Working with MDI Applications and Creating Menus
Paul D. Sheriff, PDSA, Inc.
Ken Getz, MCW Technologies
Summary: Introduces you to the concept of Multiple Document Interface (MDI) and how to create menus within an MDI application. (20 printed pages)
- Learn to create MDI parent forms
- Learn to create MDI child forms
- Learn to create and use menus
The following should be true for you to get the most out of this document:
- You are familiar with Microsoft® Visual Studio® .NET
- You are familiar with designing forms and other user interfaces
Create an MDI Project
Working with MDI Child Forms
Creating Shortcut Menus
Manipulating Menus at Run Time
How Did the Code Work?
This document introduces you to the concept of Multiple Document Interface (MDI) and how to create menus within an MDI application. You will learn to create an MDI application in Microsoft Visual Studio .NET and learn why you might want to use this type of interface. You will learn about child forms that are contained within the MDI application, and learn to create shortcut, or context-sensitive, menus.
MDI is a popular interface because it allows you to have multiple documents (or forms) open in one application. Examples of MDI applications include Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint®, and even the Visual Studio integrated development environment itself. Each application consists of one (or more) parent windows, each containing an MDI client area—the area where the child forms (or documents) will be displayed. Code you write displays as many instances of each of the child forms that you want displayed, and each child form can only be displayed within the confines of the parent window—this means you can't drag the child forms outside the MDI container. Figure 1 shows a basic MDI application in use.
Figure 1. Use MDI to open multiple windows and have them all contained within the parent area
Single Document Interface
Don't be misled: MDI is only one of several possible paradigms for creating a user interface. You can also create applications that display just a single form. They're easier to create, in fact. Those applications are called Single Document Interface (SDI) applications. Microsoft Windows® Notepad is an SDI application, and you can only open a single document at a time. (If you want multiple documents open, you simply run Notepad multiple times.) You are under no obligation to create your applications using the MDI paradigm. Even if you have multiple forms in your project, you can simply have each one as a stand-alone form, not contained by any parent form.
Uses of MDI
You'll use MDI most often in applications where the user might like to have multiple forms or documents open concurrently. Word processing applications (like Microsoft Word), spreadsheet applications (like Microsoft Excel), and project manager applications (like Microsoft Project) are all good candidates for MDI applications. MDI is also handy when you have a large application, and you want to provide a simple mechanism for closing all the child forms when the user exits the application.
Creating an MDI Parent Form
To create an MDI parent form, you can simply take one of your existing forms and set its IsMDIContainer property to True. This form will now be able to contain other forms as child forms. You may have one or many container forms within your application.
**Tip **Note the difference here between Visual Studio .NET and Microsoft Visual Basic® 6.0 behavior. In Visual Basic 6.0, you could only have a single MDI parent form per application, and you had to use the Project menu to add that one special form. In Visual Studio .NET, you can turn any form into an MDI parent form by simply modifying a property, and you can have as many MDI parent forms as you require within the same project.
You may have as many different child forms (the forms that remain contained within the parent form) as you want in your project. A child form is nothing more than a regular form for which you dynamically set the MdiParent property to refer to the MDI container form.
Note The user interface objects you've designed within the Visual Studio environment are really templates for forms. That is, they don't actually become real Form objects until you instantiate them at run time. Therefore, your project can contain as many different templates for MDI child forms as you like. You can instantiate and then show as many instances of as many different templates as you need, while your applications are running.
Run-time Features of MDI Child Forms
At run time, the MDI parent form and the MDI child forms take on special features:
- All child forms are displayed within the MDI parent's client area. The client area is the area below the MDI parent's title bar, any menus, and any tool bars.
- Child forms can be moved and sized only within the MDI parent's client area.
- Child forms can be minimized and their icon will be displayed within the parent's client area.
- Child forms can be maximized within the parent's client area and the caption of the child form is appended to the caption of the MDI form.
- Windows automatically gives child forms that have their FormBorderStyle property set to a sizable border a default size. This size is based on the size of the MDI parent's client area. You can override this by setting the FormBorderStyle property of the child form to any of the fixed type of borders.
- Child forms cannot be displayed modally.
- The MDI form can be minimized and only one icon will be displayed on the desktop representing the MDI form and all of its children.
- If the MDI form is unloaded, all of the loaded children will also be unloaded.
Note The client area includes any usable area on the MDI form minus any toolbars or status bars that you may have added to the MDI form.
