This document uses the following terms:
address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.
Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values.
ambiguous name resolution (ANR): A search algorithm that permits a client to search multiple naming-related attributes on objects by way of a single clause of the form "(anr=value)" in a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) search filter. This permits a client to query for an object when the client possesses some identifying material related to the object but does not know which attribute of the object contains that identifying material.
Appointment object: A Calendar object that has an organizer but no attendees.
Attachment object: A set of properties that represents a file, Message object, or structured storage that is attached to a Message object and is visible through the attachments table for a Message object.
Autodiscover client: A client that queries for a set of server locations where setup and configuration information for an [RFC2821]-compliant email address is stored.
Autodiscover server: A server in a managed environment that makes setup and configuration information available to Autodiscover clients. The location of Autodiscover servers is made available via the Autodiscover HTTP Service Protocol, as described in [MS-OXDISCO].
base64 encoding: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters, as described in [RFC4648].
Calendar folder: A Folder object that contains Calendar objects.
Calendar object: A Message object that represents an event, which can be a one-time event or a recurring event. The Calendar object includes properties that specify event details such as description, organizer, date and time, and status.
(2) A person, company, or other entity that is stored in a directory and is associated with one or more unique identifiers and attributes, such as an Internet message address or login name.
contents table: A Table object whose rows represent the Message objects that are contained in a Folder object.
directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.
Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.
globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
instant messaging: A method of real-time communication over the Internet in which a sender types a message to one or more recipients and the recipient immediately receives the message in a pop-up window.
Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4 (IMAP4): A protocol that is used for accessing email and news items from mail servers, as described in [RFC3501].
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].
Meeting object: A Calendar object that has both an organizer and attendees.
message body: (1) The content within an HTTP message, as described in [RFC2616] section 4.3.
(2) The main message text of an email message. A few properties of a Message object represent its message body, with one property containing the text itself and others defining its code page and its relationship to alternative body formats.
Message object: A set of properties that represents an email message, appointment, contact, or other type of personal-information-management object. In addition to its own properties, a Message object contains recipient properties that represent the addressees to which it is addressed, and an attachments table that represents any files and other Message objects that are attached to it.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): A set of extensions that redefines and expands support for various types of content in email messages, as described in [RFC2045], [RFC2046], and [RFC2047].
NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Authentication Protocol: A protocol using a challenge-response mechanism for authentication in which clients are able to verify their identities without sending a password to the server. It consists of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 (negotiation), Type 2 (challenge) and Type 3 (authentication). For more information, see [MS-NLMP].
Post object: A Message object that represents an entry in a discussion thread stored in a messaging store.
Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3): A protocol that is used for accessing email from mail servers, as described in [RFC1939].
remote operation (ROP): An operation that is invoked against a server. Each ROP represents an action, such as delete, send, or query. A ROP is contained in a ROP buffer for transmission over the wire.
remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message). For more information, see [C706].
restriction: A filter used to map some domain into a subset of itself, by passing only those items from the domain that match the filter. Restrictions can be used to filter existing Table objects or to define new ones, such as search folder or rule criteria.
Rich Text Format (RTF): Text with formatting as described in [MSFT-RTF].
S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions): A set of cryptographic security services, as described in [RFC5751].
security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.
service connection point: An object that is made available by a directory service and that clients can use to discover Autodiscover servers.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to transport Internet messages, as described in [RFC5321].
site mailbox: A repository comprised of a mailbox and a web-based collaboration environment that is presented to users as a mailbox in an email client. A site mailbox uses team membership to determine which users have access to the repository.
Unified Messaging: A set of components and services that enable voice, fax, and email messages to be stored in a user's mailbox and accessed from a variety of devices.
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].
vCard: A format for storing and exchanging electronic business cards, as described in [RFC2426].
web service: A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications and can be called by using standard Internet transport protocols such as HTTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform functions that range from simple requests to complicated business processes.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Binary XML (WBXML): A compact binary representation of XML that is designed to reduce the transmission size of XML documents over narrowband communication channels.
WSDL message: An abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL operation [WSDL]. Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service providers and clients.
XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].
XML schema definition (XSD): The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language that is used in defining XML schemas. Schemas are useful for enforcing structure and constraining the types of data that can be used validly within other XML documents. XML schema definition refers to the fully specified and currently recommended standard for use in authoring XML schemas.