Overview

Microsoft PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language that provides an administrator full access to applicable application programming interfaces (APIs). Administrators can interact directly with SharePoint Server to manipulate web applications, site collections, sites, lists and much more. In addition, an administrator can script cmdlets (pronounced "command-lets").

By default, Powershell is located at the following path: <%SystemRoot%>\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\PowerShell.exe.

For a list of SharePoint Server on-premises cmdlets, see SharePoint Server cmdlets

For a list of SharePoint Online cmdlets, see SharePoint Online cmdlets

Accessing PowerShell for SharePoint Server

After you install SharePoint Server, applicable PowerShell cmdlets are available in the SharePoint 2016 Management Shell. You can manage most aspects of SharePoint Server in the SharePoint Management Shell. You can create new site collections, web applications, user accounts, service applications, proxies, and more. Commands that you type in the SharePoint Management Shell return SharePoint objects that are based on the Microsoft .NET Framework. You can apply these objects as input to subsequent commands or store the objects in local variables for later use.

With the SharePoint Management Shell, you do not have to register the snap-in that contains the cmdlets. Registration of the Microsoft.SharePoint.PowerShell.dll module for SharePoint Server cmdlets is automatic, as a result of the Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.SharePoint.PowerShell line in the SharePoint.ps1 file that is located in %CommonProgramFiles%\Microsoft Shared\Web Server Extensions<version>\Config\PowerShell\Registration, where version "15" equals SharePoint Server 2013, and version "16" equals SharePoint Server 2016. To use the PowerShell console, you must register this snap-in manually.

Whether you use the SharePoint Management Shell or the PowerShell console, you can also load additional snap-ins. For more information, see Customizing Profiles.

NOTE: The SharePoint Management Shell and the PowerShell console also differ in the use of the ReuseThread option, which defines how the threading model is used. The SharePoint Management Shell's use is defined by this line, {Host.Runspace.ThreadOptions = "ReuseThread"}, which is in the SharePoint.ps1 file. For more information, see PS Thread Options.

Permissions

On-Premises

Before you can use the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet to grant permissions for users to run SharePoint Server cmdlets, verify that you meet all of the following minimum requirements:

  • You must have membership in the securityadmin fixed server role on the SQL Server instance.
  • You must have membership in the securityadmin fixed server role on the SQL Server instance.
  • You must be a member of the Administrators group on the server on which you are running the PowerShell cmdlet.

NOTE: If these permissions are not satisfied, contact your Setup administrator or SQL Server administrator to request these permissions.

For additional information about PowerShell permissions, see Add-SPShellAdmin.

If you do not have membership in the SharePoint_Shell_Access role or WSS_Admin_WPG local group, use the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet to add the WSS_Admin_WPG group in all front-end web servers in the SharePoint farm and the SharePoint_Shell_Access role. If the SQL Server database does not have a SharePoint_Shell_Access role, the role is automatically created when you run the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet. After you run the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet, users can run SharePoint PowerShell cmdlets in a multiple-server farm environment.

NOTE: When you install SharePoint Server, the user account from which you run the installation is granted the appropriate permissions to run PowerShell cmdlets. If any users have not been added to run a PowerShell cmdlet, you can use the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet to add them.

To see a list of all of the SPShellAdmin cmdlets, from a PowerShell command prompt, type Get-Command -Noun SPShellAdmin.

SharePoint Online

Verify that you have the following administrative permissions:

IMPORTANT: You can use a specific group of PowerShell with SharePoint Online. For more information, see Office 365 PowerShell for SharePoint Online.

Scripts and execution policies

Although you can use Microsoft PowerShell to perform a single administrative task, you can also use a script to automate a series of tasks. A script is a text file that contains one or more Microsoft PowerShell commands. Microsoft PowerShell scripts have a .ps1 file name extension.

To run scripts, the minimum required execution policy for SharePoint Server is RemoteSigned, although the default policy for PowerShell is Restricted. If the policy is left as Restricted, the SharePoint Management Shell will change the policy for PowerShell to RemoteSigned. This means that you must select Run as administrator to start the SharePoint Management Shell with elevated administrative permission. This change will apply to all PowerShell sessions. For more information, see ExecutionPolicy Enumeration.

For additional information about scripts and execution policies, see about_scripts and about_execution_policies.

Learning PowerShell

There are several PowerShell learning resources for SharePoint IT professionals.

TechNet Scripting Center

The TechNet Scripting Center includes many resources to help you learn the basics about PowerShell. It also contains script repositories with samples of scripts that are typically used with various Microsoft products. The following table shows the main learning resources.

Page Description
Windows PowerShell Documentation on TechNet This section of the TechNet Library contains web copies of the core PowerShell Get-Help topics. The section also has web copies of the PowerShell Getting Started document, the PowerShell.exe help, and a PowerShell primer.
Scripting With Windows PowerShell The home page for PowerShell scripting learning resources.
Windows PowerShell Owner's Manual Web-based guide for getting started with PowerShell.
Windows PowerShell Quick Reference Downloadable copy of the Quick Reference document that is installed with PowerShell.

As you read these resources, consider that the following concepts and cmdlets are useful ones to learn before you use PowerShell for SharePoint Server: