1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

A1: A reference style in which each column (2) is identified sequentially from left-to-right with a letter or series of letters in alphabetical order. Column headings are ordered A-Z, then AA-AZ, BA-BZ... ZA-ZZ, AAA-AAZ, and so forth. Each row is numbered sequentially from the top down.

absolute path: A string that identifies the location of a file and that begins with a drive identifier and root directory or network share and ends with the complete file name. Examples are C:\Documents\Work\example.txt and \\netshare\Documents\Work\example.txt.

active cell: The cell that is currently selected in a worksheet.

active sheet: The sheet that is currently selected.

adjacent cell: A cell that is in the same row as and adjoins the current cell in a worksheet.

alert: A message that is passed to a protocol client to notify it when specific criteria are met.

ancestor: A PivotTable member that is above the current PivotTable member in a hierarchy.

anonymous user: A user who presents no credentials when identifying himself or herself. The process for determining an anonymous user can differ based on the authentication protocol, and the documentation for the relevant authentication protocol should be consulted.

array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed in braces ({}) and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

ascending order: A sort order in which text strings are arranged in alphabetical order, numerical values are arranged from smallest to largest, and dates and times are arranged from oldest to newest.

AutoFilter: A mechanism that can be used to filter tabular data based on user-defined criteria such as values, strings, and formatting.

automatic calculation mode: A calculation mode in which formulas in a worksheet are recalculated automatically whenever the data changes. See also manual calculation mode.

border: A line that can be applied to the outer edge of a cell, shape, object, or chart element. A border can be variously formatted for style, color, and thickness.

border thickness: A property of a border that specifies how thick a border line is drawn.

bottom N filter: A filter that matches the smallest numerical values or oldest time and date values in a specified range.

bottom N filter by count: A type of bottom N filter that matches the N smallest numerical values or the N oldest time and date values.

bottom N filter by percent: A type of bottom N filter that matches the N percent smallest numerical values or the N percent oldest time and date values.

bottom N filter by sum: A type of bottom N filter that matches the smallest numerical values or the oldest time and date values whose sum is equal to or greater than N.

calculate: The process by which computations in a workbook are performed.

calculation mode: A setting that determines whether the formulas in a worksheet are recalculated automatically or manually. See also automatic calculation mode and manual calculation mode.

caption: One or more characters that can be used as a label for display purposes or as an identifier.

cell: A box that is formed by the intersection of a row (2) and a column (2) in a worksheet or a table. A cell can contain numbers, strings, and formulas, and various formats can be applied to that data.

cell contents: The data inside a cell, such as text, values, formulas, and cell error values.

cell error value: Any of a number of special values that are returned as a result of an unsuccessful formula calculation.

cell formatting: The set of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a cell, such as font characteristics and fill color.

cell value: The text or numeric content of a cell, or the results of a formula. A cell value does not include a formula expression, cell formatting, or other metadata.

chart sheet: A single logical container that is used to create and store charts in a workbook.

checked out: A publishing level that indicates that a document has been created and locked for exclusive editing by a user in a version control system.

child: An object that is immediately below the current object in a hierarchy.

child PivotTable member: A PivotTable member that is one level lower in a dimension hierarchy, relative to another PivotTable member, which is referred to as its parent member. For example, a child of a Year member might be Quarter.

clear all state: A condition in which no filter is applied to a worksheet, list, or PivotTable report.

collapse: The process of closing a level in a dimension hierarchy on a PivotTable report to hide or aggregate lower-level details in the data.

collapsed outline state: A state in which the content that is nested within an outline is not displayed.

color stop: A color at a specific position in a color gradient.

column: (1) See field.

(2) A single set of data that is displayed vertically in a worksheet or a table.

confirmation: A message that asks a user to verify an action before the user performs it.

connected data: Data that is stored in the same workbook from which it is being referenced, or data that is stored in a database repository.

control button: A button in the user interface.

cube: A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined by a set of dimensions (1) and measures.

cube function: A function that is used to extract and display Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data sets and values.

custom filter: A filter that contains preconfigured expressions in which users can optionally enter a string to filter data.

custom label filter: A custom filter that is applied to string labels for data.

custom value filter: A custom filter that is applied to the numerical values of data.

data connection: (1) A link between an application and a data source. Data connections can be used to query and submit data.

