Use the Matrix visual in Power BI
The matrix visual is similar to a table. A table supports two dimensions and the data is flat, meaning duplicate values are displayed and not aggregated. A matrix makes it easier to display data meaningfully across multiple dimensions -- it supports a stepped layout. The matrix automatically aggregates the data and enables drill down.
You can create matrix visuals in Power BI Desktop and Power BI service reports and cross-highlight elements within the matrix with other visuals on that report page. For example, you can select rows, columns, and even individual cells and cross-highlight. Also, individual cells and multiple cell selections can be copied and pasted into other applications.
There are many features associated with the matrix, and we'll go through them in the following sections of this article.
Understanding how Power BI calculates totals
Before jumping into how to use the Matrix visual, it's important to learn how Power BI calculates total and subtotal values in tables and matrices. For total and subtotal rows, Power BI evaluates the measure over all rows in the underlying data – it isn't just a simple addition of the values in the visible or displayed rows. This means you can end up with different values in the total row than you might expect.
Take a look at the following matrix visuals.
In this example, each row in the matrix visual farthest to the right is showing the Amount for each salesperson/date combination. However, since a salesperson shows up against multiple dates, the numbers can appear more than once. Thus, the accurate total from the underlying data, and a simple addition of the visible values, do not equate. This is a common pattern when the value you’re summing is on the ‘one’ side of a one-to-many relationship.
When you look at totals and subtotals, remember that those values are based on the underlying data. They aren't solely based on the visible values.
Using drill down with the matrix visual
With the matrix visual, you can do all sorts of interesting drill down activities that weren't available before. This includes the ability to drill down using rows, columns, and even into individual sections and cells. Let's take a look at how each of these works.
Drill down on row headers
In the Visualizations pane, when you add multiple fields to the Rows section of the Fields well, you enable drill down on the rows of the matrix visual. This is similar to creating a hierarchy, which then allows you to drill down (and then back up) through that hierarchy, and analyze the data at each level.
In the following image, the Rows section contains Sales stage and Opportunity size, creating a grouping (or hierarchy) in the rows that we can drill through.
When the visual has grouping created in the Rows section, the visual itself displays the drill and expand icons in the top-left corner of the visual.
Similar to the drill and expand behavior in other visuals, selecting those buttons lets us drill down (or back up) through the hierarchy. In this case, we can drill down from Sales stage to Opportunity size, as shown in the following image, where the drill down one level icon (the pitchfork) has been selected.
In addition to using those icons, you can select any of those row headers and drill down by choosing from the menu that appears.
Notice there are a few options from the menu that appears, which generate different results:
Selecting Drill Down expands the matrix for that row level, excluding all other row headings except the row header that was selected. In the following image, Proposal > Drill Down was selected. Notice that other top-level rows no longer appear in the matrix. This way to drill is a useful feature, and becomes especially cool when we get to the cross-highlighting section.
Select the Drill up icon to get back to the previous top-level view. If you then select Proposal > Show Next Level, you get an ascending listing of all the next-level items (in this case, the Opportunity size field), without the higher-level hierarchy categorization.
Select the Drill up icon in the upper-left corner to have the matrix show all top-level categories, then select Proposal > Expand to next level, to see all the values for both levels of the hierarchy - Sales stage and Opportunity size.
You can also use the Expand menu item to control the display further. For example, select Proposal > Expand > Selection. Power BI displays one total row for each Sales stage and all the Opportunity size options for Proposal.
Drill down on column headers
Similar to the ability to drill down on rows, you can also drill down on columns. In the following image, there are two fields in the Columns field well, creating a hierarchy similar to what we used for the rows earlier in this article. In the Columns field well, we have Region and Segment. As soon as the second field was added to Columns, a new dropdown menu displayed on the visual, it currently shows Rows.
To drill down on columns, select Columns from the Drill on menu that can be found in the upper left corner of the matrix. Select the East region and choose Drill Down.
When you select Drill Down, the next level of the column hierarchy for Region > East displays, which in this case is Opportunity count. The other region displays, but is greyed out.
The rest of the menu items work on columns in the same way they do for rows (see the previous section, Drill down on row headers). You can Show Next Level and Expand to next level with columns just as you can with rows.
The drill down and drill up icons in the upper-left of the matrix visual only apply to rows. In order to drill down on columns, you must use the right-click menu.
Stepped layout with matrix visuals
The Matrix visual automatically indents subcategories in a hierarchy beneath each parent, called a Stepped layout.
In the original version of the matrix visual, subcategories were shown in an entirely different column, taking up much more space in the visual. The following image shows the table in original Matrix visual; notice the subcategories in a separate column.
In the following image, you see a Matrix visual, with Stepped layout in action. Notice the category Computers has its subcategories (Computers Accessories, Desktops, Laptops, Monitors, and so on) slightly indented, providing a cleaner and much more condensed visual.
You can easily adjust the stepped layout settings. With the Matrix visual selected, in the Format section (the paint roller icon) of the Visualizations pane, expand the Row headers section. You have two options: the Stepped layout toggle (which turns it on or off), and the Stepped layout indentation (specifies the indentation amount, in pixels).
If you turn off Stepped layout, Power BI shows the subcategories in another column rather than indented beneath the parent category.
Subtotals with matrix visuals
You can turn subtotals on or off in matrix visuals, for both rows and columns. In the following image, you can see that the row subtotals are set to On.
In the Format section of the Visualizations pane, expand the Subtotals card, and turn the Row subtotals slider to Off. When you do so, the subtotals aren't shown.
The same process applies for column subtotals.
Cross-highlighting with matrix visuals
With the Matrix visual, you can select any elements in the matrix as the basis for cross-highlighting. Select a column in a Matrix and Power BI highlights the column, as does any other visuals on the report page. This type of cross-highlighting has been a common feature of other visuals and data point selections, so now the Matrix visual offers the same function.
In addition, using Ctrl+Click also works for cross-highlighting. For example, in the following image a collection of subcategories were selected from the Matrix visual. Notice how items that weren't selected from the visual are grayed out, and how the other visuals on the page reflect the selections made in the Matrix visual.
Copying values from Power BI for use in other applications
Your matrix or table may have content that you'd like to use in other applications: Dynamics CRM, Excel, and other Power BI reports. With the Power BI right-click, you can copy a single cell or a selection of cells onto your clipboard. Then, paste them into the other application.
To copy the value of a single cell, select the cell, right-click, and choose Copy value. With the unformatted cell value on your clipboard, you can now paste it into another application.
To copy more than a single cell, select a range of cells or use CTRL to select one or more cells.
The copy will include the column and row headers.
Shading and font colors with matrix visuals
With the matrix visual, you can apply Conditional formatting (colors and shading and data bars) to the background of cells within the matrix, and you can apply conditional formatting to the text and values themselves.
To apply conditional formatting, select the matrix visual and open the Format pane. Expand the Conditional formatting card and for Background color, Font color, or Data bars, turn the slider to On. Turning on one of these options displays a link for Advanced controls, which lets you customize the colors and values for the color formatting.
Select Advanced controls to display a dialog, which lets you make adjustments. This example shows the dialog for Data bars.