This document uses the following terms:
Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.
alert: An Internet message that is sent to subscribers automatically to notify them when user-defined criteria are met. Alerts are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.
anonymous user: A user who presents no credentials when identifying himself or herself. The process for determining an anonymous user can differ based on the authentication protocol, and the documentation for the relevant authentication protocol should be consulted.
app: See web application.
Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives, order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].
author: The user who created a list item.
cascading style sheet (CSS): An extension to HTML that enables authors and users of HTML documents to attach style sheets to those documents, as described in [CSS-LEVEL1] and [CSS-LEVEL2]. A style sheet includes typographical information about the appearance of a page, including the font for text on the page.
change log: A log of changes, such as add and delete, that are made to objects that are stored on a back-end database server. Applications can use this information to identify changes that occurred on those objects.
character set: The range of characters used to represent textual data within a MIME body part, as described in [RFC2046].
check in: The process of placing a file or project into a source repository. This releases the lock for editing and enables other users to view the updated file or check out the file. See also check out.
check out: The process of retrieving a writable copy of a file or project from a source repository. This locks the file for editing to prevent other users from overwriting or editing it inadvertently.
checked out: A publishing level that indicates that a document has been created and locked for exclusive editing by a user in a version control system.
class identifier (CLSID): A GUID that identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class or a COM class.
code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.
Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML): An XML-based language that is used to describe various elements, such as queries and views, in sites that are based on SharePoint Products and Technologies.
content database: A database that is stored on a back-end database server and contains stored procedures, site collections, and the contents of those site collections.
content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for individual items in a SharePoint list. One or more content types can be associated with a list, which restricts the contents to items of those types.
content type identifier: A unique identifier that is assigned to a content type.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).
datetime: A data type that represents the date and time when a document can be normalized and indexed as a numeric value by a search application. The range and degree of granularity varies according to search application and implementation.
directory name: A segment of a store-relative URL that refers to a directory. A directory name is everything that appears before the last slash in a store-relative form URL.
displayed version: Document version information that is formatted for display in the user interface. The displayed version uses the format MajorVersion.MinorVersion, where MajorVersion is the published version number and MinorVersion is the draft version number, separated by a decimal point. See also major version and minor version.
(2) An action or occurrence to which an application might respond. Examples include state changes, data transfers, key presses, and mouse movements.
event receiver: A structured modular component that enables built-in or user-defined managed code classes to act upon objects, such as list items, lists (1), or content types, when specific triggering actions occur.
event sink: A structured, modular component that enables built-in or user-defined classes to act on documents in document libraries when specific triggering actions occur. Event sinks are a deprecated, implementation-specific capability of Windows SharePoint Services 2.0. In Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010, they are replaced by the capabilities of event receivers.
field definition: The definition of a field in the Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML).
file extension: The sequence of characters in a file's name between the end of the file's name and the last "." character. Vendors of applications choose such sequences for the applications to uniquely identify files that were created by those applications. This allows file management software to determine which application are to be used to open a file.
folder: A file system construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of objects, which are referred to as folders or directories, that contain files and can also contain other folders.
globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).
group: (1) An element that can contain fields and other groups in the data source for an InfoPath form. Controls that contain other controls, such as repeating tables and sections, are bound to groups.
(2) A named collection of users who share similar access permissions or roles.
hash: A fixed-size result that is obtained by applying a one-way mathematical function, which is sometimes referred to as a hash algorithm, to an arbitrary amount of data. If the input data changes, the hash also changes. The hash can be used in many operations, including authentication and digital signing.
host name: The name of a physical server, as described in [RFC952].
HTTP GET: An HTTP method for retrieving a resource, as described in [RFC2616].
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].
Input Method Editor (IME): An application that is used to enter characters in written Asian languages by using a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words.
(2) An organization of a region of cells into a tabular structure in a workbook.
list identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a list (1) in a site collection.
list item identifier: See item identifier.
list view: A named collection of settings for querying and displaying items in a SharePoint list. There are two types of views: Personal, which can be used only by the user who created the view; and Public, which can be used by all users who have permission to access to the site.
locale: A collection of rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographical area. A locale can include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.
login name: A string that is used to identify a user or entity to an operating system, directory service, or distributed system. For example, in Windows-integrated authentication, a login name uses the form "DOMAIN\username".
major version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is ready for a larger group to see, or has changed significantly from the previous major version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version is always "0" (zero) for a major version.
manifest: A file that stores metadata about an expansion pack, such as the name of the expansion pack, the files and resources that are included in the expansion pack, and the dependencies that it has on other files and components.
meeting instance: A collection of data for a meeting that occurs only once or a single occurrence of a meeting that occurs multiple times. The data can be stored in a client application or on a website.
Meeting Workspace site: A SharePoint site that is based on a Meeting Workspace site template and has a template ID value of "2". A Meeting Workspace site is used for planning, posting, and working together on meeting materials.
minor version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is in progress or has changed only slightly from the previous version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version number is never "0" (zero) and is incremented for each new version of an item, unless a major version is explicitly published. When minor versioning is disabled on a SharePoint site, only major version numbers are incremented, and the minor version is always "0" (zero).
NULL GUID: A GUID of all zeros.
owner: A security principal who has the requisite permission to manage a security group.
