3-D Phong shading: A shading
algorithm that is used to apply shading to 3-D charts. The algorithm
interpolates color between points on the surface of a chart to give a smooth
A1: A reference style in which
each column is identified sequentially from left-to-right with a letter or
series of letters in alphabetical order. Column headings are ordered A-Z, then
AA-AZ, BA-BZ... ZA-ZZ, AAA-AAZ, and so forth. Each row is numbered sequentially
from the top down.
absolute reference: A
reference to a fixed location on a sheet (1). An absolute
reference always refers to the same range, even if the formula that contains it
is moved or copied to a new location.
accelerator key: Any
combination of keys that are pressed simultaneously to run a command.
active cell: The cell
that is currently selected in a worksheet.
active pane: The pane
that currently has focus or contains the current selection or object.
active sheet: The sheet
that is currently selected.
ActiveX control: A
reusable software control, such as a check box or button, that uses ActiveX
technology and provides options to users or runs macros or scripts that
automate a task. See also ActiveX
ActiveX Data Objects (ADO):
A data access interface that connects to, retrieves, manipulates, and updates
data in Object Linking
and Embedding (OLE) database-compliant data sources.
ActiveX object: An object
that is supplied by a component that supports automation.
functionality that is provided by an external application or macro to extend
the capabilities of an application.
add-in function: A
worksheet function that is provided by an add-in, instead of being
advanced filter: An
extended filter option that enables users to specify complex filter criteria
and a destination range for the filter results.
aggregation function: A
function, such as sum or average, that appears in the total row of a table and
is used to summarize data.
ALL: See OLAP All member.
alternate startup directory:
A secondary location that stores files to be opened by an application when the
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) character set: A character set defined by a code page approved by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The term "ANSI" as used
to signify Windows code pages is a historical reference and a misnomer that
persists in the Windows community. The source of this misnomer stems from the
fact that the Windows code page 1252 was originally based on an ANSI draft,
which became International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard
In Windows, the ANSI character set can be any of the following code pages:
1252, 1250, 1251, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 874, 932, 936, 949, or
950. For example, "ANSI application" is usually a reference to a non-Unicode or code-page-based
application. Therefore, "ANSI character set" is often misused to
refer to one of the character sets defined by a Windows code page that can be
used as an active system code page; for example, character sets defined by code
page 1252 or character sets defined by code page 950. Windows is now based on Unicode, so the use of ANSI
character sets is strongly discouraged unless they are used to interoperate
with legacy applications or legacy data.
ASCII: The American
Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit
character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent
text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with
text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII
characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.
attribute hierarchy: A
that uses only an attribute or a column from a source, back-end relational
database as its hierarchy. An attribute hierarchy typically has the same name
as the attribute and is always associated with the attribute on which it is
based. An all-level member can optionally be enabled for an attribute
hierarchy. See also OLAP hierarchy.
Augmented Backus-Naur Form
(ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by
Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with
reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its
definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives,
order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].
AutoComplete: A feature
that suggests text automatically based on the first few characters that a user
AutoFilter: A mechanism
that can be used to filter tabular data based on user-defined criteria such as
values, strings, and formatting.
AutoFormat: A built-in
set of complementary formatting options that can be applied to ranges of cells
and other objects in a document.
AutoRecover: A feature
that recovers document and application states in the event of a hardware or
AutoShow: A filter option
that enables users to display a specified number of the top- or bottom-most
items within a PivotTable field.
background color: A color
against which characters, patterns, and graphics are displayed. See also foreground color.
beta: A pre-released
version of a product that is sent to customers and partners for evaluation and
BIFF12: A binary file
format that is used to save workbooks in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and
Microsoft Excel 2010.
BIFF2: A binary file
format that is used by default to save worksheets in Microsoft Excel 2.1.
BIFF3: A binary file
format that is used by default to save worksheets in Microsoft Excel 3.0 for
BIFF4: A binary file
format that is used by default to save worksheets in Microsoft Excel 4.0 for
BIFF5: A binary file
format that is used by default to save workbooks in Microsoft Excel 5.0 for
Windows and Microsoft Excel for Windows 95.
BIFF8: A binary file
format that is used to save workbooks in Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and
earlier versions of Microsoft Excel.
values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the
memory location with the lowest address.
Binary Interchange File
Format (BIFF): The binary file formats that are used to save Excel
block-level formatting: A
type of formatting that can be applied to a field or column in a table. It is
applied to all existing records and automatically to new records.
border: A line that can
be applied to the outer edge of a cell, shape, object, or chart element. A
border can be variously formatted for style, color, and thickness.
border formatting: A set
of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a border, such as
color, line style, and thickness.
bounding rectangle: A
frame that encompasses an object. A bounding rectangle is not rotated and,
therefore, always aligns along the x and y axes.
Briefcase: A system
folder in Windows that is used to share and synchronize files between
bubble size: A value that
represents the diameter of a bubble in a bubble chart.
build identifier: An
integer that identifies a build.
build number: A part of a
sequential numbering system that is used to differentiate one version of a
software product from another.
built-in name: A member
of the group of defined names that are reserved for specific functionality.
ButtonPopup control: A
type of Button control that displays a menu of related commands when activated.
calculation mode: A
setting that determines whether the formulas in a worksheet are recalculated
automatically or manually. See also automatic calculation mode and manual
camera picture: An image
of a range of cells that is generated by using the camera tool. The image can
be linked such that when the data in the source range changes, the image is
caption: One or more
characters that can be used as a label for display purposes or as an
cascading style sheet (CSS):
An extension to HTML
that enables authors and users of HTML documents to attach style sheets to
those documents, as described in [CSS-LEVEL1] and [CSS-LEVEL2]. A style
sheet includes typographical information about the appearance of a page,
including the font for text on the page.
category: (1) A custom
string that is used to group one or more documents.
