# WorksheetFunction Members (Excel)

Used as a container for Microsoft Excel worksheet functions that can be called from Visual Basic.

## Methods

Name

Description

AccrInt

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.

AccrIntM

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.

Acos

Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is Arg1. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi.

Acosh

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. Number must be greater than or equal to 1. The inverse hyperbolic cosine is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is Arg1, so Acosh(Cosh(number)) equals Arg1.

Aggregate

Returns an aggregate in a list or database.

AmorDegrc

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. This function is provided for the French accounting system.

AmorLinc

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. This function is provided for the French accounting system.

And

Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more argument is FALSE.

Asc

For Double-byte character set (DBCS) languages, changes full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters.

Asin

Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number. The arcsine is the angle whose sine is Arg1. The returned angle is given in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.

Asinh

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. The inverse hyperbolic sine is the value whose hyperbolic sine is Arg1, so Asinh(Sinh(number)) equals Arg1.

Atan2

Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x- and y-coordinates. The arctangent is the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0, 0) and a point with coordinates (x_num, y_num). The angle is given in radians between -pi and pi, excluding -pi.

Atanh

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. Number must be between -1 and 1 (excluding -1 and 1).

AveDev

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. AveDev is a measure of the variability in a data set.

Average

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments.

AverageIf

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria.

AverageIfs

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.

BahtText

Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix of "Baht."

BesselI

Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments.

BesselJ

Returns the Bessel function.

BesselK

Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel functions evaluated for purely imaginary arguments.

BesselY

Returns the Bessel function, which is also called the Weber function or the Neumann function.

Beta_Dist

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.

Beta_Inv

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. That is, if probability = Beta_Dist(x,...), then Beta_Inv(probability,...) = x.

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.

BetaInv

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. That is, if probability = BetaDist(x,...), then BetaInv(probability,...) = x.

Bin2Dec

Converts a binary number to decimal.

Bin2Hex

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.

Bin2Oct

Converts a binary number to octal.

Binom_Dist

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

Binom_Inv

Returns the inverse of the individual term binomial distribution probability.

BinomDist

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

Ceiling

Returns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.

Ceiling_Precise

Returns the specified number rounded to the nearest multiple of significance.

ChiDist

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiInv

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Dist

Returns the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Dist_RT

Returns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Inv

Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Inv_RT

Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Test

Returns the test for independence.

ChiTest

Returns the test for independence.

Choose

Uses Arg1 as the index to return a value from the list of value arguments.

Clean

Removes all nonprintable characters from text.

Combin

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items. Use Combin to determine the total possible number of groups for a given number of items.

Complex

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj.

Confidence

Returns a value that you can use to construct a confidence interval for a population mean.

Confidence_Norm

Returns a value that you can use to construct a confidence interval for a population mean.

Confidence_T

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.

Convert

Converts a number from one measurement system to another. For example, Convert can translate a table of distances in miles to a table of distances in kilometers.

Correl

Returns the correlation coefficient of the Arg1 and Arg2 cell ranges.

Cosh

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.

Count

Counts the number of cells that contain numbers and counts numbers within the list of arguments.

CountA

Counts the number of cells that are not empty and the values within the list of arguments.

CountBlank

Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells.

CountIf

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria.

CountIfs

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria.

CoupDayBs

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.

CoupDays

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date.

CoupDaysNc

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.

CoupNcd

Returns a number that represents the next coupon date after the settlement date.

CoupNum

Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon.

CoupPcd

Covar

Returns covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.

Covariance_P

Returns population covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.

Covariance_S

Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.

CritBinom

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.

CumIPmt

Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan between start_period and end_period.

CumPrinc

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between start_period and end_period.

DAverage

Averages the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify.

Days360

Returns the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months), which is used in some accounting calculations.

Db

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method.

Dbcs

Converts half-width (single-byte) letters within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters. The name of the function (and the characters that it converts) depends upon the language settings. Read/write String.

DCount

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DCountA

Counts the nonblank cells in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

Ddb

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify.

Dec2Bin

Converts a decimal number to binary.

Dec2Hex

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.

Dec2Oct

Converts a decimal number to octal.

