3 A

A1: A reference style in which each column (2) is identified sequentially from left-to-right with a letter or series of letters in alphabetical order. Column headings are ordered A-Z, then AA-AZ, BA-BZ... ZA-ZZ, AAA-AAZ, and so forth. Each row is numbered sequentially from the top down.

absolute path: A string that identifies the location of a file and that begins with a drive identifier and root directory or network share and ends with the complete file name. Examples are C:\Documents\Work\example.txt and \\netshare\Documents\Work\example.txt.

absolute reference: A reference to a fixed location on a sheet (1). An absolute reference always refers to the same range, even if the formula that contains it is moved or copied to a new location.

absolute space: An area of a drawing that occupies an entire document or page. The value for absolute space is typically expressed in English Metric Units (EMUs), but it can be defined by the host application.

absolute URI: An absolute Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), as described in [RFC3986].

absolute URL: The full Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource. The absolute URL includes a protocol, such as "http," a network location, and an optional path and file name — for example, http://www.treyresearch.net/.

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): A notation to define complex data types to carry a message, without concern for their binary representation, across a network. ASN.1 defines an encoding to specify the data types with a notation that does not necessarily determine the representation of each value. ASN.1 encoding rules are sets of rules used to transform data that is specified in the ASN.1 language into a standard format that can be decoded on any system that has a decoder based on the same set of rules. ASN.1 and its encoding rules were once part of the same standard. They have since been separated, but it is still common for the terms ASN.1 and Basic Encoding Rules (BER) to be used to mean the same thing, though this is not the case. Different encoding rules can be applied to a given ASN.1 definition. The choice of encoding rules used is an option of the protocol designer. ASN.1 is described in the following specifications: [ITUX660] for general procedures; [ITUX680] for syntax specification; [ITUX690] for the Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) encoding rules; and [ITUX691] for the Packed Encoding Rules (PER). Further background information on ASN.1 is also available in [DUBUISSON].

abstract type: A type used in this specification whose representation need not be standardized for interoperability because the type's use is internal to the specification. See concrete type.

accelerator key: Any combination of keys that are pressed simultaneously to run a command.

access control entry (ACE): An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of user rights and a security identifier (SID) that identifies a principal for whom the rights are allowed, denied, or audited.

access control list (ACL): A list of access control entries (ACEs) that collectively describe the security rules for authorizing access to some resource; for example, an object or set of objects.

access protocols: A set of protocols that are supported by proxies to enable protocol clients and protocol servers to communicate with and share proxy services. A single proxy can support multiple proxy protocols, such as an HTTP proxy that is configured to support HTTP with proxy headers, secure tunnel proxy, and SOCKS.

access URL: An internal Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that is used by a crawler to identify and gain access to an item.

AccessChecker: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve the permissions that the calling security principal (2) has for each of a collection of EntityInstances identified by the specified EntityInstanceIds.

account: (1) A collection of data and settings for a SharePoint Workspace or Groove identity that represents a user. This includes shared spaces, messages, and preferences that are associated with a user’s identity. An account can reside on one or more devices.

(2) A user (including machine account), group, or alias object. Also a synonym for security principal or principal.

account configuration code: A unique code that is generated by a management server. It is used to bind an identity to a member of a management server.

account key: A secret key that is shared between a relay server and a client account for accountauthentication (2). A protocol client generates this key when it creates a new account, and then registers this key on a relay server through a registration sequence. The relay server uses this key to authenticate the account and enable the protocol client to retrieve identity-targeted messages from the server.

account URL: A unique identifier for an account, as described in [RFC3986].

accounting: Information gathered and maintained by the management service about the runtime behavior of processes. The management service provides an accounting state switch with two settings: enabled and disabled. When enabled, accounting information is gathered and persisted across invocations of the management service. Accounting information gathered by the management service on one computer can be persisted by the management service on a different computer. When the accounting state is disabled, no accounting data is gathered or persisted.

acknowledgment (ACK): A signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify successful receipt of a transmission as part of a communications protocol.

action: (1) The smallest unit of work in a workflow system. An action can contain one or more tasks that define work that actors need to do. Actions are deployed and registered in the workflow system to be activated by protocol client users.

(2) A unit of work that can be performed by a workflow and is typically defined in a workflow markup file.

(3) A discrete operation that is executed on an incoming Message object when all conditions in the same rule (4) are TRUE. A rule contains one or more actions.

(4) A string that is returned as part of a GetAction response in the Desired State Configuration Pull Model Protocol [MS-DSCPM].