(2) A subdivision of items into
useful groups such as geographical regions. For example, categories that
represent geographical regions could be North, South, East, and West.
category label: A label
that appears on the horizontal (x) axis of a chart and identifies the
categories of the source data.
cell: A box that is
formed by the intersection of a row and a column in a worksheet or a table. A
cell can contain numbers, strings, and formulas, and various formats can be
applied to that data.
cell reference: A set of
coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. For example, "B3" is
the reference of a cell that appears at the intersection of column
"B" and row "3".
cell value: The text or
numeric content of a cell, or the results of a formula. A cell value does not
include a formula expression, cell formatting, or other metadata.
alignment: A formatting setting that centers cell content horizontally
within a selected range of cells.
centered alignment: A
formatting setting that specifies how content is positioned within the
horizontal, vertical, or both horizontal and vertical space within a cell,
object, or page. When centered, content is equidistant from the edges of the
cell, object, or page.
character set: A mapping
between the characters of a written language and the values that are used to
represent those characters to a computer.
chart area: A region in a
chart object that is used to position chart elements, render axes, and plot
chart sheet: A single
logical container that is used to create and store charts in a workbook.
checksum: A value that is
the summation of a byte stream. By comparing the checksums computed from a data
item at two different times, one can quickly assess whether the data items are
child: An object that is
immediately below the current object in a hierarchy.
class identifier (CLSID):
A GUID that
identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class or a COM
class module: A module
that contains the definition for a new object. Each instance of a class creates
a new object, and procedures that are defined in the module become properties
and methods of the object.
client area: In an
application, the display area that is used to create data, such as drawing or
typing functions. The client area does not include toolbars, menus, or status
code page: An ordered set
of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point
value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing
support for character
sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the
display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to
switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as
Portugal) at the user's request.
collapsed outline state:
A state in which the content that is nested within an outline is not displayed.
color palette: A
collection of colors that is available to format text, shapes, cells, and chart
color scale: A specific
range of colors that is used to give additional meaning to data by assigning
certain values to colors in the spectrum.
color scheme: A table of
color values that enables colors to be referenced by an index value in the
table instead of a color value. See also color palette.
column formula: A formula
that is used in a calculated column.
column outline: A nested
grouping of columns in a worksheet.
comment: An annotation
that is associated with a cell, text, or other object to provide
context-specific information or reviewer feedback.
compact axis: A state in
which PivotTable members from different levels in a hierarchy are displayed in
a single column.
Component Object Model (COM):
An object-oriented programming model that defines how objects interact within a
single process or between processes. In COM, clients have access to
an object through interfaces implemented on the object. For more information,
conditional formatting: A
mechanism that changes the appearance of a user interface element based on the
evaluation of a rule or expression.
connection string: A
series of arguments, delimited by a semicolon, that defines the location of a
database and how to connect to it.
consolidation range: A
range of source data that is used in a data consolidation process.
provider: An independent software module that performs authentication,
encoding, and encryption services that Windows-based applications access
through the CryptoAPI.
cube: A set of data that
is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined
by a set of dimensions
(1) and measures.
cube function: A function
that is used to extract and display Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data
sets and values.
custom color palette: A
set of user-defined colors that is available for formatting.
custom filter: A filter
that contains preconfigured expressions in which users can optionally enter a
string to filter data.
custom list: A
user-defined list or enumeration that can be used to sort data in a worksheet.
custom rollup: An aggregation
calculation that is customized for a dimension level, dimension member, or
measure. A custom rollup contains a custom formula or operator, overrides the
aggregate functions of a cube's measures, and is defined on a hierarchy.
custom view: A collection
of display and print settings that users can name and save. Users can switch
between custom views to change settings quickly.
Data Access Objects (DAO):
A programming interface that can be used to access and manipulate database
data bar: A graphical
representation of cell content as a bar graph.
data consolidation: The
process of combining tabular data from various worksheets into a single list.
data marker: A
customizable symbol or shape that identifies a data point on a line, scatter,
or radar chart. A data marker can be formatted with various sizes and colors.
data provider: A known
data source that is specific to a target type and that provides data to a
data recovery: A process
in which files are repaired through error correction or restored from backup
data region: A region of
a table that encompasses the range of cells that contains the table records. A
data region does not include the header row, insert row, or
total row of a table.
data source: A database,
web service, disk, file, or other collection of information from which data is
queried or submitted. Supported data sources vary based on application and data
data table: (1) A range
of cells that is designated to perform what-if analysis for formulas, based on
various input values.
(2) A grid that can be added to
some charts and contains the numeric data that is plotted in the chart.
data validation: The
process of testing the accuracy of data; a set of rules that specify the type
and range of data that users can enter.
date system: A method of
calculating calendar dates and times.
DDE topic: A general
classification of information about a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
server within which multiple, specific data items related to the topic can be
defined name: A word or
string of characters in a formula that represents a cell, range of cells,
formula, or constant value.
descending order: A sort
order in which text strings are arranged in reverse alphabetical order,
numerical values are arranged from largest to smallest, and dates and times are
arranged from newest to oldest.
diagonal-down: A cell border formatting that
displays a line diagonally from the top left corner of a cell to the bottom
diagonal-up: A cell border formatting that
displays a line diagonally from the bottom left corner of a cell to the top
dialog sheet: A single
logical container that is used to create a custom dialog box.
dimension: (1) A
structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories
(levels) that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically
describe a similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.
