# DVar, DVarP Functions [Access 2003 VBA Language Reference]

You can use the **DVar** and **DVarP** functions to estimate variance across a set of values in a specified set of records (a domain). Use the **DVar** and **DVarP** functions in Visual Basic, a macro, a query expression, or a calculated control on a form or report.

Use the **DVarP** function to evaluate variance across a population and the **DVar** function to evaluate variance across a population sample.

For example, you could use the **DVar** function to calculate the variance across a set of students' test scores.

**DVar**(* expr*,

*, [*

**domain***])*

**criteria****DVarP**(* expr*,

*, [*

**domain***])*

**criteria**The **DVar** and **DVarP** functions have the following arguments.

Argument | Description |
---|---|

expr |
An expression that identifies the numeric field on which you want to find the variance. It can be a string expression identifying a field from a table or query, or it can be an expression that performs a calculation on data in that field . In expr, you can include the name field in a table, a control on a form, a constant, or a function. If expr includes a function, it can be either built-in or user-defined, but not another domain aggregate or SQL aggregate function. Any field included in expr must be a numeric field. |

domain |
A string expression identifying the set of records that constitutes the domain. It can be a table name or a query name for a query that does not require a parameter. |

criteria |
An optional string expression used to restrict the range of data on which the DVar or DVarP function is performed. For example, criteria is often equivalent to the WHERE clause in an SQL expression, without the word WHERE. If criteria is omitted, the DVar and DVarP functions evaluate expr against the entire domain. Any field that is included in criteria must also be a field in domain; otherwise the DVar and DVarP functions return a Null. |

## Remarks

If *domain* refers to fewer than two records or if fewer than two records satisfy *criteria*, the **DVar** and **DVarP** functions return a **Null**, indicating that a variance can't be calculated.

Whether you use the **DVar** or **DVarP** function in a macro, module, query expression, or calculated control, you must construct the *criteria* argument carefully to ensure that it will be evaluated correctly.

You can use the **DVar** and **DVarP** function to specify criteria in the **Criteria** row of a select query, in a calculated field expression in a query, or in the **Update To** row of an update query.

**Note** You can use the **DVar** and **DVarP** functions or the **Var** and **VarP** functions in a calculated field expression in a totals query. If you use the **DVar** or **DVarP** function, values are calculated before data is grouped. If you use the **Var** or **VarP** function, the data is grouped before values in the field expression are evaluated.

Use the **DVar** and **DVarP** functions in a calculated control when you need to specify *criteria* to restrict the range of data on which the function is performed. For example, to display a variance for orders to be shipped to California, set the **ControlSource** property of a text box to the following expression:

```
=DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipRegion] = 'CA'")
```

If you simply want to find the standard deviation across all records in *domain*, use the **Var** or **VarP** function.

**Note** Unsaved changes to records in *domain* are not included when you use these functions. If you want the **DVar** or **DVarP** function to be based on the changed values, you must first save the changes by clicking **Save Record** on the **Records** menu, moving the focus to another record, or by using the **Update** method.

## Example

The following example returns estimates of the variance for a population and a population sample for orders shipped to the United Kingdom. The domain is an Orders table. The *criteria* argument restricts the resulting set of records to those for which ShipCountry equals UK.

```
Dim dblX As Double
Dim dblY As Double
' Sample estimate.
dblX = DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = 'UK'")
' Population estimate.
dblY = DVarP("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = 'UK'")
```

The next example returns estimates by using a variable, `strCountry`

, in the *criteria* argument. Note that single quotation marks (') are included in the string expression, so that when the strings are concatenated, the string literal `UK`

will be enclosed in single quotation marks.

```
Dim strCountry As String|
Dim dblX As Double
strCountry = "UK"
dblX = DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = '" _
& strCountry & "'")
```

**See Also** | Domain Aggregate Functions | Restrict Data to a Subset of Records