(5) A command exposed by a service which takes one or more input or output arguments and which may have a return value. For more information, see [UPNPARCH1.1] sections 2 and 3.

(6) A remote procedure call from the control point to a particular service on the device.

(7) A command that is exposed by a service, as defined in [UPNPARCH1.1] section i.7.

(8) An interactivity event in a report, such as a hyperlink, bookmark link, or drillthrough link, that is associated with an item in a report.

(9) A business rule argument that determines what occurs when the business rule is run at validation time.

(10) An OLAP object, such as a cube, dimension, and cell, that has an action associated with it, so that a user can perform that action when browsing OLAP data. For example, a user can jump to a URL, execute a command, or drill through to data.

Action: A type of MetadataObject that represents a URL that triggers the display or manipulation of data related to an Entity or EntityInstance. Actions are contained by an Entity. Actions contain ActionParameters.

action instance: The runtime instance of a specific action (1). Action instances are building blocks for an activity flow. Several action instances can be chained together to form an activity flow, and multiple action instances of the same action can exist in a single activity flow.

ActionParameter: A type of MetadataObject that defines how to parameterize the URL of an Action with specific data about an EntityInstance. ActionParameters are contained by Actions.

activation: (1) An operation that creates a new action instance.

(2) In COM, a local mechanism by which a client provides the CLSID of an object class (3) and obtains an object (3), either an object from that object class or a class factory that is able to create such objects.

(3) In the DCOM protocol, a mechanism by which a client provides the CLSID of an object class (4) and obtains an object (4), either from that object class or a class factory that is able to create such objects. For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(4) The process of creating a server object.

active cell: The cell that is currently selected in a worksheet.

Active Directory: A general-purpose network directory service. Active Directory also refers to the Windows implementation of a directory service. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network. Importantly, user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by the Windows implementation of Kerberos are stored in Active Directory. See also Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Kerberos, and DNS. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). [MS-ADTS] describes both forms.

Active Directory account creation mode: A type of account creation mode that retrieves and uses user accounts in a specific AD DS organizational unit.

Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS): An operating system directory service (DS) implemented by a domain controller (DC). The DS provides a data store for objects that is distributed across multiple DCs. The DCs interoperate as peers to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across DCs. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section For information about product versions, see [MS-ADTS].

Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS): A directory service (DS) implemented by a domain controller (DC). The most significant difference between AD LDS and Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is that AD LDS does not host domain naming contexts (domain NCs). A server can host multiple AD LDSDCs. Each DC is an independent AD LDS instance, with its own independent state. AD LDS can be run as an operating system DS or as a directory service provided by a standalone application (ADAM). For more information, see [MS-ADTS].

Active Directory partition: A synonym for naming context (NC) replica.

Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI): A directory service model and a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces. ADSI enables Windows applications and AD DS clients to gain access to several network directory services, including AD DS.

active selection: The current selection of cells, rows, or columns that includes the active cell in a datasheet.

active sheet: The sheet that is currently selected.

ActiveX control: A reusable software control, such as a check box or button, that uses ActiveX technology and provides options to users or runs macros or scripts that automate a task. See also ActiveX object.

ActiveX Data Objects (ADO): A data access interface that connects to, retrieves, manipulates, and updates data in Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) database-compliant data sources.

ActiveX object: An object that is supplied by a component that supports automation.

activity: (1) An object that stores information about either an action (1) or an activity model.

(2) A type of event, such as "In a meeting," that provides information about the availability and status of a presentity.

(3) A synchronization boundary; ORPC calls to objects within the boundary are serialized based on their causality identifiers.

(4) Used as specified in [C706] section 9.5.

activity flow: A running instance of a workflow that consists of a sequence of action instances and activity model instances. Action instances and activity model instances can be sequenced in any order to create a single activity flow.

activity model: A predefined sequence of actions (1).

ActivityTrackingFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. Its value specifies a GUID for the current operation.

actor: A person or process that starts or participates in an activity flow. An actor can be an initiator or a target.

AD LDS: See Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS).

adapter: The hardware that connects to a particular network segment. A bound LAN card is one example of an adapter. Similarly, a computer with two modems, each capable of connecting to a remote network, has two adapters, one to represent each modem.

add-in: Supplemental functionality that is provided by an external application or macro to extend the capabilities of an application.

add-in function: A worksheet function that is provided by an add-in, instead of being built-in.

address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.

address book contact: A user, contact (2), or group object that is obtained from AD DS, including a subset of the AD DS attributes that are associated with the object, and is stored in an address book file.

address book file: A file that contains a set of address book contact records.

Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes (1), each attribute with a set of associated values.

