1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

absolute space: An area of a drawing that occupies an entire document or page. The value for absolute space is typically expressed in English Metric Units (EMUs), but it can be defined by the host application.

Active Server Pages (ASP): A server-side scripting engine that was developed by Microsoft and is designed to dynamically generate a webpage.

adjust handle: A user interface control that is located on an object frame and is used to increase or decrease the size of that object.

anchor: A set of qualifiers and quantifiers that specifies the location of an element or object within a document. These values are typically relative to another element or known location in the document, such as the edge of a page or margin.

atom: A unit of information that cannot be divided into smaller parts, and is accepted or rejected in its entirety. See also Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub).

background shape: A graphical drawing object that is covered or obstructed by other shapes in the foreground.

binary large image or picture (BLIP): A binary data structure that stores information about a metafile image or bitmap picture.

bounding rectangle: A frame that encompasses an object. A bounding rectangle is not rotated and, therefore, always aligns along the x and y axes.

callout: A set of characters that describes or emphasizes an element of a drawing or image and is connected to that drawing or image by a line.

child: An object that is immediately below the current object in a hierarchy.

color scheme: A table of color values that enables colors to be referenced by an index value in the table instead of a color value. See also color palette.

comment: An annotation that is associated with a cell, text, or other object to provide context-specific information or reviewer feedback.

connection point: A point on a shape where another drawing object can be connected.

connection site: A location on a shape where a connector is attached.

connector: A line that is used to connect two or more shapes and that remains connected to those shapes.

content management system: A system that manages the collaboration, creation, modification, archiving, restoration, and removal of objects from a formal repository on behalf of a web server.

crop: In graphics editing, the process of trimming the vertical or horizontal edges of a specified object.

device-independent bitmap (DIB): A file format that was designed to help ensure that bitmap graphics that were created by using one application can be loaded and displayed in another application exactly as they appeared in the originating application.

diagram: A drawing that is used to present relationships between abstract ideas and data, such as an organizational chart or a Venn diagram.

dialog sheet: A single logical container that is used to create a custom dialog box.

digital signature: A message authenticator that is typically derived from a cryptographic operation by using an asymmetric algorithm and private key. When a symmetric algorithm is used for this purpose, the authenticator is typically referred to as a Message Authentication Code (MAC).

drawing: A collection of drawing objects, such as shapes, curves, or WordArt, that are viewed together as a single image.

drawing group: A collection of images that are designated by the user as a single group of images and manipulated as a single drawing object.

drawing object: A shape, curve, line, WordArt, or other type of graphical object that can be inserted into a document.

drawing plane: A geometric plane in a three-dimensional space.

drawing space: An area of the absolute space that is being drawn, after all of the rotation and scaling is complete. For example, a shadow is typically drawn relative to a shape, and is therefore in the drawing space of that shape. The value for drawing space is expressed in English Metric Units (EMUs). See also absolute space.

edit points: A set of movable points in a shape, line, or curve that define the path of that geometry.

English Metric Unit (EMU): A measurement in computer typography. There are 635 EMUs per twip, 6,350 EMUs per half-point, 12,700 EMUs per point, and 914,400 EMUs per inch. These units are used to translate on-screen layouts to printed layouts for specified printer hardware.

enhanced metafile format (EMF): A file format that supports the device-independent definitions of images.

gamma correction: In digital imaging, the process of changing the brightness, contrast, or color balance of an image by assigning new values (different colors) to gray or color tones.

geometry space: An arbitrarily defined coordinate system for shape geometry. Any coordinate references to a shape use this coordinate system. All connection sites, adjust handles, and vertices of a shape are defined in geometry space.

geometry text: A type of text that follows the geometry of the shape, rather than being contained within the bounding rectangle of the shape.

gradient vector: A vector that indicates the direction of a gradient fill. The gradient vector is perpendicular to the bands of color.

group: A process of combining similar elements into a set in accordance with logical criteria. It is frequently used to combine sets of data from Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) databases or PivotTable reports.

group shape: A shape that contains a group of shapes.

horizontal rule: A line that is printed above or below an element to set off that item from the remainder of the page or to improve the appearance of the page.

hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].

