This document uses the following terms:
application: A participant that is responsible for beginning, propagating, and completing an atomic transaction. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to begin and complete transactions. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to marshal transactions to and from other applications. An application also communicates in application-specific ways with a resource manager in order to submit requests for work on resources.
Authentication Service (AS): A service that issues ticket granting tickets (TGTs), which are used for authenticating principals within the realm or domain served by the Authentication Service.
open: A runtime object that corresponds to a currently established access to a specific file or a named pipe from a specific client to a specific server, using a specific user security context. Both clients and servers maintain opens that represent active accesses.
virtual disk: A disk that does not have a physical mechanical counterpart to it, and is not exposed as a hardware array LUN. It is a disk that uses a file to store its data. When this file is exposed to the operating system as a disk device, the exposed disk device emulates and, for all intents and purposes, behaves like a physical disk.