(2) A categorization of data in
rows or columns in an Excel worksheet.
display folder: A folder
into which attributes, measures, calculated members, and key performance
indicators can be organized to facilitate browsing.
display units: An
axis-formatting option that determines how numeric units are displayed on a
distributed alignment: A
formatting setting that spreads text evenly, both vertically and horizontally,
between the edges of a cell, object, or page. Distributed alignment is used
primarily with East Asian languages. See also justify distributed.
document library: A type
of list that is a container for documents and folders.
double accounting: An
underline style that places two lines beneath the formatted text. Double
accounting is frequently used to indicate totals.
drawing: A collection of
drawing objects, such as shapes, curves, or WordArt, that are viewed together
as a single image.
drawing group: A
collection of images that are designated by the user as a single group of
images and manipulated as a single drawing object.
drawing object: A shape,
curve, line, WordArt, or other type of graphical object that can be inserted
into a document.
drillthrough: A query
that is used to retrieve individual records that were used to calculate an
drop lines: A set of
supplemental lines on an area chart or a line chart. Drop lines increase the
legibility of a chart by connecting each data point in a series to the category
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE):
An inter-process communication method that is featured in Windows. DDE allows
two or more applications that are running simultaneously to exchange data and
embedded object: An
object that is created by using one application and is hosted in a document
that was created by using another application. Embedding an object, rather than
inserting or pasting it, ensures that the object retains its original format.
Users can double-click an embedded object and edit it with the toolbars and
menus from the application that was used to create it. See also Object Linking and Embedding
Excel Linked Library (XLL):
A Dynamic Link Library (DLL) that is authored to function as an add-in for Microsoft Excel.
Excel macro (XLM): A
programming language that provides development capability in Microsoft Excel.
XLM was superseded by Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).
expand/collapse button: A
user interface control that is used to determine which hierarchical level is
displayed in an outline, or in row and column groupings.
expression: A combination
of operators, symbols, constants, literal values, functions, names of fields or
columns, controls, and properties that evaluates to a single value.
external data: Data that
is stored in a repository outside a workbook.
external link: A
reference to a cell, range, defined name, or other object in another worksheet
fill: A color, pattern,
or other attribute that is used to format the background of a cell, shape, or
chart element. See also fill
color and fill pattern.
fill alignment: A setting
that repeats a cell value to fill the horizontal space of a cell. If the cell
value exceeds the horizontal width of the cell, the value is truncated.
fill color: A color that
is used to fill the background of a cell, shape, or chart element.
fill pattern: A
repetitive design that users can add to the background of a cell, shape, or
filter: A mechanism by
which a set of data is scoped to display only those entries that meet specified
filtering state: A
setting that indicates whether a filter value or filter date value is included
as part of the criteria that is used to define the filter for an AutoFilter.
fit to page: A printing
option that scales a document to print on a specified number of pages.
floating-point number: A
number that is represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given
base. The mantissa is typically a value between "0" and
"1". To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised
to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result.
floor: An extension of
the horizontal axis, or the area created by the inclusion of the z axis, in a
3-D chart to create a three-dimensional effect. See also wall.
folder: A file system
construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of
objects, which are referred to as folders or directories, that contain files and
can also contain other folders.
followed hyperlink: A
hyperlink that has been activated by a user.
font: An object that
defines the graphic design, or formatting, of a collection of numbers, symbols,
and letters. A font specifies the style (such as bold and strikeout), size,
family (a typeface such as Times New Roman), and other qualities to describe
how the collection is drawn.
font face weight: A value
that specifies the thickness of a font.
font family: A set of
fonts that all have common stroke width and serif characteristics. For example,
Times Roman and Times Roman Italic are members of the same font family.
font scaling: A process
of resizing a proportionally-spaced font.
font scheme: A
combination of complementary fonts in a theme.
forecast: The process of
projecting values forward or backward in a series, based on trends in existing
foreground color: A color
that is used to display text, patterns, and other objects that appear in front
of or on top of the background
form: A structured
document with controls and spaces that are reserved for entering and displaying
information. Forms can contain special coding for actions such as submitting
and querying data.
format string: A string
that contains the number formatting information to apply to data, such as
decimal position, percentage indicator, or currency symbol.
formatting run: A set of
formatting properties that are applied to a text run.
formula bar: A user
interface element that appears at the top of a worksheet and is used to display
and edit cell content.
formula error checking: A
mechanism that identifies invalid worksheet data, formulas, or formatting and then
friendly name: A name for
a user or object that can be read and understood easily by a human.
frozen panes: Portions of
a worksheet that remain static and do not scroll when the worksheet is
displayed in split pane view. See also split pane.
full screen view: A
document view that expands the display of a document to fill the computer screen.
The view hides menus, toolbars, and taskbars.
function: A code module
that takes a value as input, performs an operation, and returns the results to
function category: A
group of worksheet functions that are part of the same broad usage area, such
as Finance or Statistical. A function category can be built-in or user-defined.
general alignment: A
default formatting setting for the horizontal alignment of cell content in a
worksheet. Text is positioned to the left and numbers are positioned to the
globally unique identifier
(GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier
(UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage
of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to
generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or
require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used
for generating the GUID.
See also universally unique identifier (UUID).
gradient fill: A type of
fill that applies gradient formatting to the background of a cell or an object.
gradient stop: A marker
on a gradient spectrum that denotes where a specific color is introduced in
grand total: An
aggregation of all of the field subtotals in a PivotTable report.
graph object: An object
that represents a chart and the datasheet that contains the data for that
A type of DropDown control that can display custom graphics in a list of
gridline: A line that is
drawn on a worksheet or table for use as a visual aid to distinguish between
gutter: An area above a
column heading and to the left of a row heading. A gutter typically displays
outline symbols that are used to expand and collapse groups of cells.
hash: A fixed-size result
that is obtained by applying a one-way mathematical function, which is
sometimes referred to as a hash algorithm, to an arbitrary amount of data. If
the input data changes, the hash also changes. The hash can be used in many
operations, including authentication and digital signing.
header row: A row in a
table, typically the first row, that contains labels for columns in the table.
hidden: A condition of an
object that prevents it from being displayed in rendered output.
hidden cell: A cell that
does not appear in a worksheet view because it is contained within a hidden row or a hidden column.
hidden column: A column
that does not appear in a worksheet view because its width is set to 0 (zero).
