ID does not include any property type information.

property tag: A 32-bit value that contains a property type and a property ID. The low-order 16 bits represent the property type. The high-order 16 bits represent the property ID.

property type: A 16-bit quantity that specifies the data type of a property value.

recipient: An entity that is in an address list, can receive email messages, and contains a set of attributes. Each attribute has a set of associated values.

Recipient object: A set of properties that represent the recipient of a Message object.

relative distinguished name (RDN): In the Active Directory directory service, the unique name of a child element relative to its parent in Active Directory. The RDN of a child element combined with the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the parent forms the FQDN of the child.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

Resource object: An Address Book object that represents an asset that can be reserved, such as a room or equipment.

Rich Text Format (RTF): Text with formatting as described in [MSFT-RTF].

S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions): A set of cryptographic security services, as described in [RFC5751].

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to transport Internet messages, as described in [RFC5321].

Transport Neutral Encapsulation Format (TNEF): A binary type-length-value encoding that is used to encode properties for transport, as described in [MS-OXTNEF].

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

UTF-16LE: The Unicode Transformation Format - 16-bit, Little Endian encoding scheme. It is used to encode Unicode characters as a sequence of 16-bit codes, each encoded as two 8-bit bytes with the least-significant byte first.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.