(2) A collection of information, such as the type and location, that defines how to connect to an external data source, such as a database, web service, SharePoint list, or XML file.

data culture: The language that is used to specify number formatting for data.

data provider: A known data source that is specific to a target type and that provides data to a collector type.

data source: A database, web service, disk, file, or other collection of information from which data is queried or submitted. Supported data sources vary based on application and data provider.

data table: A range of cells that is designated to perform what-if analysis for formulas, based on various input values.

default column: The column (2) that is used if no column is specified.

default filter value: The filter value that is used if no filter is specified.

default row: The row that is used if no row is specified.

default sheet: The sheet that is displayed if no sheet is specified.

default sheet tab color: The color that is used for a worksheet tab if no color is specified.

descendant: A member that is below the current member in a hierarchy.

descending order: A sort order in which text strings are arranged in reverse alphabetical order, numerical values are arranged from largest to smallest, and dates and times are arranged from newest to oldest.

dimension: (1) A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels) that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically describe a similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.

(2) A categorization of data in rows or columns (2) in an Excel worksheet.

display name: A text string that is used to identify a principal or other object in the user interface. Also referred to as title.

document library: A type of list that is a container for documents and folders.

edit session: A session (2) that is based on a workbook file and during which changes by one or more users are persisted to that file.

embedded image: An image that is stored within a document rather than being linked to a source file that is outside the document.

encrypted document: A document that was converted from plaintext into cipher text to disguise the content of the document when it is stored or sent.

end user presence: A set of attributes for a user who is participating in an edit session.

endpoint: A communication port that is exposed by an application server for a specific shared service and to which messages can be addressed.

expand: The process of opening a level in a dimension hierarchy on a PivotTable report to view data from lower levels in the user interface.

expanded outline state: A state in which nested content within an outline is displayed.

expire: A process in which an object, such as an external data connection, becomes invalid because its allotted time period has ended.

external data: Data that is stored in a repository outside a workbook.

fallback data culture: A data culture that is selected through an algorithm as a substitute for a data culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.

fallback UI culture: A user interface (UI) culture that is selected through an algorithm as a substitute for a UI culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.

farm: A group of computers that work together as a single system to help ensure that applications and resources are available. Also referred to as server farm.

field: An element or attribute in a data source that can contain data.

file: A single, discrete unit of content.

fill color: A color that is used to fill the background of a cell, shape, or chart element.

filter: A mechanism by which a set of data is scoped to display only those entries that meet specified logical criteria.

filter date value: Any one of a set of possible date values that can be used to define the filter criteria for an AutoFilter.

filter value: Any one of a set of possible values that can be used to define the filter criteria for an AutoFilter.

filtering state: A setting that indicates whether a filter value or filter date value is included as part of the criteria that is used to define the filter for an AutoFilter.

font face color: A property of a cell that specifies the color that is used to render a font.

font face decoration: Any of the set of font properties that specify how to render a font, such as italics and underline.

font face weight: A value that specifies the thickness of a font.

formula: A logical equation or function that produces a result in a spreadsheet application.

function: A code module that takes a value as input, performs an operation, and returns the results to a worksheet.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

gradient fill: A type of fill that applies gradient formatting to the background of a cell or an object.

grow: The process of increasing the number of rows or columns (2) in a PivotTable report.

Help topic identifier: A unique identifier for an article that contains Help content.

hierarchy: A logical tree structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each member has one parent member and zero or more child members.

horizontal indent: An indent that is used in a cell to adjust cell content horizontally.

host data language: The data culture of a site.

hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].

Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates, and authentication. Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.

interactive report: A visualization that has a presentation mode that provides sort, filter, and pivot capabilities for displaying different views of the data. The underlying data can be stored either in the workbook or in an external data source.

item: A unit of content that can be indexed and searched by a search application.

key performance indicator (KPI): A predefined measure that is used to track performance against a strategic goal, objective, plan, initiative, or business process. A visual cue is frequently used to communicate performance against the measure.

level: A relative position in a hierarchy of data. A level is frequently used when describing how to navigate a hierarchy in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) database or a PivotTable report.

license key: An array of bytes that enables access to a control according to the usage policies for that control.

list: An organization of a region of cells into a tabular structure in a workbook.

locked: The condition of a cell, worksheet, or other object that restricts edits or modifications to it by users.

manual calculation mode: A calculation mode in which the formulas in a workbook are calculated only when specified by a user. See also automatic calculation mode.

manual filter: A filter that lets users select a set of individual data items or dimension hierarchies by using a user interface that displays levels from the hierarchies.

measure group: A collection of related measures in a cube that derive from a single fact table, typically in a data source view.

member: A user in the Members group of a site.

member property: An attribute on a data item within a specific dimension in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) database.

merged cell: A single cell that is created by combining two or more adjacent cells.

Message Bar notification: A message that appears in the area below the ribbon in an application window. It can be a security alert, or information about a workflow task, the active document, or a policy.

