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iCalendar: A standard content type for capturing calendar event information, as described in [RFC2445].

ICE keep-alive message: A message that is sent periodically to keep active the NAT bindings at intermediate NATs and allocations on the TURN server.

icon: A graphical image used to supplement alphanumeric text in the visual identification of an object on a computer monitor. Icons are typically small, relative to the size of the area on which they are displayed.

icon set: A collection of icons that can be used to comment and classify data into categories.

identifier: A string value that is used to uniquely identify a component of the CSDL and that is of type SimpleIdentifier.

Identifier: The Field (4) or Fields (4) that define the Identity of an EntityInstance. Also referred to as Key.

identity: (1) A digital persona that is associated with two key pairs, one for encrypting data and another for signing data.

(2) An account that represents a person (user account), an application (service account), and computers that participate in the domain (machine accounts). A password is used by the system as proof of an identity.

identity object: An entity that is a collection of one or more identity attributes. For example, an identity object could represent a user's account. An identity object is an abstraction over physical realizations such as directory objects.

identity provider (IP): A security token service (STS) that performs identity verification as part of its processing. For more information, see [WSFedPRP].

identity provider/security token service (IP/STS): An STS that may or may not be an identity provider (IP). This term is used as shorthand to see both identity that verifies token services and general token services that do not verify identity. Note that the "/" symbol implies an "or" relationship.

identity URL: A string of characters that uniquely identifies an identity and conforms to the syntax of a URI, as described in [RFC3986].

identity-targeted message: A message that is destined for a specific resource handler and identity combination, regardless of the client device. The message address includes a resource URL, identity URL, and client device URL, where the client device URL is empty.

IdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return the Field (4) values that represent the identity of EntityInstances of a specific Entity. IdEnumerator input is defined by the FilterDescriptors that are contained in the Method that contains the IdEnumerator.

IDispatch identifier (DispID): A 32-bit signed integer that is used in Automation interfaces to identify methods, properties, and arguments.

IDL: See Interface Definition Language (IDL).

I-frame: A video frame that is encoded as a single image, such that it can be decoded without any dependencies on previous frames. Also referred to as Intra-Coded frame, Intra frame, and key frame.

IM MCU: A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports Instant Messaging (IM) conferencing.

image: A rectangular grid of pixels that has a definite height and a definite width and that can be displayed in a report.

Image Color Management (ICM): Technology that ensures that a color image, graphic, or text object is rendered as closely as possible to its original intent on any device despite differences in imaging technologies and color capabilities between devices.

IME: See Input Method Editor (IME).

immediate conversion job: A conversion job that contains only one conversion item and is intended to be executed as a higher priority than a typical conversion job.

immediate translation job: A translation job that contains only one translation item and is executed as a higher priority than a typical translation job.

import: The process of creating a conglomeration or partition on a COMA server based on modules and configurations extracted from an installer package file.

import attribute flow: The process of updating the metaverse attribute values of the current metaverse object during an import operation.

in-band provisioning: A process in which a protocol client obtains configuration information from a protocol server.

inclusion list: A list of items to include in query results and to add to a search index the next time that a crawl occurs.

incremental crawl: A crawl process that includes logic to index only a subset of the items in a content source that is crawled based on item modifications.

indentation level: A measure of the distance between the position of content that is in a cell and the logical left side of the cell. An indentation level is equal to three spaces.

index column: A part of a search index that can be hosted by one server computer or virtual server. Each index column contains a unique set of indexed items.

index directory file: A file that is part of a full-text index catalog. It is used to store index keys from an associated content index file, which facilitates finding a specific content index record in the content index file.

index directory level: An array of index directory pages that contains index keys from an associated index and the positions of those keys in the index.

index directory page: A page that conforms to the index directory page structure that stores index directory records.

index identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a full-text index component within a full-text index catalog.

index key: A key that references a record in a content index file or a scope index file. It consists of an index key string and a property identifier.

index key string: A sequence of bytes that specifies the value that is used to sort records in a content index file or a scope index file.

index partition: A part of an inverted index within a search system. In Search Server 2010 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 for Search, it is defined by a set of document distribution identifiers. In FAST Search Server 2010, it is defined by a search index within an index column and can be divided into additional index partitions.

index server: A server that is assigned the task of crawling.

index table file: A directory that is used to store an inventory of files in a full-text index catalog.

indexing: The process of extracting text and properties from files and storing the extracted values into the indexes (for text) and the property cache (for properties).

indexing service: (1) A service that traverses URL spaces and file systems to acquire items, including properties, to record in catalogs for those spaces and systems. The catalogs can then be used for tasks such as searching and auditing content.