Degrees

Delta

Tests whether two values are equal. Returns 1 if number1 = number2; returns 0 otherwise.

DevSq

Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean.

DGet

Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify.

Disc

Returns the discount rate for a security.

DMax

Returns the largest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you that specify.

DMin

Returns the smallest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify.

Dollar

The function described in this Help topic converts a number to text format and applies a currency symbol. The name of the function (and the symbol that it applies) depends upon your language settings.

DollarDe

Converts a dollar price expressed as a fraction into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number. Use DOLLARDE to convert fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices, to decimal numbers.

DollarFr

Converts a dollar price expressed as a decimal number into a dollar price expressed as a fraction. Use DOLLARFR to convert decimal numbers to fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices.

DProduct

Multiplies the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DStDev

Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DStDevP

Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DSum

Adds the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

Duration

Returns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value of \$100. Duration is defined as the weighted average of the present value of the cash flows and is used as a measure of a bond price's response to changes in yield.

DVar

Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DVarP

Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

EDate

Returns the serial number that represents the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a specified date (the start_date). Use EDATE to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the same day of the month as the date of issue.

Effect

Returns the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

EoMonth

Returns the serial number for the last day of the month that is the indicated number of months before or after start_date. Use EOMONTH to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the last day of the month.

Erf

Returns the error function integrated between lower_limit and upper_limit.

Erf_Precise

Returns the error function integrated between zero and lower_limit.

ErfC

Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between the specified parameter and infinity.

ErfC_Precise

Returns the complementary error function integrated between the specified value and infinity.

Even

Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer. You can use this function for processing items that come in twos. For example, a packing crate accepts rows of one or two items. The crate is full when the number of items, rounded up to the nearest two, matches the crate's capacity.

Expon_Dist

Returns the exponential distribution. Use EXPON_DIST to model the time between events, such as how long an automated bank teller takes to deliver cash. For example, you can use EXPON_DIST to determine the probability that the process takes at most 1 minute.

ExponDist

Returns the exponential distribution. Use EXPONDIST to model the time between events, such as how long an automated bank teller takes to deliver cash. For example, you can use EXPONDIST to determine the probability that the process takes at most 1 minute.

F_Dist

Returns the F probability distribution.

F_Dist_RT

Returns the right-tailed F probability distribution. You can use this function to determine whether two data sets have different degrees of diversity. For example, you can examine the test scores of men and women entering high school and determine if the variability in the females is different from that found in the males.

F_Inv

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

F_Inv_RT

Returns the inverse of the right-tailed F probability distribution. If p = F_DIST_RT(x,...), then F_INV_RT(p,...) = x.

F_Test

Returns the result of an F-test. An F-test returns the two-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different. Use this function to determine whether two samples have different variances. For example, given test scores from public and private schools, you can test whether these schools have different levels of test score diversity.

Fact

Returns the factorial of a number. The factorial of a number is equal to 1*2*3*...* number.

FactDouble

Returns the double factorial of a number.

FDist

Returns the F probability distribution. You can use this function to determine whether two data sets have different degrees of diversity. For example, you can examine the test scores of men and women entering high school and determine if the variability in the females is different from that found in the males.

Find

Finds specific information in a worksheet.

FindB

FIND and FINDB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

FInv

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. If p = FDIST(x,...), then FINV(p,...) = x.

Fisher

Returns the Fisher transformation at x. This transformation produces a function that is normally distributed rather than skewed. Use this function to perform hypothesis testing on the correlation coefficient.

FisherInv

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. Use this transformation when analyzing correlations between ranges or arrays of data. If y = FISHER(x), then FISHERINV(y) = x.

Fixed

Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.

Floor

Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.

Floor_Precise

Rounds the specified number to the nearest multiple of significance.

Forecast

Calculates, or predicts, a future value by using existing values. The predicted value is a y-value for a given x-value. The known values are existing x-values and y-values, and the new value is predicted by using linear regression. You can use this function to predict future sales, inventory requirements, or consumer trends.

Frequency

Calculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers. For example, use FREQUENCY to count the number of test scores that fall within ranges of scores. Because FREQUENCY returns an array, it must be entered as an array formula.