Multidimensional Expressions (MDX): A syntax that is used for defining multidimensional objects, and for querying and manipulating multidimensional data.

named object: A list, PivotTable report, chart, or range that can be referenced by name. A sheet is not a type of named object.

named object view: A mode in which only named objects are rendered.

named range: See defined name.

new workbook session: A session (2) that is not based on an existing workbook file.

non-contiguous range: A selected range that includes non-adjacent cells.

number format: A property of a cell or other type of object that determines how numerical data is displayed or interpreted. For example, a currency number format affixes the proper currency symbol to the number.

Office Web Extension: See Office Add-in.

OLAP measure: A set of numeric values in an OLAP cube that is used in aggregation and analysis.

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.

Open Data Protocol (OData): A web protocol for querying and updating data specified in the OData protocol.

Open Item permission: An authorization that enables users to retrieve an entire file.

outline: A nested grouping of rows or columns (2) that are in a worksheet.

outline collapse: A process in which rows or columns (2) of an outline are made invisible.

outline expand: A process in which rows or columns (2) of an outline are made visible.

outline level: A type of paragraph formatting that can be used to assign a hierarchical level, Level 1 through Level 9, to paragraphs in a document. After outline levels are assigned, an outline of a document can be viewed by using Outline view, the document map, or the navigation pane.

outline state: A setting that specifies whether an outline is currently outline expanded or outline collapsed.

permission: A rule that is associated with an object and that regulates which users can gain access to the object and in what manner. See also rights.

PivotChart report: A chart that uses a PivotCache for source data and inherits filtering and sorting functionality from a PivotTable report.

PivotTable: An interactive table that summarizes large amounts of data from various sources by using format and calculation methods. Row and column headings can be rotated to view different summaries of the source data, filter the data, or display detail data for specific areas.

PivotTable area: A logical zone that is used to organize data in a PivotTable report.

PivotTable data field: A PivotTable field that is contained in the PivotTable area where data values are shown.

PivotTable field: An element in a PivotTable report that represents a logical collection of data. A PivotTable field can represent a dimension hierarchy or actual data values.

PivotTable field list: A user interface element that displays a list of all of the fields in a PivotTable report. It can be used to populate a PivotTable report and to manipulate the fields.

PivotTable filter parameter: The value that a filter on a PivotTable report is set to, which indicates that matching values are included in the result set.

PivotTable member: An individual data item within a specific dimension as it is displayed in a PivotTable report. For example, a member in the Geography dimension might be North America.

PivotTable page field: A filter in a PivotTable report that applies to all of the data in the report, including any hierarchies.

pixel: A discrete unit of display on a computer display device.

point: A unit of measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.

published: A condition of portions of a workbook that are marked as being available to the user when that workbook is processed by a protocol server.

published item: A specific named object that is in a published workbook.

published items snapshot: A snapshot that contains only the published items or published sheets from a workbook. If no published items are defined, a snapshot contains an entire workbook.

published range: A specific type of published item that represents a range of cells.

published sheet: A sheet (2) that is published.

query: A formalized instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query, or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as a relational database, XML document, or in-memory object. See also search query.

R1C1 notation: A notation that is used to specify a row and column (2) of cells in a workbook, as described in [ECMA-376] and [ISO/IEC-29500:2008].

range: An addressable region that is in a workbook. A range typically consists of zero or more cells and represents a single, contiguous rectangle of cells on a single sheet.

reading order: The positioning of characters in words and the positioning of words in sentences. This can be left-to-right or right-to-left.

reference: (1) A link in a project to another project, a .NET Framework assembly, or a compatible Component Object Model (COM) library. Adding a reference to a project enables use of the referenced item in a project, but does not copy it to the current project folder.

(2) A means by which cells, objects, and chart elements can be referenced in a formula.

refresh: A process that retrieves values from a data source and populates a workbook with those values.

rights: Tasks that a user is permitted to perform on a computer, site, domain, or other system resource. See also permission.

right-to-left: A reading and display order that is optimized for right-to-left languages.

row: (1) A collection of columns (1) that contains property values that describe a single item in a set of items that match the restriction specified in a query.

(2) A single set of data that is displayed horizontally in a worksheet or a table.

scatter chart: A chart that displays values on both the x and y axes to represent two variables as a single data point.

search down: A process of searching for information by ascending row and column numbers.

search up: A process of searching for information by descending row and column numbers.

selected: The condition of a set of items that has focus in a workbook.

session: (1) A unidirectional communication channel for a stream of messages that are addressed to one or more destinations. A destination is specified by a resource URL, an identity URL, and a device URL. More than one session can be multiplexed over a single connection.

(2) A representation of application data in system memory. It is used to maintain state for application data that is being manipulated or monitored on a protocol server by a user.

session identifier: A key that enables an application to make reference to a session.

session recycling: A process in which active sessions (2) are closed to start new sessions and to limit the total number of active sessions.

sheet: (1) A part of an Excel workbook. There are four types of sheets: worksheet, macro sheet, dialog sheet, and chart sheet. Multiple sheets are stored together within a workbook.