(2) An identifier of such an entity.
published version: The version of a list item that is approved and can be seen by all users. The user interface (UI) version number for a published version is incremented to the next positive major version number and the minor version is "0" (zero). See also major version and minor version.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS): An XML-based syndication format for content, as described in [RSS2.0].
request identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a specific action or procedure that is sent to a protocol server or a protocol client.
result set: A list of records that results from running a stored procedure or query, or applying a filter. The structure and content of the data in a result set varies according to the implementation.
return code: A code that is used to report the outcome of a procedure or to influence subsequent events when a routine or process terminates (returns) and passes control of the system to another routine. For example, a return code can indicate whether an operation was successful.
rich text: Text that is formatted in the Rich Text Format, as described in [MSFT-RTF].
role definition: A named set of permissions for a SharePoint site. See also permission level.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages in client and server applications that communicate over open networks. SSL supports server and, optionally, client authentication using X.509 certificates [X509] and [RFC5280]. SSL is superseded by Transport Layer Security (TLS). TLS version 1.0 is based on SSL version 3.0 [SSL3].
security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section 220.127.116.11.
security policy: In the form of a collection of security policy settings, the policy itself is an expression of administrative intent regarding how computers and resources on their network should be secured.
site: (1) A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as web site.
(2) A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.
site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.
site collection identifier: A GUID that identifies a site collection. In stored procedures, the identifier is typically "@SiteId" or "@WebSiteId". In databases, the identifier is typically "SiteId/tp_SiteId".
site identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a site in a site collection.
site template: An XML-based definition of site settings, including formatting, lists, views, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, and styles. Site templates are stored in .stp files in the content database.
SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].
stored procedure: A precompiled collection of SQL statements and, optionally, control-of-flow statements that are stored under a name and processed as a unit. They are stored in a SQL database and can be run with one call from an application. Stored procedures return an integer return code and can additionally return one or more result sets. Also referred to as sproc.
store-relative form: See store-relative URL.
store-relative URL: A URL that consists only of a path segment and does not include the leading and trailing slash.
stream: An element of a compound file, as described in [MS-CFB]. A stream contains a sequence of bytes that can be read from or written to by an application, and they can exist only in storages.
subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.
SystemID: A binary identifier that is used to uniquely identify a security principal. For Windows integrated authentication, it is a security identifier (SID). For an ASP.NET Forms Authentication provider, it is the binary representation that is derived from a combination of the provider name and the user login name.
TCP/IP: A set of networking protocols that is widely used on the Internet and provides communications across interconnected networks of computers with diverse hardware architectures and various operating systems. It includes standards for how computers communicate and conventions for connecting networks and routing traffic.
thicket: A means of storing a complex HTML document with its related files. It consists of a thicket main file and a hidden thicket folder that contains a thicket manifest and a set of thicket supporting files that, together, store the referenced content of the document.
thicket main file: The core file of a complex HTML document. It references contained elements such as graphics, pictures, or other media that are stored as thicket supporting files in a thicket folder. The thicket main file is the target that is used by a protocol client to access the content of the document.
Transact-Structured Query Language (T-SQL): A language that contains the commands that are used to manage instances of Microsoft SQL Server, create and manage all objects in an instance of SQL Server, and to insert, retrieve, modify, and delete all data in SQL Server tables. Transact-SQL is an extension of the language that is defined in the SQL standards that are published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Transport Layer Security (TLS): A security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages in client and server applications communicating over open networks. TLS supports server and, optionally, client authentication by using X.509 certificates (as specified in [X509]). TLS is standardized in the IETF TLS working group.
uncustomized: A condition of a document whose content is stored in a location other than the content database. If a document is uncustomized, the front-end web server determines the location of the content by using the SetupPath value for the document. Also referred to as ghosted.
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].
upgrade evaluation site collection: A copy of the current site collection, used to evaluate the functionality of a site collection after it is upgraded.
user account directory path: A string representation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) distinguished name for an AD DS container. It defines a set of users, as described in [RFC4514].
user information list: A list that contains items, each of which represents a security principal in a site collection. Each site collection has only one such list and it resides in the top-level site of the site collection.
user interface (UI) version: A single 4-byte integer that stores the version number that appears as a document version number in the user interface. The lower 9 bits correspond to the minor version number of the displayed version. The remaining 23 bits correspond to the major version number of the displayed version. See also displayed version.
UTF-8: A byte-oriented standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-8 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.
view: See form view (Microsoft InfoPath), list view (SharePoint Products and Technologies), or View (Microsoft Business Connectivity Services).
web bot: See bot.
Web Part: A reusable component that contains or generates web-based content such as XML, HTML, and scripting code. It has a standard property schema and displays that content in a cohesive unit on a webpage. See also Web Parts Page.
website: A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as site.
Windows code page: A table that relates the character codes (code point values) that are used by an application to keys on a keyboard or to characters on a display. This provides support for character sets and keyboard layouts for different countries or regions. Also referred to as character set or charset.
Windows collation name: A string identifier that follows the format of the Transact-Structured Query Language (T-SQL) COLLATE clause.
workflow: A structured modular component that enables the automated movement of documents or items through a specific sequence of actions or tasks that are related to built-in or user-defined business processes.
XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].
XML document: A document object that is well formed, as described in [XML10/5], and might be valid. An XML document has a logical structure that is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions. It also has a physical structure that is composed of entities, starting with the root, or document, entity.
XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].
XML Path Language (XPath): A language used to create expressions that can address parts of an XML document, manipulate strings, numbers, and Booleans, and can match a set of nodes in the document, as specified in [XPATH]. XPath models an XML document as a tree of nodes of different types, including element, attribute, and text. XPath expressions can identify the nodes in an XML document based on their type, name, and values, as well as the relationship of a node to other nodes in the document.
XML schema definition (XSD): The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language that is used in defining XML schemas. Schemas are useful for enforcing structure and constraining the types of data that can be used validly within other XML documents. XML schema definition refers to the fully specified and currently recommended standard for use in authoring XML schemas.
MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.