Release State: General Availability

Products: Power BI Desktop, Power BI Service (Enterprise Gateway), Dataflows in (Enterprise Gateway), Dataflows in (Enterprise Gateway), Excel

Authentication Types Supported: Database (Username/Password)

Function Reference Documentation: PostgreSQL.Database


Some capabilities may be present in one product but not others due to deployment schedules and host-specific capabilities.


As of the the December 2019 release, NpgSQL 4.0.10 shipped with Power BI Desktop and no additional installation is required. GAC Installation overrides the version provided with Power BI Desktop, which will be the default. Refreshing is supported both through the cloud in the Power BI Service as well as on premise through the Gateway. In the Power BI service, NpgSQL 4.0.10 will be used, while on premise refresh will use the local installation of NpgSQL, if available, and otherwise use NpgSQL 4.0.10.

For Power BI Desktop versions released before December 2019, you must install the NpgSQL provider on your local machine. To install the NpgSQL provider, go to the releases page and download the relevant release. The provider architecture (32-bit or 64-bit) needs to match the architecture of the product where you intent to use the connector. When installing, make sure that you select NpgSQL GAC Installation to ensure NpgSQL itself is added to your machine.

We recommend NpgSQL 4.0.10. NpgSQL 4.1 and up will not work due to .NET version incompatibilities.

Npgsql installer with GAC Installation selected

Capabilities Supported

  • Import
  • DirectQuery (Power BI only, learn more)
  • Advanced options
    • Command timeout in minutes
    • Native SQL statement
    • Relationship columns
    • Navigate using full hierarchy

Connect to a PostgreSQL database

Once the matching Npgsql provider is installed, you can connect to a PostgreSQL database. To make the connection, take the following steps:

  1. From the Power Query Get Data dialog (or Data tab in the Excel ribbon), select Database > PostgreSQL.

PostgreSQL connection builder in Power BI

  1. In the PostgreSQL dialog that appears, provide the name of the server and database. Optionally, you may provide a command timeout and a native query (SQL statement), as well as select whether or not you want to include relationship columns and navigate using full hierarchy. Once you're done, select Connect.
  2. If the PostgreSQL database requires database user credentials, input those credentials in the dialogue when prompted.

Native Query Folding

To enable Native Query Folding, set the EnableFolding flag to true for Value.NativeQuery() in the advanced editor.

Sample: Value.NativeQuery(target as any, query, null, [EnableFolding=true])

Operations that are capable of folding will be applied on top of your native query according to normal Import or Direct Query logic. Native Query folding is not applicable with optional parameters present in Value.NativeQuery().


Your native query may throw the following error:

We cannot fold on top of this native query. Please modify the native query or remove the 'EnableFolding' option.

A basic trouble shooting step is to check if the query in Value.NativeQuery() throws the same error with a limit 1 clause around it:

select * from (query) _ limit 1