This document uses the following terms:
Analysis Services: The abbreviated name for Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, which is used to create and maintain multidimensional data that is sent to client applications in response to queries. Also referred to as Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) server.
attribute hierarchy: A single-level hierarchy that uses only an attribute or a column from a source, back-end relational database as its hierarchy. An attribute hierarchy typically has the same name as the attribute and is always associated with the attribute on which it is based. An all-level member can optionally be enabled for an attribute hierarchy. See also OLAP hierarchy.
average weighted value: A type of rollup value. It indicates an average that factors the weighted value of all of the child values that are contained within it.
base64 encoding: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters, as described in [RFC4648].
dashboard: A visual interface that displays a related group of interactive scorecard and report views. It provides views into key measures that are relevant to a business practice or process. Dashboard elements provide capabilities, such as shared filters, that enable users to perform tasks such as highlighting trends, comparing data, and controlling the data that is displayed.
data point: An individual value that is plotted in a chart and is represented together with other data points by bars, columns, lines, pie or doughnut slices, dots, and various other shapes, which are referred to as data markers. Data markers of the same color constitute a data series.
(2) A specified data source type, connection string, and credentials, which can be saved separately to a report server and shared among report projects or embedded in a report definition (.rdl) file.
dimension: A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels) that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically describe a similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.
fact: A row in a table that contains numerical measures and keys, and associates specific facts with dimension tables, which are referred to as fact tables. A fact contains values that define a data event, such as a sales transaction.
globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).
hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].
key performance indicator (KPI): A predefined measure that is used to track performance against a strategic goal, objective, plan, initiative, or business process. A visual cue is frequently used to communicate performance against the measure.
(2) An organization of a region of cells into a tabular structure in a workbook.
login name: A string that is used to identify a user or entity to an operating system, directory service, or distributed system. For example, in Windows-integrated authentication, a login name uses the form "DOMAIN\username".
major version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is ready for a larger group to see, or has changed significantly from the previous major version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version is always "0" (zero) for a major version.
MD5: A one-way, 128-bit hashing scheme that was developed by RSA Data Security, Inc., as described in [RFC1321].
(2) See OLAP member.
normalized: In relational database design, the movement of data toward its optimized state, typically third normal form, to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote efficient maintenance and storage of that data.
object: A set of attributes, each with its associated values. Two attributes of an object have special significance: an identifying attribute and a parent-identifying attribute. An identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of the identifying attribute are distinct. A parent-identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object's parent. That is, this attribute contains the value of the parent's identifying attribute, or a reserved value identifying no object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of this parent-identifying attribute define a tree with objects as vertices and child-parent references as directed edges with the child as an edge's tail and the parent as an edge's head. Note that an object is a value, not a variable; a replica is a variable. The process of adding, modifying, or deleting an object in a replica replaces the entire value of the replica with a new value. As the word replica suggests, it is often the case that two replicas contain "the same objects". In this usage, objects in two replicas are considered the same if they have the same value of the identifying attribute and if there is a process in place (replication) to converge the values of the remaining attributes. When the members of a set of replicas are considered to be the same, it is common to say "an object" as shorthand referring to the set of corresponding objects in the replicas.
objective KPI: A type of key performance indicator (KPI) that derives its target value and score from a rollup of the child KPIs that are contained within it.
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.
PivotTable: An interactive table that summarizes large amounts of data from various sources by using format and calculation methods. Row and column headings can be rotated to view different summaries of the source data, filter the data, or display detail data for specific areas.
Portable Network Graphics (PNG): A bitmap graphics file format that uses lossless data compression and supports variable transparency of images (alpha channels) and control of image brightness on different computers (gamma correction). PNG-format files have a .png file name extension.
query: A formalized instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query, or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as a relational database, XML document, or in-memory object. See also search query.
report view: An object that is used to display data in a dashboard. It can be coordinated with other report views by using filters. Examples of report views include analytic grids and charts, PivotTable reports, strategy maps, trend charts, and webpages.
rollup: A type of calculated value that is derived from the aggregated scores of child or descendant key performance indicators (KPIs) in a scorecard.
scorecard: A report that depicts organizational and business performance by displaying a collection of key performance indicators (KPIs) with performance targets for those KPIs. Each KPI compares actual performance to goals for an area. A scorecard can be organized hierarchically and typically contains visualization tools such as trend charts and conditional formatting.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages in client and server applications that communicate over open networks. SSL supports server and, optionally, client authentication using X.509 certificates [X509] and [RFC5280]. SSL is superseded by Transport Layer Security (TLS). TLS version 1.0 is based on SSL version 3.0 [SSL3].
security zone: A setting that determines whether a resource, such as a website, can access data on other domains, or access files and settings on a user's computer. There are four security zones: Internet, Local intranet, Trusted sites, and Restricted sites. The zone to which a resource is assigned specifies the security settings that are used for that resource. See also form security level.
(2) A replicating machine that sends replicated files to a partner (client). The term "server" refers to the machine acting in response to requests from partners that want to receive replicated files.
server-relative URL: A relative URL that does not specify a scheme or host, and assumes a base URI of the root of the host, as described in [RFC3986].
site: (1) A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as web site.
(2) A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.
site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.
SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].
SOAP body: A container for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.3 for more information.
SOAP fault detail: A string containing a human-readable explanation of a SOAP fault, which is not intended for algorithmic processing. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4.5 for more information.
strategy map: A performance management tool that is used to visually present objectives and goals, groupings of objectives and goals, and mappings of objectives and goals to themes, initiatives, key performance indicators (KPIs), targets, business processes, and action plans.
subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.
target application: A logical entity that represents a software system for which credentials are maintained. It consists of metadata including the number and type of credentials that are required by the software system and a set of claims that identify the administrators who can update, read, and delete the entity.
tuple: An ordered grouping of members from different dimensions or hierarchies. A single member is a special case of a tuple and can be used as an expression. Every hierarchy does not have to be represented in a tuple.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].
UTF-8: A byte-oriented standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-8 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.
Web Part: A reusable component that contains or generates web-based content such as XML, HTML, and scripting code. It has a standard property schema and displays that content in a cohesive unit on a webpage. See also Web Parts Page.
Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the message formats or network protocols that are used.
WSDL message: An abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL operation [WSDL]. Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service providers and clients.
XML document: A document object that is well formed, as described in [XML10/5], and might be valid. An XML document has a logical structure that is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions. It also has a physical structure that is composed of entities, starting with the root, or document, entity.
XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].
XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.
MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.