ink: A process of entering text in handwritten form. Instead of converting handwritten text to typed text, ink is converted to an object and displayed exactly as it was written.

ink shape: A shape that contains strokes of ink.

inside margin: A side or top margin of a document on which the document is bound.

internal resource tag: A number associated with an internal resource.

join style: A style that specifies how the ends of connected lines are joined.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG): A raster graphics file format for displaying high-resolution color graphics. JPEG graphics apply a user-specified compression scheme that can significantly reduce the file sizes of photo-realistic color graphics. A higher level of compression results in lower quality, whereas a lower level of compression results in higher quality. JPEG-format files have a .jpg or .jpeg file name extension.

labeling policy: A policy that supports the addition of labels to a list item.

line end decoration: An arrowhead, square, circle, or other small shape that is attached to the end of a line in a drawing.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

Macintosh PICT: An abbreviated term for Macintosh Picture format, a graphics file format that is associated with Macintosh applications.

master: A slide view, page, or shape that defines the formatting for all slides, pages, or shapes in a presentation. Each presentation has a master for each key component: slides, title slides, speaker notes, and audience handouts.

master shape: A shape definition that specifies the default properties for all instances of that shape within a document.

master unit: A unit of linear measurement that is equal to 1/576 inch.

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document. The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.

OLE object: An object that supports the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) protocol.

outside margin: A side or top margin of a document that is opposite the side where the document is bound.

page element: Any basic element that exists on a page, such as the page itself, the margin, the text block, or an individual character.

perspective transform: A transform that is applied to an image or diagram so that it shows the same objects from a different point of view.

picture bullet: A list bullet that displays a picture instead of a standard character bullet.

placeholder: A character or symbol that is used in place of an actual value, text, or object. The actual value that the placeholder represents is unknown or unavailable at the current time, or is not displayed for security reasons.

point: A unit of measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.

Portable Network Graphics (PNG): A bitmap graphics file format that uses lossless data compression and supports variable transparency of images (alpha channels) and control of image brightness on different computers (gamma correction). PNG-format files have a .png file name extension.

red-green-blue (RGB): A color model that describes color information in terms of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) intensities in a color.

regroup identifier: A unique index that is used to determine which shapes were previously grouped together.

right-to-left: A reading and display order that is optimized for right-to-left languages.

rule: A condition or action, or a set of conditions or actions, that performs tasks automatically based on events and values.

scheme color: One of the colors that is defined in a set of specified colors for a document. If an object is filled with a scheme color, its color changes when another color scheme is selected for that document.

script anchor: The visual representation of a script on a webpage that is open in a Microsoft Office application. Different script anchors are used to represent scripts that are written in different scripting languages. By default, script anchors are not displayed.

shape: A collection of qualifiers, such as names, and quantifiers, such as coordinates, that is used to represent a geometric object. A shape can be contained in a document, file structure, run-time structure, or other medium.

sigma transfer function: A mathematical process which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of a data series.

signature line: A location in a document where a visible digital signature can be inserted.

slide: A frame that contains text, shapes, pictures, or other content. A slide is a digital equivalent to a traditional film slide.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF): A high-resolution, tag-based graphics format. TIFF is used for the universal interchange of digital graphics.

text run: A string of characters that represents a discrete span of text with the same formatting properties.

toolbar control identifier (TCID): An integer that identifies a specific control on a toolbar.

ToolTip: A small pop-up window that provides brief context-sensitive help when users point to an item. Also referred to as ScreenTip.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

UTF-8: A byte-oriented standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-8 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.

Vector Markup Language (VML): A system of marking up or tagging two-dimensional vector graphics for publication on the World Wide Web. VML graphics are scalable and editable, and typically require less disk space and less time to download.

web component: Any component, such as a bitmap, image, Java applet, or ActiveX control, that can be inserted into a webpage.

Windows metafile format (WMF): A file format used by Windows that supports the definition of images, including a format for clip art in word-processing documents.

wrap polygon: A shape that is built from a pattern of points and segments, and delineates an area that is associated with a graphic. A wrap polygon enables a word processing or other type of application to break lines of text automatically to stay outside of the boundaries set by the polygon, or to display text behind or in front of the polygon.

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].

z-order: The rendering order of an object on a z axis.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.