Address Book Server (ABS): A component that produces address book files on a daily basis.

address list: A collection of distinct Address Book objects.

address-of-record: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)URI that specifies a domain with a location service that can map the URI to another URI for a user, as described in [RFC3261].

adjacent cell: A cell that is in the same row as and adjoins the current cell in a worksheet.

adjust handle: A user interface control that is located on an object frame and is used to increase or decrease the size of that object.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): A block cipher that supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm can be used to encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext. AES is a symmetric cipher, meaning that the same key is used for the encryption and decryption operations. It is also a block cipher, meaning that it operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext and ciphertext, and requires the size of the plaintext as well as the ciphertext to be an exact multiple of this block size. AES is specified in [FIPS197].

Advanced Systems Format (ASF): An extensible file format that is designed to facilitate streaming digital media data over a network. This file format is used by Windows Media.

AES Counter Mode: A type of counter-mode encryption that generates encryption key streams by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher and successive integers.

after event: An event whose handler runs only after the action that raised the event is complete. Unlike a before event, an after event handler cannot cancel the action that caused the event. See also before event.

agent: See endpoint (5).

aggregatable server: A COM server that can be contained by another COM server and can allow its interfaces to be used as if they were defined by the containing server.

aggregation: (1) A mechanism for reusing objects. The outer object exposes interfaces from one or more inner objects as if they were implemented on the outer object itself.

(2) An operation in which multiple instances of one or more dependent categories (4), which are typically published by different Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) clients of the same user, are processed to produce an instance of a category. After this category instance is created, it can be published to multiple containers and notified to subscribers in the same way as any other category.

aggregation function: A function, such as sum or average, that appears in the total row of a table and is used to summarize data.

Aggressive Nomination: The process of selecting a valid candidate pair for media flow by sending Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) binding requests that include the flag for every STUN binding request such that the first candidate pair that is validated is used for media flow.

alert: (1) An Internet message that is sent to subscribers automatically to notify them when user-defined criteria are met. Alerts are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.

(2) A message that is passed to a protocol client to notify it when specific criteria are met.

alert metadata: The values that are contained in the X-headers of an alert (1).

alert subscription: A request to receive an Internet message automatically when user-defined criteria are met. Such messages are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.

alias: (1) An alternate name that can be used to reference an object or element.

(2) A simple identifier that is typically used as a short name for a namespace.

(3) A group (1) that is local to a particular machine (as opposed to a group that has security permissions and settings for the entire domain).

ALL: See OLAP All member.

alternate startup directory: A secondary location that stores files to be opened by an application when the application starts.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) character set: A character set (1) defined by a code page approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The term "ANSI" as used to signify Windows code pages is a historical reference and a misnomer that persists in the Windows community. The source of this misnomer stems from the fact that the Windows code page 1252 was originally based on an ANSI draft, which became International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 8859-1 [ISO/IEC-8859-1]. In Windows, the ANSI character set can be any of the following code pages: 1252, 1250, 1251, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 874, 932, 936, 949, or 950. For example, "ANSI application" is usually a reference to a non-Unicode or code-page-based application. Therefore, "ANSI character set" is often misused to refer to one of the character sets defined by a Windows code page that can be used as an active system code page; for example, character sets defined by code page 1252 or character sets defined by code page 950. Windows is now based on Unicode, so the use of ANSI character sets is strongly discouraged unless they are used to interoperate with legacy applications or legacy data.

Analysis Services: The abbreviated name for Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, which is used to create and maintain multidimensional data that is sent to client applications in response to queries. Also referred to as Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) server.

ancestor: (1) A PivotTable member that is above the current PivotTable member in a hierarchy.

(2) In a tree structure, an element from which other elements inherit attributes

(3) A record that contains or is contained in another record.

anchor: (1) A set of qualifiers and quantifiers that specifies the location of an element or object within a document. These values are typically relative to another element or known location in the document, such as the edge of a page or margin.

(2) An opaque data element generated by an update server to identify the occurrence of a software update-related event in a manner that distinguishes temporally separate occurrences of the event.

anchor content source: A content source that is used to import the anchor text from links between items into the full-text index catalog.

anchor crawl: A process in which anchor text from links between items is added to a full-text index catalog.

anchor text: The text that is included with a hyperlink to describe the target content of a hyperlink.

animation: A record of synthetic, successive still images that produce an illusion of movement when played back.

anonymous access: A mechanism that does not require users to specify a user name or password for authentication (1).

anonymous authentication: An authentication mode in which neither party verifies the identity of the other party.

anonymous user: A user who presents no credentials when identifying himself or herself. The process for determining an anonymous user can differ based on the authentication protocol, and the documentation for the relevant authentication protocol should be consulted.

answer: A message that is sent in response to an offer that is received from an offerer.

anti-moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that is the inverse of a simple moniker and has no internal structure; it is the inverse of a COM implementation of a file, an item, or a pointer moniker. An anti-moniker that is composed to the right of a file moniker, item moniker, or pointer moniker composes to nothing.

app: (1) See web application (1).