A column can be hidden if an outline is collapsed.
hidden protection: A cell
protection property that prevents formulas, but not values, from appearing in a
cell when a worksheet is protected.
hidden row: A row that
does not appear in a worksheet view because its height is set to "0"
(zero). A row can be hidden if the data is filtered or an outline is collapsed.
hierarchy: A logical tree
structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each member has
one parent member and zero or more child members.
Supplemental lines that are added to a line chart and connect the maximum data
points of one series with the minimum data points of another series for each category (2). High-low
lines are typically used on stock charts.
horizontal alignment: A
formatting setting that specifies how content is positioned within the
horizontal space of a cell, object, or page. Content can be aligned along the
left or right edge, or distributed evenly across the horizontal space.
hyperlink: A relationship
between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].
Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
icon: A graphical image
used to supplement alphanumeric text in the visual identification of an object
on a computer monitor. Icons
are typically small, relative to the size of the area on which they are
icon set: A collection of
icons that can be used to comment and classify data into categories.
indentation level: A
measure of the distance between the position of content that is in a cell and
the logical left side of the cell. An indentation level is equal to three
Information Rights Management
(IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by
using encryption, certificates, and authentication. Authorized recipients or
users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the
rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.
ink: A process of
entering text in handwritten form. Instead of converting handwritten text to
typed text, ink is converted to an object and displayed exactly as it was
inner rectangle: In a
cell that is formatted with a rectangular gradient, a rectangle that is formed
by the leftmost, rightmost, topmost, and bottommost lines of pixels in which
the initial color of the gradient is completely dissipated. See also rectangular gradient.
input cell: A cell in
which each input value from a data table is substituted.
input language: A pairing
of input language and input method. The pairing determines what language is
currently being entered and how. The input language is usually determined by
the keyboard language that is currently active in the operating system. Users
can install keyboard layouts and Input Method Editors (IMEs) for several
languages, and then switch between them at appropriate times to indicate the
Input Method Editor (IME):
An application that is used to enter characters in written Asian languages by using
a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts
keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of
commonly used ideographic words.
insert row: A placeholder
row at the bottom of a table. It is used to enter new records.
international macro sheet:
A macro sheet that displays English function names and operates with U.S.
English locale settings, regardless of product locale, user locale, or system
iterative calculation: A calculation mode in which
calculations are performed until a specific numeric condition is met or a
maximum number of iterations is reached.
justify distributed: A
special, distributed-alignment setting that evenly distributes the last line of
text in a cell. The setting is primarily used for East Asian languages. See
key performance indicator
(KPI): A predefined measure that is used to track performance against a
strategic goal, objective, plan, initiative, or business process. A visual cue
is frequently used to communicate performance against the measure.
language code identifier
(LCID): A 32-bit number that identifies the user interface human language
dialect or variation that is supported by an application or a client computer.
leader line: A line that
connects a data label to its corresponding data point. The primary purpose of a
leader line is to increase legibility.
left-to-right: A reading
order in which characters in words are read from left to right, and words are
read from left to right in sentences.
legend entry: An item in
a chart legend that identifies a single series or category (2).
legend key: A symbol that
is associated with a legend entry.
library directory: A
directory in which Microsoft Excel add-ins are installed.
license key: An array of
bytes that enables access to a control according to the usage policies for that
line style: A style,
including width and dash type, that is applied to and alters the appearance of
a line or border.
linear gradient: A type
of gradient fill in which the color of a cell or other object gradually changes
horizontally, vertically, or diagonally from one edge of the object to the
linked object: An object
that is inserted into a document and continues to exist in a separate source
file. If the object in the source file changes, the object in the document is
updated automatically to reflect those changes.
list: A container within
a SharePoint site that stores list items. A list has a customizable schema that
is composed of one or more fields.
list view: A named
collection of settings for querying and displaying items in a SharePoint list.
There are two types of views: Personal, which can be used only by the user who
created the view; and Public, which can be used by all users who have
permission to access to the site.
Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte
stored in the memory location with the lowest address.
local name: A defined
name whose scope is limited to a specific sheet instead of the entire workbook.
locale: A collection of
rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographical area. A
locale can include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting,
numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.
localization: The process
of adapting an application or documentation, including text and non-text
elements, to meet the language, cultural, and political expectations and
requirements of a specific geographic country or region.
locked: The condition of
a cell, worksheet, or other object that restricts edits or modifications to it
locked protection: A
cell-protection property that restricts the editing of cell content when a
worksheet is protected.
logical left: A position
that is relative to the language orientation of a document. Logical left means
left, except in a right-to-left language where it means right. Also referred to
as leading edge.
logical right: A position
that is relative to the language orientation of a document. Logical right means
right, except in a right-to-left language where it means left. Also referred to
as trailing edge.
logical top-left: A
position that is relative to the language orientation of a document. Logical
top-left is the upper-left corner of a range or object when in left-to-right
mode. It is the upper-right corner when in right-to-left mode.
logical top-right: A
position that is relative to the language orientation of a document. Logical
top-right is the upper-right corner of a range or object when in left-to-right
mode. It is the upper-left corner when in right-to-left mode.
long file name: A folder
or file name that is longer than the 8.3 file name standard, which permits as
many as eight characters followed by a period and a file name extension of
macro: A set of
instructions that are recorded or written, and then typically saved to a file.
When a macro is run, all of the instructions are performed automatically.
macro sheet: A single,
logical container that is used to store and run Excel 4.0 macro formulas.
major gridline: A
horizontal or vertical line that is in the plot area of a chart and corresponds
to the major scaling unit on an axis.
major scheme: A font
scheme that is used for primary text elements, such as headings and titles, in
major tick mark: A tick
mark that corresponds to a major scaling unit on an axis.