Create an MDI Project
In this section, you will walk through the steps of creating a simple MDI application using Visual Studio .NET. To do this, you will create a new form that will be the MDI parent form. You will add some menus to this new form, and then you will load the product form from a menu as a child form.
Create the MDI Parent Form
To create the MDI parent form
- Open Visual Studio .NET
- Create a new Windows application project.
- Set the name of the project to MDI.sln.
- Rename the form that is created automatically to frmMain.vb.
- With the frmMain selected, set the form's IsMdiContainer property to True.
- Set the WindowState property to Maximized.
That's all there is to it: you've created an MDI parent form.
Your main form will require menus so that you can perform actions such as opening child forms, copying and pasting data, and arranging windows. Visual Studio .NET includes a new menu designer that makes creating and modifying menus a snap.
To add menus to your MDI parent form
Double-click the MainMenu tool in the Toolbox window to add a new object named MainMenu1 to the form tray.
Note Unlike the form designer in Visual Basic 6.0, the Visual Studio .NET form designer places controls that don't have a user interface at run time into a special area on the form designer: the form "tray". They're out of the way, and don't get buried underneath other controls. This is a real improvement!
At the top of the MDI parent form, click the box with Type Here in it and type &File.
**Tip **Just as in Visual Basic 6.0, inserting an ampersand (&) into a menu caption displays the caption with an underscore under the following letter. Pressing Alt+<the letter> acts as a hotkey, activating the menu item. One thing to note: if you're using Windows 2000 or later, it's possible that the hotkeys won't show up underlined until you press the Alt key. This setting is buried in the Display applet within Control Panel. In the Display Properties dialog box, check the Effects page: the Hide keyboard navigation indicators until I use the Alt key option controls this behavior.
Press Enter to move to the next menu item and type &Products.
Press Enter to move to the next menu item and type a hyphen (-).
**Tip ** Rather than using the "-" to indicate a divider in the menu, you can insert the next menu item (Exit, in this case), and then right-click the new item. Select "Insert Separator" from the context menu, and Visual Studio .NET will insert a separator above the current item for you.
Press Enter and type E&xit.
You have now created the first drop-down menu on your main form. You should have something that looks like Figure 2.
Figure 2. The menu designer allows you to type your menu structure in a WYSIWYG fashion
To the right of the File menu and at the same level, you'll see another small box with the text, Type Here. Click it and type the following menu items by pressing Enter after each one.
Once more to the right of the Edit menu and at the same level, add the following menu items in the same manner.
- Tile &Horizontal
- Tile &Vertical
- &Arrange Icons
Creating Names for Each Menu
After creating all the menu items, you'll need to set the Name property for each. (Because you'll refer to the name of each menu item from any code you write concerning that menu item, it's important to choose a name you can understand from within your code.) Instead of clicking each menu item one at a time and then moving over to the Properties window to set the Name property, Visual Studio provides a shortcut: Right-click an item in the menu, then select Edit Names from the context menu. Now you can simply click each menu item and set the name property directly on each menu. This is certainly quicker than using the Properties window to accomplish the same task.
Use the following names for your menu items:
Test out your application: Press F5 and you should see your main MDI window appear with your menu system in place.
Display a Child Form
To add the code that displays the child form, frmProducts, make sure the main form is open in Design view, and on the File menu, double-click Products. Visual Studio .NET will create the stub of the menu item's Click event handler for you. Modify the procedure so that it looks like the following:
Private Sub mnuFProducts_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles mnuFProducts.Click Dim frm As New frmProducts() frm.MdiParent = Me frm.Show() End Sub
This code declares a variable, frm, which refers to a new instance of the frmProducts form in the sample project. Then, you set the MdiParent property of the new form, indicating that its parent should be the current form (using the Me keyword). Finally, the code calls the Show method of the child form, making it appear on the screen.
Some interesting things to note:
- Me is a built-in keyword in Visual Basic .NET—just as in Visual Basic 6.0, this keyword refers to the class whose code is currently running. In this case, that's the MDI parent form, whose menu item you just clicked.
- You don't have to set the MdiParent property of the new child form. If you don't, the form will simply load as a new normal form, outside the MDI parent. As a matter of fact, you can set the MDI parent to be a different MDI container if you like.
- If you don't call the Show method, the child form won't ever display.
Differentiating Between Child Windows
You'll note that each instance of the Products form looks identical. You'll most likely need some way to differentiate the windows. One alternative is to modify the caption of the window as you load each instance. In the sample, you can create a static variable to contain a counter, increment that variable each time you open a form, and then assign that value into the Text property of the form.
