1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

access control list (ACL): A list of access control entries (ACEs) that collectively describe the security rules for authorizing access to some resource; for example, an object or set of objects.

ActiveX object: An object that is supplied by a component that supports automation.

anonymous user: A user who presents no credentials when identifying himself or herself. The process for determining an anonymous user can differ based on the authentication protocol, and the documentation for the relevant authentication protocol should be consulted.

assembly name: The name of a collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. See also assembly.

attachment: An external file that is included with an Internet message or associated with an item in a SharePoint list.

base type: An XML-based schema that defines the data and rendering fields that can be used in a list. Every list is derived from a specific base type.

check out: The process of retrieving a writable copy of a file or project from a source repository. This locks the file for editing to prevent other users from overwriting or editing it inadvertently.

content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for individual items in a SharePoint list. One or more content types can be associated with a list, which restricts the contents to items of those types.

content type group: A named category of content types that is used to organize content types of a similar purpose.

content type identifier: A unique identifier that is assigned to a content type.

context site: A site that corresponds to the context of the current request.

cookie: A small data file that is stored on a user's computer and carries state information between participating protocol servers and protocol clients.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

data type: A property of a field that defines the kind of data that is stored in the field, or defines the kind of data returned by an expression when the expression is evaluated.

data validation: The process of testing the accuracy of data; a set of rules that specify the type and range of data that users can enter.

default list view: The view of a SharePoint list that the owner of the list selected to appear when users browse to the list without specifying a view.

default mobile list view: The view of a SharePoint list that the owner of the list selected to appear when users browse to the list by using a mobile device and without specifying a view.

default view: The layout and organization of a document or list that appears automatically when users open that document or display that list.

discussion board: A list in which users can read, post, and reply to messages from other users who are members of the same discussion board.

discussion item: A remark or response that is posted to an online discussion forum such as a newsgroup, SharePoint list, or electronic bulletin board.

display name: A text string that is used to identify a principal or other object in the user interface. Also referred to as title.

document: An object in a content database such as a file, folder, list, or site (2). Each object is identified by a URI.

document library: A type of list that is a container for documents and folders.

document template: A file that serves as the basis for new documents.

email address: A string that identifies a user and enables the user to receive Internet messages.

empty GUID: A 128-bit, 16-byte identification number that is represented by all zeros.

event receiver: A structured modular component that enables built-in or user-defined managed code classes to act upon objects, such as list items, lists, or content types, when specific triggering actions occur.

external data: Data that is stored in a repository outside a workbook.

feature: A package of SharePoint elements that can be activated or deactivated for a specific feature scope.

feature identifier: A GUID that identifies a feature.

field: (1) An element or attribute in a data source that can contain data.

(2) A container for metadata within a SharePoint list and associated list items.

folder: A file system construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of objects, which are referred to as folders or directories, that contain files and can also contain other folders.

global assembly cache (GAC): A computer-wide code cache that stores .NET Framework assemblies that were installed specifically to be shared by multiple applications on a computer. Applications that are installed in the global assembly cache have a strong name, consisting of an assembly identity, strengthened by a public key and a digital signature.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].

Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates, and authentication. Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.

item: A unit of content that can be indexed and searched by a search application.

language code identifier (LCID): A 32-bit number that identifies the user interface human language dialect or variation that is supported by an application or a client computer.

list: A container within a SharePoint site that stores list items. A list has a customizable schema that is composed of one or more fields.

list item: An individual entry within a SharePoint list. Each list item has a schema that maps to fields in the list that contains the item, depending on the content type of the item.

list schema: The Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML) schema of a list.

list template identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a list template for a SharePoint list.

lookup field: A field of the Lookup type that enables users to select an item from another data source.

major version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is ready for a larger group to see, or has changed significantly from the previous major version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version is always "0" (zero) for a major version.

meeting instance: A collection of data for a meeting that occurs only once or a single occurrence of a meeting that occurs multiple times. The data can be stored in a client application or on a website.

minor version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is in progress or has changed only slightly from the previous version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version number is never "0" (zero) and is incremented for each new version of an item, unless a major version is explicitly published. When minor versioning is disabled on a SharePoint site, only major version numbers are incremented, and the minor version is always "0" (zero).

offline: The condition of not being connected to or not being on a network or the Internet. Offline can also refer to a device, such as a printer that is not connected to a computer, and files that are stored on a computer that is not connected to or not on a network or the Internet.

permission: A rule that is associated with an object and that regulates which users can gain access to the object and in what manner. See also rights.

presence: A status indicator on a client device that is transmitted by using the Wide Area Network Device Presence Protocol (WAN DPP).

property bag: A container that stores data but is not defined in the schema for a SharePoint list. Instead of interpreting data in a property bag, the server only passes the data in response to requests. See also metadict.

query: A formalized instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query, or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as a relational database, XML document, or in-memory object. See also search query.

Recycle Bin: The location where deleted files are stored until they are either restored, if they were deleted erroneously, or destroyed permanently.

root folder: The folder at the top of a hierarchy of folders in a list.

security scope: A tree structure of objects in which every object has the same security settings as the root.

server-relative URL: A relative URL that does not specify a scheme or host, and assumes a base URI of the root of the host, as described in [RFC3986].

site: (1) A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as web site.

(2) A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.

site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.

site content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for lists within individual sites.

site template: An XML-based definition of site settings, including formatting, lists, views, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, and styles. Site templates are stored in .stp files in the content database.

SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].

SOAP action: The HTTP request header field used to indicate the intent of the SOAP request, using a URI value. See [SOAP1.1] section 6.1.1 for more information.

SOAP body: A container for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.3 for more information.

SOAP fault: A container for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4 for more information.

subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.

thumbnail: A miniature version of an image that is typically used to browse multiple images quickly.

time zone: A geographical area that observes the same local time. The local time has a positive, zero, or negative offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The offset can be different during standard time and daylight saving time.

top-level site: The first site in a site collection. All other sites within a site collection are child sites of the top-level site. The URL of the top-level site is also the URL of the site collection.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

user identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a security principal as distinct from all other security principals and site groups within the same site collection.

user information list: A list that contains items, each of which represents a security principal in a site collection. Each site collection has only one such list and it resides in the top-level site of the site collection.

version: See displayed version, historical version, major version, and minor version.

view: See form view (Microsoft InfoPath), list view (SharePoint Products and Technologies), or View (Microsoft Business Connectivity Services).

web application: A container in a configuration database that stores administrative settings and entry-point URLs for site collections.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the message formats or network protocols that are used.

workflow: An automation of business processes that passes business documents and tasks automatically from one user to another for action, according to a defined sequence.

XML document: A document object that is well formed, as described in [XML10/5], and might be valid. An XML document has a logical structure that is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions. It also has a physical structure that is composed of entities, starting with the root, or document, entity.

XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].

XML namespace prefix: An abbreviated form of an XML namespace, as described in [XML].

XML Path Language (XPath): A language used to create expressions that can address parts of an XML document, manipulate strings, numbers, and Booleans, and can match a set of nodes in the document, as specified in [XPATH]. XPath models an XML document as a tree of nodes of different types, including element, attribute, and text. XPath expressions can identify the nodes in an XML document based on their type, name, and values, as well as the relationship of a node to other nodes in the document.

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.