Mandarin phonetic symbols:
A phonetic system for transcribing Chinese through the use of an alphabet that
includes characters for all possible sounds in the spoken Mandarin language.
manifest: A file that
stores metadata about an expansion pack, such as the name of the expansion
pack, the files and resources that are included in the expansion pack, and the
dependencies that it has on other files and components.
MD5: A one-way, 128-bit
hashing scheme that was developed by RSA Data Security, Inc., as described in [RFC1321].
MDX unique name: A unique
identifier for a multidimensional expression (MDX) member or value in a given
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube, for example
measure: In a cube, a set
of values that are typically numeric and are based on a column in the fact
table of the cube. Measures are the central values that are aggregated and
measure group: A
collection of related measures
in a cube that derive
from a single fact table, typically in a data source view.
member: (1) An identity
that belongs to a shared space.
member property: An
attribute on a data item within a specific dimension in an Online Analytical
Processing (OLAP) database.
merge conflict: A problem
that occurs if two users are editing the same cell or other type of object in a
workbook while changes are being merged in a shared workbook.
merged cell: A single
cell that is created by combining two or more adjacent cells.
messaging system service
provider: A business that supplies email and other messaging services to
individuals, businesses, and other organizations.
metafile: A file that
stores an image as graphical objects, such as lines, circles, and polygons,
instead of pixels. A metafile preserves an image more accurately than pixels
when an image is resized.
Microsoft Office Web
Components: A set of controls that can be used to create data analysis and
minimal save: A process
that saves only critical workbook data to disk when errors are detected during
a file save operation.
minor gridline: A
horizontal or vertical line that is in the plot area of a chart and corresponds
to the minor scaling unit on an axis.
minor scheme: A font
scheme that is used for secondary text elements, such as body text, in a theme.
minor tick mark: A tick
mark that corresponds to a minor scaling unit on an axis.
module: A collection of
routines and data structures that performs a specific task or implements a
specific abstract data type. Modules usually consist of two parts, a module
header and a module body. A module header is a set of name/value attribute
pairs that specify the linguistic characteristics of the module. A module body
is the VBA source code, a set of declarations followed by procedures. VBA
supports two types of modules, procedural modules and class modules.
moving average: A type of
trendline that is calculated based on the most recent period of data points in
(MDX): A syntax that is used for defining multidimensional objects, and for
querying and manipulating multidimensional data.
narrow katakana: A non-cursive
character set that
is used to write non-Japanese words phonetically in Japanese. Narrow katakana
characters are represented with a single byte. Also referred to as half-width
natural language formula:
A syntax for referring to tabular data in formulas by using column and row
labels instead of cell references.
natural language label: A
value of a cell or cells that identifies a range in a natural language formula.
A label is typically the same as a column or row header in tabular data.
ninched: A condition in
which a group of selected cells or objects do not share a specific property.
For example, if a selection has three cells and only two of the cells share the
same color formatting, the color formatting of the selection is in a ninched
non-contiguous range: A
selected range that
includes non-adjacent cells.
Normal view: A document
view that displays text formatting and a simplified page layout of a document.
The Normal view hides some layout elements such as the header and footer.
Referred to as Draft view in Microsoft Office Word 2007 and Microsoft Word
number format: A property
of a cell or other type of object that determines how numerical data is
displayed or interpreted. For example, a currency number format affixes the
proper currency symbol to the number.
obfuscation key: A secret
shared key combined with a cryptographic hash function that is intended to
prevent a reversal of an encoding process. See also XOR obfuscation.
Object Linking and Embedding
(OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between
applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document.
The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.
object model: A
collection of object-oriented APIs that represent data structures and are
designed to promote software interoperability.
OCXDropDown control: A
type of DropDown control that displays a list of the ActiveX controls that are
available within that application.
Office data connection (ODC)
file: A file that stores information about a connection to a data source,
such as an Access database, worksheet, or text file. This file facilitates data
OLAP calculated member:
An OLAP member whose
value is calculated at run time.
OLAP hierarchy: An attribute hierarchy or a
user-defined hierarchy in a data structure. By default, each dimension
attribute has an attribute hierarchy. A user-defined hierarchy is a set of
related attribute hierarchies that is used to facilitate browsing an OLAP cube.
OLAP level: Within an OLAP hierarchy, a set of
data that is organized into a lower or higher level of detail, such as Year,
Quarter, Month, and Day levels in a Time hierarchy.
OLAP measure: A set of
numeric values in an OLAP
cube that is used in aggregation and analysis.
OLAP measure group: A
collection of related OLAP
measures in an OLAP cube.
An OLAP cube can contain multiple measure groups.
OLAP member: An item that
is in an OLAP level.
For example, a Canada member in a Country level of a Geography hierarchy.
OLAP member property: A
relationship between two OLAP
hierarchies, such as a Population member property of a Country member.
OLAP named set: A
collection of OLAP
tuples that have the same dimensionality. Also referred to as OLAP set.
OLAP set: A collection of
OLAP tuples with the
same dimensionality. Also referred to as OLAP named set.
OLAP tuple: An ordered collection
of members that are from different dimensions of an OLAP cube. A single member
is a special case of a tuple.
OLE compound file: A form
of structured storage, as described in [MS-CFB].
A compound file allows independent storages and streams to exist within a
OLE DB: A set of
interfaces that are based on the Component Object Model (COM) programming model
and expose data from a variety of sources. These interfaces support the amount
of Database Management System (DBMS) functionality that is appropriate for a
data store and they enable a data store to share data.
one-variable data table:
A data table that consists of only one input cell, which is either a row input
cell or a column input cell.
Online Analytical Processing
(OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide
access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data
warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.