(2) See app for Office.

(3) A set of instructions that a computer uses to perform a specific task, such as word processing, accounting, or data management.

(4) See app for SharePoint.

app for Office: A cloud-enabled app that integrates rich, scenario-focused content and services into an Office application or equivalent protocol client.

app for SharePoint: A cloud-enabled software module that uses HTML, JavaScript, or other industry-standard web technologies, in addition to possible server components, to integrate rich, scenario-focused content and services into SharePoint.

app host header name: A unique name assigned to an app instance.

app instance: An instantiation of an app on a specific site.

app package: An implementation-specific file that specifies an app.

app principal: Designates an authenticated entity that is not a user.

app product identifier: A unique designation that is shared by all versions of an app.

application: A participant that is responsible for beginning, propagating, and completing an atomic transaction. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to begin and complete transactions. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to marshal transactions to and from other applications. An application also communicates in application-specific ways with a resource manager in order to submit requests for work on resources.

application identifier: (1) A unique integer that identifies a protocol client application.

(2) A string that is used to look up information in a single sign-on (SSO) database.

(3) A globally unique identifier (GUID) that uniquely identifies a game.

application manifest: An XML file that describes the contents and requirements for a deployment package (2).

application NC: A specific type of naming context (NC), or an instance of that type, that supports only full replicas (no partial replicas). An application NC cannot contain security principal objects. An application NC can contain dynamic objects. A forest can have zero or more application NCs. Application NCs do not appear in the global catalog (GC). The root of a domain NC is an object of class domainDns.

application server: A computer that provides infrastructure and services for applications that are hosted on a server farm.

Application Sharing Multipoint Control Unit (ASMCU): A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports application sharing conferencing.

approval line: A sequence of approval participants in an approval workflow.

archive: The Fax Archive Folder, as described in section 3.1.1.

array: A Remoting Type that is an ordered collection of values. The values are identified by their position and position is determined by a set of integer indices. The number of indices required to represent the position is called the Rank of the Array. An Array is part of the Remoting Data Model and also specifies the Remoting Type of its items. For more information, [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1.

array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed in braces ({}) and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

ascending order: A sort order in which text strings are arranged in alphabetical order, numerical values are arranged from smallest to largest, and dates and times are arranged from oldest to newest.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

ASN.1: Abstract Syntax Notation One. ASN.1 is used to describe Kerberos datagrams as a sequence of components, sent in messages. ASN.1 is described in the following specifications: [ITUX660] for general procedures; [ITUX680] for syntax specification, and [ITUX690] for the Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) encoding rules.

ASP.NET: A web server technology for dynamically rendering HTML pages using a combination of HTML, Javascript, CSS, and server-side logic. For more information, see [ASPNET].

ASP.NET control: A server-side component that encapsulates user interface and related functionality. An ASP.NET server control derives directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.Control class. The superset of ASP.NET server controls includes web server controls, HTML server controls, and ASP.NET mobile controls.

assembly: (1) A collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about an assembly to determine the set of permissions that is granted to code in the assembly.

(2) A managed application module containing class metadata and managed code as an object in SQL Server, against which common language runtime (CLR) functions, stored procedures, triggers, user-defined aggregates, and user-defined types can be created in SQL Server.

assembly name: The name of a collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. See also assembly.

association: A named independent relationship between two EntityType definitions. Associations in the Entity Data Model (EDM) are first-class concepts and are always bidirectional. Indeed, the first-class nature of associations helps distinguish the EDM from the relational model. Every association includes exactly two association ends.

Association: A MethodInstance that enables the traversal and manipulation of a data model relationship between a set of source Entities and a single destination Entity. An Association can retrieve, associate, and disassociate EntityInstances of a destination Entity if given EntityInstances of other source Entities.

association form: A form that provides parameters for a workflow association.

AssociationGroup: A MetadataObject that provides a logical grouping of AssociationReferences. All of the Associations that are identified by AssociationReferences in the group operate on a single physical mapping of source EntityInstances to destination EntityInstances in a line-of-business (LOB) system. All AssociationReferences in the group have the same AssociationReference sources and destinations, and collectively define the source and destination Entities of the AssociationGroup.