To uniquely identify each child form
Modify the mnuFProducts_Click procedure so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFProducts_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFProducts.Click Dim frm As frmProducts Static intCount As Integer frm = New frmProducts() ' Increment the caption counter. intCount += 1 ' Set the caption to be unique. frm.Text = frm.Text & " " & intCount.ToString() frm.MdiParent = Me frm.Show() End Sub
Run the project, create a few Products forms, and note that the caption of each form includes a different number.
Note What's that Static ** keyword? Using Static, rather than Dim, to declare a variable inside a procedure creates a variable that maintains its value from one invocation of the procedure to the next. When you declare a variable using Dim, that variable gets reinitialized each time the procedure is called. When you use Static, the variable maintains its value. That's what you want, in this case—you want intCount to maintain its value, so that it continues to increment each time you create a new instance of frmProducts.
Child Menus in MDI Applications
What if a child form has its own set of menus? How do those menus interact with the menus of the parent form? In previous versions of Visual Basic you really didn't have much control over the behavior—the menus of the currently active child simply replaced the menus of its parent. In Visual Studio .NET, however, you can control how the menus interact, using the MergeOrder and MergeType properties of the individual menu items.
The MergeOrder property controls the relative position of the menu item when its menu structure gets merged with the parent form's menus. The default value for this property is 0, indicating that this menu item will be added at the end of the existing menu items. The MergeType property controls how the menu item behaves when it has the same merge order as another menu item being merged. Table 1 shows a list of the possible values you can assign to the MergeType property.
Table 1. The MergeType property allows you to specify what happens when menu items merge
|Add||The MenuItem is added to the collection of existing MenuItem objects in a merged menu. (Default)|
|MergeItems||All submenu items of this MenuItem are merged with those of existing MenuItem objects at the same position in a merged menu.|
|Remove||The MenuItem is not included in a merged menu.|
|Replace||The MenuItem replaces an existing MenuItem at the same position in a merged menu.|
By default, a menu item's MergeOrder property is set to 0. The MergeType property is set to Add by default. This means that if you create a child form with a menu on it, the menu will be added at the end of the main menu. Consider Figure 3, which shows a child form called from the parent form's main menu. This form has a Maintenance menu on it (and the parent form does not). All of the items on the parent's main menu have their MergeOrder properties set to 0 and this menu's MergeOrder property is set to 0, so this menu will be added at the end of the main menu on the MDI parent form.
Figure 3. A child form that has menus will by default be added to the end of the main menu
To create the form in Figure 3
On the Project menu, click Add Windows Form.
Set the new form's name to frmChildWithMenus.vb.
Add a MainMenu control to this form.
Set the Name property for the MainMenu control to mnuMainMaint.
Add the following menus as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Windows Form menus
Menu Name &Maintenance mnuMaint &Suppliers mnuMSuppliers &Categories mnuMCategories
If you were to call this form exactly like you did the Products form in the previous section you will see that your main form looks like Figure 4. You can see that by default, the menu is added to the end of this form.
Figure 4. Menus are added to the end of the main menu by default
Call this form by adding a new menu item under the File menu:
Open frmMain.vb in Design view.
Click on the separator after the Products menu item and press the Insert key to add a new menu item.
Type Child form with Menus as the text of this new menu item.
Set the Name property of this new menu item to mnuFChild.
Double click this new menu item and modify its Click event handler so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFChildMenus_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFChildMenus.Click Dim frm As New frmChildWithMenus() frm.MdiParent = Me frm.Show() End Sub
Note If you wish to merge the Maintenance menu in between the Edit and Window menus, you could set the MergeOrder property on the Edit menu item to 1, and the MergeOrder property on the Window menu to a 2. Then on the Maintenance menu item on frmChildWithMenus, set the MergeOrder property to 1 and leave the MergeType with its default value, Add. Taking these steps will add the Maintenance menu after the menu on the main form with the same MergeOrder number as it has (that is, after the Edit menu, but before the Window menu).
Working with MDI Child Forms
If you have multiple child forms open, you may want to have them arrange themselves, much as you can do in Word or Excel, choosing options under the Window menu. Table 3 lists the available options when arranging child windows.
Table 3. Choose one of these values when arranging child windows
|Menu Item||Enumerated Value|
Add some menus to your main form for each of these options:
Open frmMain.vb in Design view.
On the Window menu, double-click Cascade.
For the Cascade menu item, modify the Click event handler so that it looks like the following:
Private Sub mnuWCascade_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuWCascade.Click Me.LayoutMdi(MdiLayout.Cascade) End Sub
On the Window menu, double-click each menu item and add the appropriate code.
**Tip **The LayoutMDI method replaces the Arrange method you may have used in Visual Basic 6.0.
What If There's No Active Child Form?
If there's no active child form, attempting to work with the ActiveMdiChild property of the parent form will trigger a run-time error. To avoid this situation, you can check the value of the property in the Click event handler for the Window menu item, and enable or disable the Center Child Form menu item accordingly. To add this feature, follow these steps:
With frmMain open in Design view, press F7 to edit the form's code module.
Select mnuWindow from the Class Name combo box (the list on the top left of the editor window), and then select Select from the Method Name combo box (the list on the right).
Modify the Select event handler, so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuWindow_Popup( _ ByVal sender As Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuWindow.Popup mnuWCenterChild.Enabled = _ Not (Me.ActiveMdiChild Is Nothing) End Sub
4.Run the project, and verify that if you have child windows displayed, the Center Child Form menu item is enabled. If there isn't a child form open, verify that the menu item is disabled.
How does this work? Here are some things to consider:
- The Popup event occurs when you select a menu item that includes sub-items. (You can't use the Click event, since that event doesn't occur for menu items that contain sub-items.)
- The Is operator allows you to compare values to the built-in value Nothing. In this case, the ActiveMdiChild property returns this special value if it doesn't refer to a form, and you must use the Is operator to check for this. (The = operator checks values for equality: the Is operator checks references to objects for equality.)
- The syntax of the procedure may be confusing. The value in parentheses (Me, ActiveChild, Is, Nothing) returns a Boolean value: it's either True or False. The Not operator toggles the returned value to be the opposite Boolean value. The whole line of code assigns the return value from the expression in parentheses to the Enabled property of the menu item. In this case, if it's not true that the ActiveChild is Nothing, you'll enable the menu item. If it's True, you'll disable the menu item.
Tracking Child Windows
Visual Basic .NET will keep track of all child forms that you create, and it's easy to create a window list menu to manage the child windows. If you wish to see a list of all of the child forms and be able to give a specific child form focus, follow these steps:
- Load frmMain in Design view.
- Select frmMain's Window menu.
- In the Properties window, set the MdiList to True.
- Run the project, open a couple of Products forms, and then click the Window drop-down menu. You should see each instance of the Product form that you opened displayed in the window list.
Creating Shortcut Menus
In most modern Windows applications, you can click the right mouse button and see a context-sensitive, or shortcut (pop-up), menu. These menus give you the ability to perform actions based on the current context—that is, changing depending on the current situation.
Visual Studio provides the ContextMenu control, making it just as easy to create context menus as it was to create main menus. Once you've dropped one of these controls on your form (it will appear in the tray area, just like the MainMenu control did), you can edit the menu items to be displayed by this context menu.
Note The design of your context menu won't display on the form until you've clicked the ContextMenu control. This makes it possible for one form to contain both MainMenu and ContextMenu controls.
**Tip ** You can place as many ContextMenu controls as you need on your forms.
To add a context menu to the Products form:
Open frmProducts in Design view.
In the Toolbox, find the ContextMenu control.
Double-click this control to add it to the tray area of the form.
Click the ContextMenu control to give it focus.
Change the Name property to cmnuProdID.
Add the menu items (shown in Table 4) to this control, and set the Name properties as shown. When you add to a context menu, you start with the first menu item under the top-level menu. Figure 5 shows the finished context menu.
Table 4. Context menu items
Menu Name &Lookup mnuPLookUp &Copy mnuPCopy &Paste mnuPPaste
Figure 5. When adding items to the ContextMenu control, create a top-level item that won't ever be displayed as the parent for your items
Click the Product ID text box.
In the Properties window, set the ContextMenu property to the ContextMenu control you just created, cmnuProdID.
Run the project. On the File menu, click Products to create a child form, and righ-click on the Product ID text box to see the context menu appear.
If you were completing this form, you could now add code to respond to the Click events on each of these menus.
Manipulating Menus at Run Time
You may need to modify the behavior of menu items while your application is running. In this section, you'll see how to check and uncheck, and add and remove menu items programmatically.
To set up for the following sections, you will need to add three new menu items under the File menu on your MDI form.
Open frmMain.vb in Design view.
Click the File menu to display its sub-items.
Add three menu items, as described in Table 5.
Table 5. File menu items
Menu Name &Add Menus mnuFAddMenus &Remove Menus mnuFRemoveMenus &Add &New Menu mnuFAddNew
Checking and Unchecking Menu Items
Visually selecting a menu item programmatically is easy: simply set the menu item's Checked property to True or False, as necessary. For example, you might want to indicate that you've added new menu items by adding a check to the Add Menus item, and remove it once you've removed the items. You'll add and remove the menu items in the next section, but for now, add and remove the check by following these steps:
On the File menu, double-click Add Menus to view the Click event procedure.
Modify the event procedure, so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFAddMenus_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFAddMenus.Click If Not mnuFAddMenus.Checked Then mnuFAddMenus.Checked = True End If End Sub
To repeat the previous two steps, on the File menu, double-click Remove Menus and modify its Click event procedure so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFRemoveMenus_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFRemoveMenus.Click If mnuFAddMenus.Checked Then mnuFAddMenus.Checked = False End If End Sub
Run the project, and on the File menu, double-click Add Menus. Verify that you see a check next to the item. To repeat, on the File menu, click Remove Menus to verify that the check has been removed.
Adding and Removing Menus
Windows Forms allows you to add and remove menus programmatically at run time. Using the Add and Remove (or RemoveAt) methods of the MenuItems collection, you can create new menus at run time, and delete any menu items.
Note In Visual Basic 6.0, you could only delete menu items that you created dynamically, at run time. That is, you couldn't delete static menu items. In Visual Studio .NET, you can delete any menu item.
Adding Menus Programmatically
To add a menu item, call the Add method of a particular menu item. For example, you might want to add two new menu items on the File menu. To do this, follow these steps:
On the on the File menu, double-click Add Menus to view its Click event handler.
Modify the event procedure so that it looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFAddMenus_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFAddMenus.Click If Not mnuFAddMenus.Checked Then mnuFAddMenus.Checked = True ' Adds these menus to the end of the File menu With mnuFile.MenuItems .Add("New Menu 1") .Add("New Menu 2") End With End If End Sub
Each menu item contained within the MainMenu (or ContextMenu) control is itself a MenuItem object, and just as with any other object, you refer to the menu items using the Name property you assigned to each. If a menu item contains other menu items (as each top-level menu item does), you can use its MenuItems property to refer to the collection of menu items it contains. In this case, you called the Add method of a MenuItem object (mnuFile) to add menu items to the collection of items. (In this example, mnuFile was the name you assigned to the File menu item.)
Removing Menus Programmatically
To remove menu items programmatically, you can either call the MenuItem collection's Remove or RemoveAt method. Remove requires you to provide a MenuItem object; if you instead want to remove items by their position within the menu, call the RemoveAt method.
In this example, the simplest way to remove the menu items you created in the previous steps is to specify their position within the menu. You'll call the RemoveAt method to do the work. Because menu items are numbered starting at 0 (as are all collections and arrays in Visual Basic .NET), you need to take that into account when removing menu items.
To handle removing the two menu items you've just added, modify the Click event procedure for the Remove Menus items on the File menu, so that the procedure looks like this:
Private Sub mnuFRemoveMenus_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuFRemoveMenus.Click If mnuFAddMenus.Checked Then With mnuFile.MenuItems ' Remove the last two items .RemoveAt(.Count - 1) .RemoveAt(.Count - 1) End With mnuFAddMenus.Checked = False End If End Sub
Run the project to verify that choosing the Add and Remove Menus menu items correctly adds and removes the two extra items.
Using Menu Groups
When you add a check to a menu item, you're indicating the state of that menu item—it's either selected, or it's not. Normal checked menus work individually, and are independent of other menu items.
You may have a need to treat a group of menu items as a dependent set. In this case, selecting one item from the group forces all the other items in the group to be deselected. Although Visual Studio .NET doesn't provide a way to make this happen for you, it does supply the RadioCheck property of menu items that at least provides a visual indication. Rather than seeing a normal check, menu items with their RadioCheck property set to True display a dot when they're selected. It's still up to your code to deselect all the other items in your menu group, once the user selects a menu item.
To demonstrate this behavior, modify properties and add code so that the four window management menu items (Cascade, Tile Horizontal, Tile Vertical, Arrange Icons) work as a group. To do that, follow these steps:
With frmMain open in Design view, select the Window>Center Child Form menu item.
Right-click, and on the shortcut menu, click Insert Separator, which inserts a separator item above the selected item.