Open Database Connectivity
(ODBC): A standard software API method for accessing data that is stored in
a variety of proprietary personal computer, minicomputer, and mainframe
databases. It is an implementation of [ISO/IEC9075-3:2008]
and provides extensions to that standard.
outline: A nested
grouping of rows or columns that are in a worksheet.
outline effect: A
formatting effect in which a line is placed around the edge of a shape or
around each character in a text string.
outline level: The number
of levels that a task is indented from the top level of an outline; the order
associated with an outline.
outline state: A setting
that specifies whether an outline is currently outline expanded or outline
out-of-memory: A state of
a computer or application when it halts because all of the available volatile
memory has been allocated and none is currently available for reallocation.
page break: A divider
that breaks a worksheet into separate pages for printing. Page breaks are inserted
automatically based on the paper size, margin settings, scaling options, and
the positions of any page breaks that are inserted manually.
Page Break Preview view:
A worksheet view that displays the areas to be printed and the locations of
Page Layout view: A sheet
view that displays a sheet as it would appear on a printed page, including
margins, header and footer elements, and pagination.
palette color: A specific
color among those that are available on the active color palette.
pane: A portion of a
software window that has a distinct function and is bounded by and separated
from other portions of the window by vertical or horizontal bars.
Pane control: A type of
toolbar control that hosts a window within itself. The hosted window is not constrained
by the layout and control type options of a basic toolbar or a menu toolbar.
parameterized query: A
query that contains parameters. It applies to Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
and web queries. For example, a web query that retrieves stock quotes from a
webpage can prompt users for a parameter, such as a stock symbol.
phonetic guide: A set of
supplemental phonetic symbols that appears above text in Japanese and other
East Asian languages. A phonetic guide is displayed automatically and can be
edited by the user.
phonetic information: A
series of characters that appear above text in a cell and provide information
that helps users pronounce the text.
phonetic string: A series
of characters that appear above a string and provide information that helps
users pronounce the string. Phonetic strings are typically used in East Asian
phonetic text run: A
series of characters that are within a phonetic string.
PivotChart filter pane: A
user interface element that displays a list of active fields in a PivotChart
view and is used to apply filters to those fields.
PivotTable field list: A
user interface element that displays a list of all of the fields in a
PivotTable report. It can be used to populate a PivotTable report and to
manipulate the fields.
pixel: A discrete unit of
display on a computer display device.
placeholder: A character
or symbol that is used in place of an actual value, text, or object. The actual
value that the placeholder represents is unknown or unavailable at the current
time, or is not displayed for security reasons.
plot area: A portion of a
chart area that contains the plotted data and axes.
point: A unit of
measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.
Popup control: A built-in
or custom control on a menu bar or toolbar that displays a menu of related
commands when clicked.
post method: A method of
submitting form data in the header of an HTTP request.
precision as displayed: A
calculation setting that permanently changes stored values in cells from full
precision (15 digits) to the currently displayed format, including the number
of decimal places.
primary pie: The main
chart in a bar of pie or pie of pie chart. A primary pie chart has one pie
slice (data point) that is a grouping of data points.
print area: A collection
of one or more ranges of cells that are designated to be printed. If a
worksheet includes a print area, only the content inside the print area is
print settings: The
settings that specify how a file is printed in a specific print job, such as
duplex or landscape orientation. Printer settings are settings that can differ
from printer to printer but apply to every print job of a given printer. Print
settings are values that typically vary between print jobs.
print titles: The rows or
columns that appear on each page when a page is printed. Print titles are
typically used to print column headers above tabular data that spans several
ProgID: An identifier
that is used by the Windows registry to uniquely identify an object and is in
the form OLEServerName.ObjectName, for example, "Excel.Sheet" or
property stream: A series
of object properties that is used in processes such as checksum calculations.
protected: A property
that is applied manually to a file or a portion of a file, with or without a
password, and that helps prevent users from accidentally or deliberately
changing, moving, or deleting data.
protection: A mechanism
that helps restrict users from making unwanted changes to the data or structure
of a workbook.
published: A condition of
portions of a workbook that are marked as being available to the user when that
workbook is processed by a protocol server.
published item: A
specific named object that is in a published workbook.
query: A formalized
instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified
action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query,
or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as
a relational database, XML document, or in-memory object. See also search
query table: A
two-dimensional table that presents data from an external data source.
R1C1: A reference style in which
each row and each column has a numeric heading that is numbered sequentially
from top to bottom and left to right, respectively. "R" stands for
row and "C" stands for column.
range: An addressable
region that is in a workbook. A range typically consists of zero or more cells
and represents a single, contiguous rectangle of cells on a single sheet.
reading order: The
positioning of characters in words and the positioning of words in sentences.
This can be left-to-right or right-to-left.
read-only recommended: A
file sharing property that displays an alert when a file is being opened. The
text of the alert recommends that the user open the file with read-only
real-time data (RTD):
Data that is pushed into a worksheet from an RTD server and is updated
continually. Real-time data is frequently used to track stock prices or
inventory levels in real time.
recalculate: The process
of computing a value in a workbook by initiating a calculation repeatedly.
reconnect condition: A
condition that specifies whether to connect to a database again after a connection
rectangular gradient: A
type of gradient fill in which the color of a cell or other object gradually
changes with each successive inner rectangle of pixels.
A color model that describes color information in terms of the red (R), green
(G), blue (B), and alpha (A) intensities that comprise a color.
reference style: A system
that is used in formulas to specify cells or ranges of cells. A reference style
specifies a cell in a two-dimensional table by identifying the row and column
that contain that cell or range of cells.
refresh: A process that
retrieves values from a data source and populates a workbook with those values.
regional settings: See
relative reference: A
reference to a location on a sheet that is relative to the cell that contains
the reference. A relative reference can be stored as a cell reference or as an
relative security descriptor:
A security descriptor that contains all associated security information in a
contiguous block of memory.
result cell: A cell that
contains the results of the calculation of changing cells in a scenario.
revision: A change in a
document, file, or other object.
revision history: A list
of data that describes document updates, such as when and by whom a document
revision record: Any of
the records in the revision stream of a shared workbook that stores
user edits to the workbook and other tracked information.
right-to-left: A reading
and display order that is optimized for right-to-left languages.
routing slip: Information
that specifies how a document is to be distributed from a document originator
and processed by one or more recipients. It also specifies subject and message
body text that is associated with the document routing process and routing
status or workflow information.
routing stage: The
current status of a document with a routing slip.
row outline: A mechanism
for grouping and nesting the rows in a worksheet.
RTD server: A Component
Object Model (COM) Automation server that is used by the real-time data (RTD)
function to retrieve data in real time. The RTD server can exist as an ActiveX
DLL or as an executable (.exe) file that runs on the same local computer or on
a remote server.
RTD topic: A discrete
combination of parameters that is used to request data from a real-time data
ruler: A user interface
element that enables users to adjust page margins and to measure and align
objects in a document.
safe load: A process of
loading a file in which additional error checking is performed and various
corruption patterns in the file are detected and repaired.
scenario: A named set of
input values (changing cells) that can be substituted in a worksheet model.
Scenario Manager: A
process for creating and managing different sets of input values for
calculation models in a worksheet.
secondary bar/pie: A
secondary chart in a bar of pie or pie of pie chart that displays the detailed
data of the grouped data point in the primary pie chart. The secondary bar/pie
chart takes the form of a stacked bar chart or a pie chart that is connected to
the primary pie chart with series lines.
security descriptor: A
data structure containing the security information associated with a securable
object. A security
descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID).
If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor
contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security
principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to
set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used
to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes
place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format
is specified in [MS-DTYP]
section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors,
called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.
selected: The condition
of a set of items that has focus in a workbook.
selection: An item or set
of items, such as cells, shapes, objects, and chart elements, that has focus in
series line: A
supplemental line on a stacked column, stacked bar, pie of pie, or bar of pie
chart that connects each data point in a series with the next data point to
server name: The name of
a server, as specified in the operating system settings for that server.
shade: A color that is
mixed with black. A 10-percent shade is one part of the original color and nine
shadow effect: A
formatting effect that makes a font or object appear to be elevated from the
page or screen surface, and therefore casts a shadow.
shape: A collection of
qualifiers, such as names, and quantifiers, such as coordinates, that is used
to represent a geometric object. A shape can be contained in a document, file
structure, run-time structure, or other medium.
shared workbook: A
workbook that is configured to enable multiple users on a network to view and
make changes to it at the same time. Each user who saves the workbook sees the
changes that are made by other users.
sheet tab: A control that
is used to select a sheet.
sheet view: A collection
of display settings, such as which cells are shown, and the zoom level for a
shrink to fit: The
process of adjusting the font size of text in a cell to fit the current height
and width of the cell.
single accounting: An
underline style that places one line beneath the text. Single accounting can be
used to indicate subtotals.
single sign-on (SSO)
identifier: A string that represents the definition of user credentials
that permit a user to access a network. See also single sign-on (SSO).
smart document: A file
that is programmed to assist the user as the user creates or updates the
document. Several types of files, such as forms and templates, can also
function as smart documents.
smart tag: A feature that
adds the ability to recognize and label specific data types, such as people's
names, within a document and displays an action button that enables users to
perform common tasks for that data type.
smart tag actions button:
A user interface control that displays a menu of actions that are associated
with a specific smart tag.
smart tag indicator: A
triangular symbol that appears in the bottom right corner of a cell and
indicates that the cell contains a smart tag.
sort: A process that
arranges cells in ascending or descending order, based on cell content.
sort condition: A
condition that determines how to sort cells in a range.
sort order: A specific
arrangement of cells that is based on cell content. The order can be ascending
sort range: A range of
cells that will be or has been sorted.
source data: The data
that is used as the basis for charts, PivotTable reports, and other data
split pane: A pane that
consists of two or more discrete areas of a window. Each area displays content
and scrolls independently from other areas of the window. See also frozen panes.
A type of SplitButtonPopup
control whose icon changes to reflect the command that the user most
recently selected from the menu that is displayed by that button.
A type of Button control that performs an action when clicked, and can also
display a menu of related commands when the user clicks a drop-down arrow that
appears on the button.
SplitDropDown control: A
type of Button control that performs a default action when clicked, and can
also expand to display a list of other possible actions when the user clicks a
drop-down arrow that appears on the button.
startup directory: The
directory from which an application opens data files when the application
storage: An element of a
compound file that is a unit of containment for one or more storages and
streams, analogous to directories in a file system, as described in [MS-CFB].
stream: An element of a
compound file, as described in [MS-CFB]. A stream contains a sequence of bytes
that can be read from or written to by an application, and they can exist only
A formatting option in which characters are crossed out by horizontal line.
stripe band: One or more
adjacent columns or rows that are in a table and have the same stripe
stroke order: A sort
order that arranges items in a sort range according to the number of strokes
that is used to write each glyph. Stroke order is used when sorting text that
is written in some East Asian languages.
Structured Query Language
(SQL): A database query and programming language that is widely used for
accessing, querying, updating, and managing data in relational database
style: A set of
formatting options that is applied to text, tables, charts, and other objects
in a document.
subtotal column: A column
that uses a summary or subtotal function to display the total of detail items
in a PivotTable field.
table: A list that is
defined in a workbook.
template: A file that contains
pre-defined formatting including layout, text and graphics. It serves as the
basis for new documents that have a similar look or purpose. See also form
template (Microsoft InfoPath) and site template (SharePoint Products and
text importation: A
process that incorporates textual data into a workbook, either by opening a
text file or through an external link.
text query: A query that
is used to import data from text files.
text run: A string of
characters that represents a discrete span of text with the same formatting
text style: A formatting
option, such as bold or italic, that can be applied to a font.
theme: A set of unified
design elements, such as colors, fonts, graphics, and styles, that define the
appearance of a website, document, or data visualization.
time hierarchy: A
specialized Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) hierarchy that can be organized
into lower and higher levels of detail, such as Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.
toolbar control: An
object that appears on a toolbar and enables user interaction or input,
typically to initiate an action, display information, or set values.
toolbar view: A visual
state of a toolbar that depends on the current state of the application. Valid
toolbar views are docked, floating, and not visible.