(2) A service that creates indexedcatalogs for the contents and properties of file systems. Applications can search the catalogs for information from the files on the indexed file system.

individual target application: A target application that stores credentials for Secure Store Service (SSS) users. It references an identity claim (2) that represents an SSS user who can retrieve the credentials that are associated with it.

inflectional form: A variant of a root token that has been modified according to the linguistic rules of a given language. For example, inflections of the verb "swim" in English include "swim," "swims," "swimming," and "swam."

Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates (1), and authentication (2). Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.

initial offer: An offer that is sent by a caller and with the caller's local candidates when the caller initiates a media session with a callee.

ink: A process of entering text in handwritten form. Instead of converting handwritten text to typed text, ink is converted to an object and displayed exactly as it was written.

inner rectangle: In a cell that is formatted with a rectangular gradient, a rectangle that is formed by the leftmost, rightmost, topmost, and bottommost lines of pixels in which the initial color of the gradient is completely dissipated. See also rectangular gradient.

input cell: A cell in which each input value from a data table is substituted.

Input Method Editor (IME): An application that is used to enter characters in written Asian languages by using a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words.

input source: A table, view, query, or schema diagram that is used as a data source for a query.

InputFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used while calling an operation for a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can use the value of an InputFilter as additional arguments for the operation.

InputOutputFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used while calling an operation for a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can use the value of an InputOutputFilter as additional arguments for the operation, and additional results of an operation that cannot be captured by ReturnTypeDescriptor can be retrieved as a value of the InputOutputFilter.

insert row: A placeholder row at the bottom of a table. It is used to enter new records.

installer package file: A file that packages together modules and configuration states sufficient to create a conglomeration or partition on a server.

instance: (1) A unique publication of data for a category (4). It enables a publisher to publish data for the same category multiple times. An example is a publisher who uses two different endpoints (5) to publish data. These endpoints can publish the same category. However, each endpoint requires a different instance number to be considered a distinct publication by the server (2). An instance number is provided by the publishing client.

(2) A specific occurrence of a game running in a game session. A game application process or module may be created more than one time on a single computer system, or on separate computer systems. Each time a game application process or module is created, the occurrence is considered to be a separate instance.

Instant Message Delivery Notification (IMDN): A notification that is sent from a multipoint control unit (MCU) to the sender of a message. It contains details about any failures that occurred when forwarding the message to other participants in a conference.

Integrated Windows authentication: A configuration setting that enables negotiation of authentication (2) protocols in Internet Information Services (IIS). Integrated Windows authentication is more secure than Basic authentication, because the user name and password are hashed instead of plaintext.

Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A methodology that was established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to facilitate the traversal of network address translation (NAT) by media.

interactive report: A visualization that has a presentation mode that provides sort, filter, and pivot capabilities for displaying different views of the data. The underlying data can be stored either in the workbook or in an external data source.

interface: (1) A specification in a Component Object Model (COM) server that describes how to access the methods of a class. For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(2) A group of related function prototypes in a specific order, analogous to a C++ virtual interface. Multiple objects, of different object class, may implement the same interface. A derived interface may be created by adding methods after the end of an existing interface. In the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), all interfaces initially derive from IUnknown.

(3) This term is used exactly as specified in [C706] section "Introduction to the RPC API" in Part 2.