Click on the Window>Cascade menu item, then at the same time, press Ctrl and click the other four window management items on the menu, selecting all four.
In the Properties window, set the RadioCheck property for the four selected menu items to True.
Add the following procedure to the frmMain class:
Private Sub RadioCheck_Click( _ ByVal sender As System.Object, _ ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _ Handles mnuWArrange.Click, mnuWCascade.Click, _ mnuWHorizontal.Click, mnuWVertical.Click mnuWArrange.Checked = False mnuWCascade.Checked = False mnuWHorizontal.Checked = False mnuWVertical.Checked = False CType(sender, MenuItem).Checked = True End Sub
Run the project, create some Product forms, and use the Window menu items to arrange the children. As you use the Cascade, Tile Horizontal, and other menu items, you should see a circle next to the most recently selected item. Figure 6 shows the results of adding this new feature.
Figure 6. Setting a menu item's RadioCheck property to True shows a dot, rather than a check, next to selected items
How Did the Code Work?
It may seem odd that you managed to add new functionality to four menu items without modifying their event procedures at all. This example took advantage of a new feature in Visual Basic .NET—you can hook up as many event handlers to a specific event as you need, using the Handles clause on a procedure. Here, you provided a new procedure (RadioCheck_Click) that handles Click events for each of the four menu items you want to have work together.
Here are the important issues:
- The procedure you want to call must match the procedure signature of the standard Click event for menu items. That is, it must receive two parameters (one as System.Object, the other as System.EventArgs) and return nothing at all. (It must be a Sub, in other words.)
- You must add a Handles clause for each event you want to handle. In this case, you're handling the Click event of four different menu items.
- Within the procedure, you can use the first parameter (named sender, in this example) to figure out which object triggered the event. This example first sets each of the four items to be unchecked, and then checks the item that triggered the event.
It's also interesting to note how the RadioCheck_Click procedure set the RadioCheck property of the object it received as its first parameter. To convert the Object variable into a MenuItem type, the code calls the CType function, indicating the variable to convert, and the result type (MenuItem):
CType(sender, MenuItem).Checked = True
You'll use CType a lot in Visual Basic .NET. This important function allows you to convert variables from one type to another. Because Visual Basic .NET is so strictly typed (it's always careful about the specific data types you're working with, unlike Visual Basic 6.0), you'll often need to use this function to convert variables into a specific data type.
Note It's important to note that when you use the Handles clause as you did here to add event handlers, you cannot control the order in which those events get handled. Visual Basic .NET does supply a different mechanism, the AddHandler statement, which gives you more control. Using the Handles clause is simpler, however, and if you don't care about the order in which the procedures handle the event (in this case, you don't), it's an easier way to add extra functionality.
In this document you have learned to build an MDI application using several techniques that you find in professional Windows applications. You also learned to create and manipulate menus. Whether or not you choose to use the MDI paradigm will depend on the complexity of your application and how many forms will need to be displayed at one time.
About the Authors
Paul D. Sheriff is the owner of PDSA, Inc., a custom software development and consulting company in Southern California. Paul is the MSDN Regional Director for Southern California, is the author of a book on Visual Basic 6.0 called Paul Sheriff Teaches Visual Basic, and has produced over 72 videos on Visual Basic, SQL Server, .NET and Web Development for Keystone Learning Systems. Paul has co-authored a book with Ken Getz entitled ASP.NET Jumpstart. Visit the PDSA, Inc. Web site (www.pdsa.com) for more information.
Ken Getz is a senior consultant with MCW Technologies and splits his time between programming, writing, and training. He specializes in tools and applications written in Microsoft Access, Visual Basic, and the rest of the Office and BackOffice suites. Ken is co-author of several books including Access 97 Developer's Handbook with Paul Litwin and Mike Gilbert, Access 2000 Developer's Handbooks with Paul Litwin and Mike Gilbert, Access 2002 Developer's Handbooks with Paul Litwin and Mike Gunderloy, Visual Basic Language Developer's Handbook with Mike Gilbert, and VBA Developer's Handbook with Mike Gilbert (Sybex). Ken co-authored a book with Paul D. Sheriff entitled ASP.NET Jumpstart. He co-wrote training materials and teaches for AppDev. Ken is a frequent speaker at technical conferences, and has spoken at the Microsoft Tech*Ed conferences since 1994. Ken is a Technical Editor for Access/VB/SQL Advisor magazine and Contributing Editor for Informant Communication Group's Microsoft Office Solutions magazine.
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Technical editing: PDSA, Inc.