ToolTip: A small pop-up
window that provides brief context-sensitive help when users point to an item.
Also referred to as ScreenTip.
top N filter: A filter
that matches the top or bottom N items or N% of items in a specified column.
total row: A row in a
list or table that provides a selection of aggregate functions that are useful
for working with numerical data.
transfer protocol: A
protocol that governs the transfer of files, Internet messages, and webpages
between networked computers. On the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic
Reference Model, these are application layer protocols. Examples of transfer
protocols are Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), and File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
transition formula entry:
A worksheet option that enables users to enter formulas that use IBM Lotus
transition formula evaluation:
A setting that enables formulas in a worksheet to be calculated in a manner
that is consistent with IBM Lotus 1-2-3.
trendline: A line that is
added to a chart to show the trend of multiple data points in a series. A
trendline is used to facilitate regression analysis.
tuple: An ordered
grouping of members from different dimensions or hierarchies. A single member
is a special case of a tuple and can be used as an expression. Every hierarchy
does not have to be represented in a tuple.
twip: A unit of
measurement that is used in typesetting and desktop publishing. It equals
one-twentieth of a printer's point, or 1/1440 of an inch.
two-variable data table:
A data table that consists of two input cells, a row input cell and a column
type library: A binary
file that describes the methods, properties, and data structure of a component.
UNC volume: A storage
device that is accessible by network protocols and addressed in the standard
Universal Naming Convention format, for example, "\\Server Name\Share
unfrozen pane: A portion
of a worksheet that continues to scroll and function normally in split pane
view. See also frozen
Unicode: A character
encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost
all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007]
provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8,
UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).
Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing
mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].
Uniform Resource Locator
(URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a
document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].
up-down bar: A vertical
bar that highlights the difference between data points in a line chart that
contains more than one data series.
user name: A unique name
that identifies a specific user account. The user name of an account is unique
among the other group names and user names within its own domain or workgroup.
user-defined function (UDF):
A function that is coded in a VBA module, macro sheet, add-in, or Excel Linked Library (XLL).
A UDF can be used in formulas to return values to a worksheet, similar to
VBA project: A collection
of the modules, class modules, and user forms that are needed to create an
application. Modules, class modules, and user forms can be imported into and
exported from a project.
Vector Markup Language (VML):
A system of marking up or tagging two-dimensional vector graphics for
publication on the World Wide Web. VML graphics are scalable and editable, and
typically require less disk space and less time to download.
vertical alignment: A
formatting setting that specifies how content is positioned within the vertical
space of a cell, object, or page. Content can be aligned along the top or
bottom edge, or distributed evenly across the vertical space.
visible: A condition of
an object that allows it to be displayed in rendered output.
Visual Basic for Applications
(VBA): A macro-based programming language that derives from Microsoft
Visual Basic and can be used to customize and extend an application. Unlike
Visual Basic, VBA code and macros can be run only from within a host
application that supports VBA.
volatile: A condition of
a formula in which the formula is calculated every time the workbook is calculated.
This is unlike a non-volatile formula, which is calculated only when dependent
values are changed.
wall: An extension of the
background of a 3-D chart to create a three-dimensional effect. See also floor.
watched cell: A cell
whose value is monitored in a separate window while formulas that are
associated with the cell are calculated.
web query: An external
data connection that retrieves a table from a website and inserts table data
into a workbook.
web-only view: A view of
a workbook from within a web browser.
wide katakana: A
set that is used to write non-Japanese words phonetically in Japanese. Wide
katakana characters are represented with two bytes.
window state: The current
positioning state of a window. Windows can be maximized or minimized, or the
window size can be customized by the user.
workbook: A container for
a collection of sheets
workbook parameter: A
single cell that is designated to receive input from users.
worksheet: A single
logical container for a set of tabular data and other objects in a workbook.
write reservation: A
field or condition that is set on a document, workbook, or presentation to help
prevent users from modifying it.
XML: The Extensible
Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].
XML map: A feature that
is used to import data from databases and applications and to map XML elements
and attributes from the associated XML schema to cells in a
worksheet. The revised XML
data can then be exported for interaction with other databases and
XML namespace: A
collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in
XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML
namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and
attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more
information, see [XMLNS-2ED].
XML node: The smallest
unit of a valid, complete structure in an XML document. For example, a node can
represent an element, an attribute, or a text string.
XML Path Language (XPath):
A language used to create expressions that can address parts of an XML
document, manipulate strings, numbers, and Booleans, and can match a set of
nodes in the document, as specified in [XPATH]. XPath models an XML document as
a tree of nodes of different types, including element, attribute, and text.
XPath expressions can identify the nodes in an XML document based on their
type, name, and values, as well as the relationship of a node to other nodes in
XML schema: A description
of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints
on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the
basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema
provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.
XML schema definition (XSD):
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language that is used in defining
XML schemas. Schemas are useful for enforcing structure and constraining the
types of data that can be used validly within other XML documents. XML schema
definition refers to the fully specified and currently recommended standard for
use in authoring XML
XOR obfuscation: A type
of file encryption that helps protect private data by using an exclusive or
bitwise operation. This is done by adding a mathematical expression that
prevents a simple reverse-engineering process.
XPath expression: An
expression that searches an71 XML document and can extract and manipulate data
in elements or attributes within that document.
zoom level: The degree to
which a portion of an image, document, or other screen object is made to appear
closer or farther away relative to its default appearance. This value is
usually expressed as a percentage of the default appearance.
z-order: The rendering
order of an object on a z axis.
SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as
defined in [RFC2119]. All
statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.