(2) A worksheet. The term sheet frequently refers to a worksheet because worksheets are the most common type of sheet.

sheet tab: A control that is used to select a sheet.

site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.

site identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a site in a site collection.

slicer: A mechanism that is used to filter data in one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions.

slicer header: A user interface element that displays the caption for a slicer that can be or is being used to filter one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions. It also provides a command button for removing all applied filters.

slicer item: A user interface element that displays filter values that can be applied to one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions by using a slicer.

snapshot: A copy of a workbook that contains only values and formatting. It does not contain any formulas or data connections.

SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].

SOAP action: The HTTP request header field used to indicate the intent of the SOAP request, using a URI value. See [SOAP1.1] section 6.1.1 for more information.

SOAP body: A container for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.3 for more information.

SOAP fault: A container for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4 for more information.

SOAP fault detail: A string containing a human-readable explanation of a SOAP fault, which is not intended for algorithmic processing. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4.5 for more information.

sort: A process that arranges cells in ascending or descending order, based on cell content.

sort order: A specific arrangement of cells that is based on cell content. The order can be ascending or descending.

sparkline: A miniature chart that can be inserted into text or embedded in a cell on a worksheet to illustrate highs, lows, and trends in data.

state changing: A type of operation that changes the state of a session.

system resources: The physical resources of a server computer, such as memory, disk space, CPU, and network bandwidth.

table: A list that is defined in a workbook.

time zone bias: The positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For example, Middle European Time (MET, GMT+01:00) has a time zone bias of "-60" because it is one hour ahead of UTC. Pacific Standard Time (PST, GMT-08:00) has a time zone bias of "+480" because it is eight hours behind UTC.

time zone daylight bias: The positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes that is added to the time zone bias during daylight saving time. For example, daylight saving time advances the clock by one hour. The time zone daylight bias is set to "-60".

time zone daylight date: The date and time when the change from standard time to daylight saving time occurs.

time zone standard bias: A positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes that is added to the time zone bias outside daylight saving time.

time zone standard date: The date and time when the change from daylight saving time to standard time occurs.

timestamp: A condition of a digital signature that indicates whether the signature was created with a valid certificate that has expired or was created with a certificate that had expired already. If the certificate expired after the signature was created, the signature can be trusted. If it expired before the signature was created, it cannot be trusted.

top N filter: A filter that matches the top or bottom N items or N% of items in a specified column (2).

top N filter by count: A type of top N filter that matches the N largest numerical values or the N newest time and date values.

top N filter by percent: A type of top N filter that matches the N percent largest numerical values or the N percent newest time and date values.

top N filter by sum: A type of top N filter that matches the largest numerical values or the newest time and date values whose sum is equal to or greater than N.

trusted location: A directory with properties that indicate how an application processes documents.

UI culture: The language that is used to display strings and graphical elements in a user interface.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

URL zone: A specific base Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that can be used to access a resource within a web application. A web application can have multiple URL zones.

user display name: A user profile property that contains the preferred name of a user. See also display name.

user-defined function (UDF): A function that is coded in a Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module, macro sheet, add-in, or Excel Linked Library (XLL). A UDF can be used in formulas to return values to a worksheet, similar to built-in functions.

view session: A session (2) that is based on a workbook file and during which the file can be viewed by one or more users. Any changes to the file, such as sorting or filtering data, are not persisted to that file.

view-only mode: A display mode in which data in a workbook can only be viewed, sorted, and filtered by users. Users cannot change any of the data in the workbook and any changes to the display of the data are not persisted to the workbook file.

visible: A condition of an object that allows it to be displayed in rendered output.

Web Part: A reusable component that contains or generates web-based content such as XML, HTML, and scripting code. It has a standard property schema and displays that content in a cohesive unit on a webpage. See also Web Parts Page.

web service: A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications and can be called by using standard Internet transport protocols such as HTTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform functions that range from simple requests to complicated business processes.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the message formats or network protocols that are used.

workbook: A container for a collection of sheets (1).

workbook file: A file that contains a byte stream representation of a workbook.

workbook parameter: A single cell that is designated to receive input from users.

worksheet: A single logical container for a set of tabular data and other objects in a workbook.

worksheet header: The row and column headings of a worksheet.

WSDL message: An abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL operation [WSDL]. Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service providers and clients.

WSDL operation: A single action or function of a web service. The execution of a WSDL operation typically requires the exchange of messages between the service requestor and the service provider.

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].

XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].

XML namespace prefix: An abbreviated form of an XML namespace, as described in [XML].

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

zero-based index: An index in which the first item has an index of "0" (zero).

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.