FHIR Relationships

This article describes how to establish relationships between tables that have been imported using the Power Query connector for FHIR.


FHIR resources are related to each other, for example, an Observation that references a subject (Patient):

    "resourceType": "Observation",
    "id": "1234",
    "subject": {
        "reference": "Patient/456"

    // ... Other fields

Some of the resource reference fields in FHIR can refer to multiple different types of resources (for example, Practitioner or Organization). To facilitate an easier way to resolve references, the Power Query connector for FHIR adds a synthetic field to all imported resources called <referenceId>, which contains a concatenation of the resource type and the resource ID.

To establish a relationship between two tables, you can connect a specific reference field on a resource to the corresponding <referenceId> field on the resource you would like it linked to. In simple cases, Power BI will even detect this for you automatically.

Establishing FHIR relationships in Power BI

In this section, we'll show an example of establishing a relationship between the Observation.subject.reference field and the <referenceId> field on Patient.

  1. When importing data, select the Patient and Observation tables:

    FHIR Navigation Two Resources.

    Then select Transform Data.

  2. Expand the subject column on Observation to reveal subject.reference:

    Expand subject reference.

    After expanding, you should see the list of subject references:

    Subject references expanded.

  3. Make any other modifications you need to the query and save the modified query.

  4. Select Manage Relationships in the Power BI client:

    Manage relationships.

  5. Establish the relationship. In this simple example, Power BI will likely have detected the relationship automatically:

    Autodetected relationship.

    If not, you can add it manually:

    Manually add relationship.

    You can edit the details of the relationship:

    Edit relationship.


Resources in FHIR are related. These relationships need to be established on data imported with the Power Query connector for FHIR. The <referenceId> field is a synthetic field added to all imported FHIR data that will help establish the relationships.

Next steps

In this article, you've learned how to establish relationships between tables imported with the Power Query connector for FHIR. Next, explore query folding with the Power Query connector for FHIR.