FTest

Returns the result of an F-test. An F-test returns the two-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different. Use this function to determine whether two samples have different variances. For example, given test scores from public and private schools, you can test whether these schools have different levels of test score diversity.

Fv

Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

FVSchedule

Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. Use FVSCHEDULE to calculate the future value of an investment with a variable or adjustable rate.

Gamma_Dist

Returns the gamma distribution. You can use this function to study variables that may have a skewed distribution. The gamma distribution is commonly used in queuing analysis.

Gamma_Inv

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. If p = GAMMA_DIST(x,...), then GAMMA_INV(p,...) = x.

Returns the gamma distribution. You can use this function to study variables that may have a skewed distribution. The gamma distribution is commonly used in queuing analysis.

GammaInv

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. If p = GAMMADIST(x,...), then GAMMAINV(p,...) = x.

GammaLn

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).

GammaLn_Precise

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).

Gcd

Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers. The greatest common divisor is the largest integer that divides both number1 and number2 without a remainder.

GeoMean

Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data. For example, you can use GEOMEAN to calculate average growth rate given compound interest with variable rates.

GeStep

Returns 1 if number ≥ step; returns 0 (zero) otherwise. Use this function to filter a set of values. For example, by summing several GESTEP functions you calculate the count of values that exceed a threshold.

Growth

Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data. GROWTH returns the y-values for a series of new x-values that you specify by using existing x-values and y-values. You can also use the GROWTH worksheet function to fit an exponential curve to existing x-values and y-values.

HarMean

Returns the harmonic mean of a data set. The harmonic mean is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of reciprocals.

Hex2Bin

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.

Hex2Dec

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.

Hex2Oct

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.

HLookup

Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows. Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find.

HypGeom_Dist

Returns the hypergeometric distribution. HYPGEOM_DIST returns the probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size. Use HYPGEOM_DIST for problems with a finite population, where each observation is either a success or a failure, and where each subset of a given size is chosen with equal likelihood.

HypGeomDist

Returns the hypergeometric distribution. HYPGEOMDIST returns the probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size. Use HYPGEOMDIST for problems with a finite population, where each observation is either a success or a failure, and where each subset of a given size is chosen with equal likelihood.

IfError

Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. Use the IFERROR function to trap and handle errors in a formula.

ImAbs

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

Imaginary

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImArgument

Returns the argument (theta), an angle expressed in radians, such that: ImConjugate

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImCos

Returns the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImDiv

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImExp

Returns the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLn

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLog10

Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLog2

Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImPower

Returns a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format raised to a power.

ImProduct

Returns the product of 2 to 29 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImReal

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSin

Returns the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSqrt

Returns the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSub

Returns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSum

Returns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

Index

Returns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range. There are two forms of the INDEX function: the array form and the reference form.

Intercept

Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values. The intercept point is based on a best-fit regression line plotted through the known x-values and known y-values. Use the INTERCEPT function when you want to determine the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is 0 (zero). For example, you can use the INTERCEPT function to predict a metal's electrical resistance at 0°C when your data points were taken at room temperature and higher.

IntRate

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security.

Ipmt

Returns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Irr

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by the numbers in values. These cash flows do not have to be even, as they would be for an annuity. However, the cash flows must occur at regular intervals, such as monthly or annually. The internal rate of return is the interest rate received for an investment consisting of payments (negative values) and income (positive values) that occur at regular periods.

IsErr

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to any error value except #N/A.

IsError

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to any error value (#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!).

IsEven

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value is even.

IsLogical

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to a logical value.

IsNA

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to the #N/A (value not available) error value.

IsNonText

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to any item that is not text. (Note that this function returns TRUE if value refers to a blank cell.)

IsNumber

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to a number.

ISO_Ceiling

Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.

IsOdd

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value is odd.

Ispmt

Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. This function is provided for compatibility with Lotus 1-2-3.

IsText

Checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending if the value refers to text.

Kurt

Returns the kurtosis of a data set. Kurtosis characterizes the relative peakedness or flatness of a distribution compared with the normal distribution. Positive kurtosis indicates a relatively peaked distribution. Negative kurtosis indicates a relatively flat distribution.

Large

Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. You can use this function to select a value based on its relative standing. For example, you can use LARGE to return the highest, runner-up, or third-place score.

Lcm

Returns the least common multiple of integers. The least common multiple is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of all integer arguments number1, number2, and so on. Use LCM to add fractions with different denominators.

LinEst

Calculates the statistics for a line by using the "least squares" method to calculate a straight line that best fits your data, and returns an array that describes the line. Because this function returns an array of values, it must be entered as an array formula.

Ln

Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e (2.71828182845904).

Log

Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify.

Log10

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.

LogEst

In regression analysis, calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve. Because this function returns an array of values, it must be entered as an array formula.

Use the lognormal distribution to analyze logarithmically transformed data.

LogNorm_Dist

Returns the lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev. Use this function to analyze data that has been logarithmically transformed.

LogNorm_Inv

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function. Use the lognormal distribution to analyze logarithmically transformed data.

LogNormDist

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev. Use this function to analyze data that has been logarithmically transformed.

Lookup

Returns a value either from a one-row or one-column range or from an array. The LOOKUP function has two syntax forms: the vector form and the array form.

Match

Returns the relative position of an item in an array that matches a specified value in a specified order. Use MATCH instead of one of the LOOKUP functions when you need the position of an item in a range instead of the item itself.

Max

Returns the largest value in a set of values.

MDeterm

Returns the matrix determinant of an array.

MDuration

Returns the modified Macauley duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100.

Median

Returns the median of the given numbers. The median is the number in the middle of a set of numbers.

Min

Returns the smallest number in a set of values.

MInverse

Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.

MIrr

Returns the modified internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows. MIRR considers both the cost of the investment and the interest received on reinvestment of cash.

MMult

Returns the matrix product of two arrays. The result is an array with the same number of rows as array1 and the same number of columns as array2.

Mode

Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data.

Mode_Mult

Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, values in an array or range of data.

Mode_Sngl

Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data.

MRound

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.

MultiNomial

Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.

NegBinom_Dist

Returns the negative binomial distribution. NEGBINOM_DIST returns the probability that there will be number_f failures before the number_s-th success, when the constant probability of a success is probability_s. This function is similar to the binomial distribution, except that the number of successes is fixed, and the number of trials is variable. Like the binomial, trials are assumed to be independent.

NegBinomDist

Returns the negative binomial distribution. NEGBINOMDIST returns the probability that there will be number_f failures before the number_s-th success, when the constant probability of a success is probability_s. This function is similar to the binomial distribution, except that the number of successes is fixed, and the number of trials is variable. Like the binomial, trials are assumed to be independent.

NetworkDays

Returns the number of whole working days between start_date and end_date. Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified in holidays. Use NETWORKDAYS to calculate employee benefits that accrue based on the number of days worked during a specific term.

NetworkDays_Intl

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. Weekend days and any days that are specified as holidays are not considered as workdays.

Nominal

Returns the nominal annual interest rate, given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

Norm_Dist

Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. This function has a wide range of applications in statistics, including hypothesis testing.

Norm_Inv

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

Norm_S_Dist

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one. Use this function in place of a table of standard normal curve areas.

Norm_S_Inv

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one.

NormDist

Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. This function has a very wide range of applications in statistics, including hypothesis testing.

NormInv

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

NormSDist

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one. Use this function in place of a table of standard normal curve areas.

NormSInv

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. The distribution has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

NPer

Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Npv

Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values).

Oct2Bin

Converts an octal number to binary.

Oct2Dec

Converts an octal number to decimal.

Oct2Hex

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

Odd

Returns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer.

OddFPrice

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period.

OddFYield

Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period.

OddLPrice

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period.

OddLYield

Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period.

Or

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.

Pearson

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets.

Percentile

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. You can use this function to establish a threshold of acceptance. For example, you can decide to examine candidates who score above the 90th percentile.

Percentile_Exc

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive.

Percentile_Inc

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. You can use this function to establish a threshold of acceptance. For example, you can examine candidates who score above the 90th percentile.

PercentRank

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set. This function can be used to evaluate the relative standing of a value within a data set. For example, you can use PERCENTRANK to evaluate the standing of an aptitude test score among all scores for the test.

PercentRank_Exc

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set.

PercentRank_Inc

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, inclusive) of the data set. This function can be used to evaluate the relative standing of a value within a data set. For example, you can use PERCENTRANK_INC to evaluate the standing of an aptitude test score among all scores for the test.

Permut

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects. A permutation is any set or subset of objects or events where internal order is significant. Permutations are different from combinations, for which the internal order is not significant. Use this function for lottery-style probability calculations.

Phonetic

Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string.

Pi

Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits.

Pmt

Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Poisson

Returns the Poisson distribution. A common application of the Poisson distribution is predicting the number of events over a specific time, such as the number of cars arriving at a toll plaza in 1 minute.

Poisson_Dist

Returns the Poisson distribution. A common application of the Poisson distribution is predicting the number of events over a specific time, such as the number of cars arriving at a toll plaza in one minute.

Power

Returns the result of a number raised to a power.

Ppmt

Returns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Price

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest.

PriceDisc

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security.

PriceMat

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity.

Prob

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. If upper_limit is not supplied, returns the probability that values in x_range are equal to lower_limit.

Product

Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.

Proper

Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Converts all other letters to lowercase letters.

Pv

Returns the present value of an investment. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. For example, when you borrow money, the loan amount is the present value to the lender.

Quartile

Returns the quartile of a data set. Quartiles often are used in sales and survey data to divide populations into groups. For example, you can use QUARTILE to find the top 25 percent of incomes in a population.

Quartile_Exc

Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.

Quartile_Inc

Returns the quartile of a data set based on percentile values from 0..1, inclusive. Quartiles often are used in sales and survey data to divide populations into groups. For example, you can use QUARTILE_INC to find the top 25 percent of incomes in a population.

Quotient

Returns the integer portion of a division. Use this function when you want to discard the remainder of a division.

RandBetween

Returns a random integer number between the numbers you specify. A new random integer number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated.

Rank

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. The rank of a number is its size relative to other values in a list. (If you were to sort the list, the rank of the number would be its position.)

Rank_Avg

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers; that is its size relative to other values in the list. If more than one value has the same rank, the average rank is returned.

Rank_Eq

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. The rank of a number is its size relative to other values in a list. (If you were to sort the list, the rank of the number would be its position.)

Rate

Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. RATE is calculated by iteration and can have zero or more solutions. If the successive results of RATE do not converge to within 0.0000001 after 20 iterations, RATE returns the #NUM! error value.

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security.

Replace

Replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string.

ReplaceB

REPLACEB replaces part of a text string, based on the number of bytes you specify, with a different text string.

Rept

Repeats text a given number of times. Use REPT to fill a cell with a number of instances of a text string.

Roman

Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.

Round

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.

RoundDown

Rounds a number down, toward zero.

RoundUp

Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero).

RSq

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's. For more information, see PEARSON. The r-squared value can be interpreted as the proportion of the variance in y attributable to the variance in x.

RTD

This method connects to a source to receive real-time data.

Search

SEARCH and SEARCHB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

SearchB

SEARCH and SEARCHB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

SeriesSum

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula: Sinh

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.

Skew

Returns the skewness of a distribution. Skewness characterizes the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. Positive skewness indicates a distribution with an asymmetric tail extending toward more positive values. Negative skewness indicates a distribution with an asymmetric tail extending toward more negative values.

Sln

Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period.

Slope

Returns the slope of the linear regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's. The slope is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance between any two points on the line, which is the rate of change along the regression line.

Small

Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set. Use this function to return values with a particular relative standing in a data set.

SqrtPi

Returns the square root of (number * pi).

Standardize

Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev.

StDev

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StDev_P

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StDev_S

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StDevP

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StEyx

Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression. The standard error is a measure of the amount of error in the prediction of y for an individual x.

Substitute

Substitutes new_text for old_text in a text string. Use SUBSTITUTE when you want to replace specific text in a text string; use REPLACE when you want to replace any text that occurs in a specific location in a text string.

Subtotal

Creates subtotals.

Sum

Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.

SumIf

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria.

