About Redirection

Short description

Explains how to redirect output from PowerShell to text files.

Long description

By default, PowerShell sends its command output to the PowerShell console. However, you can direct the output to a text file, and you can redirect error output to the regular output stream.

You can use the following methods to redirect output:

  • Use the Out-File cmdlet, which sends command output to a text file. Typically, you use the Out-File cmdlet when you need to use its parameters, such as the Encoding, Force, Width, or NoClobber parameters.

  • Use the Tee-Object cmdlet, which sends command output to a text file and then sends it to the pipeline.

  • Use the PowerShell redirection operators.

Powershell redirection operators

The redirection operators enable you to send streams of data to a file or the Success output stream.

The PowerShell redirection operators use the following numbers to represent the available output streams:

Stream # Description Introduced in
1 Success Stream PowerShell 2.0
2 Error Stream PowerShell 2.0
3 Warning Stream PowerShell 3.0
4 Verbose Stream PowerShell 3.0
5 Debug Stream PowerShell 3.0
6 Information Stream PowerShell 5.0
* All Streams PowerShell 3.0


There is also a Progress stream in PowerShell, but it is not used for redirection.

The PowerShell redirection operators are as follows, where n represents the stream number. The Success stream ( 1 ) is the default if no stream is specified.

Operator Description Syntax
> Send specified stream to a file. n>
>> Append specified stream to a file. n>>
>&1 Redirects the specified stream to the Success stream. n>&1


Example 1: Redirect errors and output to a file

dir 'C:\', 'fakepath' 2>&1 > .\dir.log

This example runs dir on one item that will succeed, and one that will error.

It uses 2>&1 to redirect the Error stream to the Success stream, and > to send the resultant Success stream to a file called dir.log

Example 2: Send all Success stream data to a file

.\script.ps1 > script.log

This command sends all Success stream data to a file called script.log

Example 3: Send Success, Warning, and Error streams to a file

   Write-Warning "hello"
   Write-Error "hello"
   Write-Output "hi"
} 3>&1 2>&1 > P:\Temp\redirection.log

This example shows how you can combine redirection operators to achieve a desired result.

  • 3>&1 redirects the Warning stream to the Success stream.
  • 2>&1 redirects the Error stream to the Success stream (which also now includes all Warning stream data)
  • > redirects the Success stream (which now contains both Warning and Error streams) to a file called C:\temp\redirection.log)

Example 4: Redirect all streams to a file

.\script.ps1 *> script.log

This example sends all streams output from a script called script.ps1 to a file called script.log

Example 5: Suppress all Write-Host and Information stream data

   Write-Host "Hello"
   Write-Information "Hello" -InformationAction Continue
} 6> $null

This example suppresses all information stream data. To read more about Information stream cmdlets, see Write-Host and Write-Information


The redirection operators that do not append data (> and n>) overwrite the current contents of the specified file without warning.

However, if the file is a read-only, hidden, or system file, the redirection fails. The append redirection operators (>> and n>>) do not write to a read-only file, but they append content to a system or hidden file.

To force the redirection of content to a read-only, hidden, or system file, use the Out-File cmdlet with its Force parameter.

When you are writing to files, the redirection operators use Unicode encoding. If the file has a different encoding, the output might not be formatted correctly. To redirect content to non-Unicode files, use the Out-File cmdlet with its Encoding parameter.

Potential confusion with comparison operators

The > operator is not to be confused with the Greater-than comparison operator (often denoted as > in other programming languages).

Depending on the objects being compared, the output using > can appear to be correct (because 36 is not greater than 42).

PS> if (36 > 42) { "true" } else { "false" }

However, a check of the local filesystem can see that a file called 42 was written, with the contents 36.

PS> dir

Mode                LastWriteTime         Length Name
----                -------------         ------ ----
------          1/02/20  10:10 am              3 42

PS> cat 42

Attempting to use the reverse comparison < (less than), yields a system error:

PS> if (36 < 42) { "true" } else { "false" }
At line:1 char:8
+ if (36 < 42) { "true" } else { "false" }
+        ~
The '<' operator is reserved for future use.
+ CategoryInfo          : ParserError: (:) [], ParentContainsErrorRecordException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : RedirectionNotSupported

If numeric comparison is the required operation, -lt and -gt should be used. See: -gt Comparison Operator

See also