Tutorial: Analyzing US census data with RevoScaleR
This content is being retired and may not be updated in the future. The support for Machine Learning Server will end on July 1, 2022. For more information, see What's happening to Machine Learning Server?
This example builds on what you learned in an earlier tutorial by exploring the import and statistical RevoScaleR functions typically used with larger data sets. As before, you'll work with sample data to complete the steps.
Download the census dataset
The data set used in this tutorial is CensusUS5Pct2000.xdf. You can download the .xdf file or zipped files from this web site.
When downloading these files, put them in a directory where you can easily access them. For example, create a directory "C:\MRS\BigData" and unpack the files there. When running examples using these files, you will want to specify this location as your bigDataDir. For example:
bigDataDir <- "C:\MRS\BigData"
Explore the data
The built-in data set CensusWorkers.xdf provides a subsample of the 2000 5% IPUMS U.S. Census data. It contains information on individuals from 20 to 65 years old in the states of Connecticut, Indiana, and Washington who worked during 2000.
First, let’s learn a little about the sample data set:
sampleDataDir <- rxGetOption("sampleDataDir") dataFile <- file.path( sampleDataDir, "CensusWorkers") rxGetInfo(dataFile, getVarInfo=TRUE, numRows=3)
The results show that the data set has 6 variables and a little over 300,000 observations.
File name: …SampleData\CensusWorkers.xdf Number of observations: 351121 Number of variables: 6 Number of blocks: 6 Compression type: zlib Variable information: Var 1: age, Age Type: integer, Low/High: (20, 65) Var 2: incwage, Wage and salary income Type: integer, Low/High: (0, 354000) Var 3: perwt, Type: integer, Low/High: (2, 168) Var 4: sex, Sex 2 factor levels: Male Female Var 5: wkswork1, Weeks worked last year Type: integer, Low/High: (21, 52) Var 6: state 3 factor levels: Connecticut Indiana Washington Data (3 rows starting with row 1): age incwage perwt sex wkswork1 state 1 23 22000 39 Female 45 Indiana 2 25 18000 27 Female 52 Indiana 3 43 12000 24 Female 52 Indiana
Plotting the Weighted Counts of Males and Females by Age
Use rxCube to compute and plot the Age/Sex distribution by year of age for the data set. This data set has probability weights associated with each observation in the variable perwt. We will use those weights in our calculations. As seen above, age is an integer variable. We would like to have it treated as a categorical or factor variable in the calculation, so we will use the F() function when using age in the formula:
ageSex <- rxCube(~F(age):sex, data=dataFile, pweights="perwt")
To extract a data frame containing the counts for every combination of age and sex, use rxResultsDF:
ageSexDF <- rxResultsDF(ageSex)
Now plot the number of males and females by age.
rxLinePlot(Counts~age, groups=sex, data=ageSexDF, title="2000 U.S. Workers by Age and Sex")
The resulting graph is shown below:
The graph shows us that for the population in the data set, there are more men than women at every age.
Looking at Wage Income by Age and Sex
Next, run a regression looking at the relationship between age, sex, and wage income and plot the results:
wageAgeSexLm <- rxLinMod(incwage~F(age):sex, data=dataFile, pweights="perwt", cube=TRUE) wageAgeSex <- rxResultsDF(wageAgeSexLm) colnames(wageAgeSex) <- c("Age","Sex","WageIncome","Counts" ) rxLinePlot(WageIncome~Age, data=wageAgeSex, groups=Sex, title="Wage Income by Age and Sex")
The resulting graph shows that, in this data set, wage income is higher for males than females at every age:
Looking at Weeks Worked by Age and Sex
We can further explore the data by looking at the relationship between weeks worked and age and sex, following a similar process.
workAgeSexLm <- rxLinMod(wkswork1 ~ F(age):sex, data=dataFile, pweights="perwt", cube=TRUE) workAgeSex <- rxResultsDF(workAgeSexLm) colnames(workAgeSex) <- c("Age","Sex","WeeksWorked","Counts" ) rxLinePlot( WeeksWorked~Age, groups=Sex, data=workAgeSex, main="Weeks Worked by Age and Sex")
This resulting graph shows that it is also the case that on average females work fewer weeks per year at every age during the working years:
Looking at Wage Income by Age, Sex, and State
Last, we can drill down by state. For example, let’s look at the distribution of wage income by sex for each of the three states. First, do the computations as in the earlier examples:
wageAgeSexStateLm <- rxLinMod(incwage~F(age):sex:state, data=dataFile, pweights="perwt", cube=TRUE) wageAgeSexState <- rxResultsDF(wageAgeSexStateLm) colnames(wageAgeSexState) <- c("Age","Sex","State", "WageIncome","Counts" )
Now draw the plot:
rxLinePlot(WageIncome~Age|State, groups=Sex, data=wageAgeSexState, layout=c(3,1), main="Wage Income by Age and Sex")
Subsetting an .xdf File into a Data Frame
One advantage of storing data in .xdf file is that it is very fast to access a subsample of rows and columns. If not too large, the subset of data can be easily read into a data frame and analyzed using any of the numerous functions available for data frames in R. For example, suppose that we want to perform further analysis on workers in Connecticut who are 50 years old or under:
ctDataFrame <- rxDataStep (inData=dataFile, rowSelection = (state == "Connecticut") & (age <= 50)) nrow(ctDataFrame) head(ctDataFrame, 5)
The resulting data frame has only 60,755 observations, so can be used quite easily in R for analysis. For example, use the standard R summary function to compute descriptive statistics:
This should give the result:
age incwage perwt sex Min. :20.00 Min. : 0 Min. : 2.00 Male :31926 1st Qu.:30.00 1st Qu.: 17500 1st Qu.: 16.00 Female:28829 Median :37.00 Median : 32000 Median : 19.00 Mean :36.57 Mean : 42601 Mean : 20.30 3rd Qu.:43.00 3rd Qu.: 50000 3rd Qu.: 25.00 Max. :50.00 Max. :354000 Max. :152.00 wkswork1 state Min. :21.00 Connecticut:60755 1st Qu.:50.00 Indiana : 0 Median :52.00 Washington : 0 Mean :49.07 3rd Qu.:52.00
- If you missed the first tutorial, see Practice data import and exploration for an overview.
- For more advanced lessons, see Write custom chunking algorithms.