(4) A collection of messages used together. Interfaces support inheritance and extensibility through the Interface Query message as defined in [MS-RDPEXPS] section

(5) Represents a network that can be reached over an adapter. Each interface has a unique interface identifier also known as an interface index. interfaces that are active have an adapter that is providing connectivity to the network they represent. interfaces that are inactive do not have an adapter providing connectivity unless an administrator disabled the interface after it already had an adapter. Routing a packet to a network represented by an interface will cause the router to allocate an adapter for that interface, and will establish a wide area network (WAN) connection to the remote network. Allocating an adapter to an interface is referred to as binding. In the case of a local area network (LAN) interface, the interface corresponds to an actual physical device in the computer, a LAN adapter. In the case of a WAN interface, the interface is mapped to a port at the time that a connection is established. The port could be a COM port, a parallel port, or a virtual port (for tunnels such as PPTP[RFC2637] and L2TP[RFC2661]). WAN interfaces have the additional quality that they typically receive a network address only at the time that a connection is established. For example, a WAN interface using PPP [RFC1661] receives its network layer address from the remote peer during the connection process. Receiving a network address as part of the connection process is sometimes referred to as late-binding.

Interface Definition Language (IDL): The International Standards Organization (ISO) standard language for specifying the interface for remote procedure calls. For more information, see [C706] section 4.

intermediate NAT: A network address translation (NAT) address that is present in the communication path of two endpoints (5).

internal identifier: (1) An integer that uniquely identifies any item in a term store.

(2) A Folder ID or Message ID, as described in [MS-OXCDATA].

internal version number: A number that increases monotonically and is used to identify conflicts when saving an item.

Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI): A resource identifier that conforms to the rules for Internationalized Resource Identifiers, as defined in [RFC3987].

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): A central repository for the protocol name and number registries that are used in many Internet protocols.

Internet Information Services (IIS): The services provided in Windows implementation that support web server functionality. IIS consists of a collection of standard Internet protocol servers such as HTTP and FTP in addition to common infrastructures that are used by other Microsoft Internet protocol servers such as SMTP, NNTP, and so on. IIS has been part of the Windows operating system in some versions and a separate install package in others. IIS version 5.0 shipped as part of Windows 2000, IIS version 5.1 as part of Windows XP, IIS version 6.0 as part of Windows Server 2003, and IIS version 7.0 as part of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.

Internet Key Exchange (IKE): The protocol that is used to negotiate and provide authenticated keying material for security associations (SAs) in a protected manner. For more information, see [RFC2409].

Internet message: A message, such as an email message, that conforms to the syntax that is described in [RFC2822].

Internet Protocol security (IPsec): A framework of open standards for ensuring private, secure communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks through the use of cryptographic security services. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication, data origin authentication, data integrity, data confidentiality (encryption), and replay protection. The Microsoft implementation of IPsec is based on standards developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IPsec working group.

Internet protocol server: A software program that implements the server host of a standard Internet protocol such as HTTP or FTP.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4): An Internet protocol that has 32-bit source and destination addresses. IPv4 is the predecessor of IPv6.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6): A revised version of the Internet Protocol (IP) designed to address growth on the Internet. Improvements include a 128-bit IP address size, expanded routing capabilities, and support for authentication (2) and privacy.

inverted index: (1) For each token that is encountered in a corpus of indexed items, a data structure that stores a list of postings that identify which documents matched and a list of occurrences that identify which position in each document.

(2) A persistent structure that contains the text content pulled out of files during indexing. The text in an inverted index maps from a word in a property to a list of the documents and locations within a document that contain that word.

INVITE: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to invite a user or a service to participate in a session.

IP-PBX: A PBX that supports Voice over IP (VoIP).

IPv4 address in string format: A string representation of an IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation, as described in [RFC1123] section 2.1.

IPv6 address in string format: A string representation of an IPv6 address, as described in [RFC4291] section 2.2.

IRM protector: An application that converts a file to an encrypted format when a user downloads the file and to a nonencrypted format when a user uploads a rights-managed file. See also Information Rights Management (IRM).

item: A unit of content that can be indexed and searched by a search application.

item identifier: (1) An integer that uniquely identifies an item in a SharePoint list.

(2) For tabular data, the identifier for a particular row.

iterative calculation: A calculation mode in which calculations are performed until a specific numeric condition is met or a maximum number of iterations is reached.