SumIfs

Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.

SumProduct

Multiplies corresponding components in the given arrays, and returns the sum of those products.

SumSq

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.

SumX2MY2

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

SumX2PY2

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. The sum of the sum of squares is a common term in many statistical calculations.

SumXMY2

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.

Syd

Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period.

T_Dist

Returns a Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are computed.

T_Dist_2T

Returns the two-tailed Student t-distribution.

T_Dist_RT

Returns the right-tailed Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed. The t-distribution is used in the hypothesis testing of small sample data sets. Use this function in place of a table of critical values for the t-distribution.

T_Inv

Returns the left-tailed inverse of the Student t-distribution.

T_Inv_2T

Returns the t-value of the Student t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.

T_Test

Returns the probability associated with a Student t-Test. Use T_TEST to determine whether two samples are likely to have come from the same two underlying populations that have the same mean.

Tanh

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.

TBillEq

Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.

TBillPrice

Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill.

TBillYield

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill.

TDist

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed. The t-distribution is used in the hypothesis testing of small sample data sets. Use this function in place of a table of critical values for the t-distribution.

Text

Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

TInv

Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.

Transpose

Returns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range, or vice versa. TRANSPOSE must be entered as an array formula in a range that has the same number of rows and columns, respectively, as an array has columns and rows. Use TRANSPOSE to shift the vertical and horizontal orientation of an array on a worksheet.

Trend

Returns values along a linear trend. Fits a straight line (using the method of least squares) to the arrays known_y's and known_x's. Returns the y-values along that line for the array of new_x's that you specify.

Trim

Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing.

TrimMean

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. TRIMMEAN calculates the mean taken by excluding a percentage of data points from the top and bottom tails of a data set. You can use this function when you wish to exclude outlying data from your analysis.

TTest

Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test. Use TTEST to determine whether two samples are likely to have come from the same two underlying populations that have the same mean.

USDollar

Converts a number to text format and applies a currency symbol. The name of the method (and the symbol that it applies) depends upon the language settings.

Var

Estimates variance based on a sample.

Var_P

Calculates variance based on the entire population.

Var_S

Estimates variance based on a sample.

VarP

Calculates variance based on the entire population.

Vdb

Returns the depreciation of an asset for any period you specify, including partial periods, using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify. VDB stands for variable declining balance.

VLookup

Searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from another column in the table array.

Weekday

Returns the day of the week corresponding to a date. The day is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday), by default.

WeekNum

Returns a number that indicates where the week falls numerically within a year.

Weibull

Returns the Weibull distribution. Use this distribution in reliability analysis, such as calculating a device's mean time to failure.

Weibull_Dist

Returns the Weibull distribution. Use this distribution in reliability analysis, such as calculating the mean time to failure for a device.

WorkDay

Returns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date). Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified as holidays. Use WORKDAY to exclude weekends or holidays when you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed.

WorkDay_Intl

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays with custom weekend parameters. Weekend parameters indicate which and how many days are weekend days. Weekend days and any days that are specified as holidays are not considered as workdays.

Xirr

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. To calculate the internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows, use the IRR function.

Xnpv

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. Read/write Double.

YearFrac

Calculates the fraction of the year represented by the number of whole days between two dates (the start_date and the end_date). Use the YEARFRAC worksheet function to identify the proportion of a whole year's benefits or obligations to assign to a specific term.

YieldDisc

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security.

YieldMat

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

Z_Test

Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. For a given hypothesized population mean, Z_TEST returns the probability that the sample mean would be greater than the average of observations in the data set (array) — that is, the observed sample mean.

ZTest

Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. For a given hypothesized population mean, ZTEST returns the probability that the sample mean would be greater than the average of observations in the data set (array) — that is, the observed sample mean.

## Properties

Name

Description

Application

When used without an object qualifier, this property returns an Application object that represents the Microsoft Excel application. When used with an object qualifier, this property returns an Application object that represents the creator of the specified object. You can use this property with an OLE Automation object to return the application of that object. Read-only.

Creator

Returns a 32-bit integer that indicates the application in which this object was created. Read-only Long.

Parent

Returns the parent object for the specified object. Read-only.