AssociationNavigator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve destination EntityInstances that are associated with a single specified EntityInstance for each of the sources of the specified Association.

AssociationReference: An entry in an AssociationGroup that refers to an Association. The sources of the AssociationReference are the sources of the referenced Association, and the destination of the AssociationReference is the destination of the referenced Association. The opposite is true if the AssociationReference is defined to be a reverse reference, for Associations with one source Entity.

Associator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to associate the specified, destination EntityInstance with a single specified EntityInstance for each of the sources of the specified Association.

async delta: A delta that is sent to only a subset of the endpoints (3) in a shared space. An async delta does not have any dependent deltas.

Asynchronous JavaScript + XML (AJAX): A web programming model that incorporates a set of web technologies including Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML), cascading style sheets (CSS), Document Object Model (DOM), XML, Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT), XMLHTTPRequest (XHR), and JavaScript. AJAX is designed to make user interaction with the web more responsive.

atom: A unit of information that cannot be divided into smaller parts, and is accepted or rejected in its entirety. See also Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub).

atom feed: An XML structure that contains metadata about content, such as the language version and the date when the content was last modified, and is sent to subscribers by using the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub), as described in [RFC4287].

Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub): An application-level protocol for publishing and editing web resources, as described in [RFC5023].

atom record: A record that contains presentation data. Analogous to a file system, atom records are similar to files that contain data and container records are similar to directories that provide structure and hierarchy for atom records.

atomic transaction: A shared activity that provides mechanisms for achieving the atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID) properties when state changes occur inside participating resource managers.

attachment: An external file that is included with an Internet message or associated with an item in a SharePoint list.

Attachment object: A set of properties that represents a file, Message object, or structured storage that is attached to a Message object and is visible through the attachments table for a Message object.

attachments table: A Table object whose rows represent the Attachment objects that are attached to a Message object.

attribute: (1) A characteristic of some object or entity, typically encoded as a name-value pair.

(2) (A specialization of the previous definition.) An identifier for a single or multivalued data element that is associated with a directory object. An object consists of its attributes and their values. For example, cn (common name), street (street address), and mail (email addresses) can all be attributes of a user object. An attribute's schema, including the syntax of its values, is defined in an attributeSchema object.

(3) A characteristic of some object or entity, typically encoded as a name-value pair.

(4) (A specialization of the previous definition.) An identifier for a single or multivalued data element that is associated with a directory object. An object consists of its attributes and their values. For example, cn (common name), street (street address), and mail (email addresses) can all be attributes of a user object. An attribute's schema, including the syntax of its values, is defined in an attributeSchema object.

attribute group: A collection of attributes that can be used to decorate an XML element, as described in [XMLSCHEMA1].

attribute hierarchy: A single-level hierarchy that uses only an attribute (1) or a column (1) from a source, back-end relational database as its hierarchy. An attribute hierarchy typically has the same name as the attribute and is always associated with the attribute on which it is based. An all-level member can optionally be enabled for an attribute hierarchy. See also OLAP hierarchy.

attribute syntax: Specifies the format and range of permissible values of an attribute. The syntax of an attribute is defined by several attributes on the attributeSchema object. Attribute syntaxes supported by Active Directory include Boolean, Enumeration, Integer, LargeInteger, String(UTC-Time), Object(DS-DN), and String(Unicode).

audience: A named group of users that is used for targeting content.

audio healer: One or more digital signal processing algorithms designed to mask or conceal human-perceptible audio distortions that are caused by packet loss and jitter.

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF): A sound file format that was originally used on Macintosh and Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers. AIFF stores waveform files in an 8-bit monaural format. See also waveform (WAV).

audio video profile (AVP): A Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) profile that is used specifically with audio and video, as described in [RFC3551]. It provides interpretations of generic fields that are suitable for audio and video media sessions.

Audio/Video Edge Server (A/V Edge Server): A protocol server that implements the Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) Extensions Protocol, as described in [MS-TURN]. The protocol server provides connectivity to a protocol client that is behind a network entity, if the network entity provides network address translation (NAT).

Audio/Video Multipoint Control Unit (AVMCU): A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports audio-video (AV) conferencing.

audit entry: Information that is recorded about an operation on an object that is stored on a server.

audit log: (1) A collection of data about successful and failed operations on objects for which auditing is enabled on a server.

(2) A record of activities performed by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. The name of the audit log file is based on the current day of the week. For example, on Monday the name of the audit log file is DhcpSrvLog-Mon.

Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives, order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].

authenticated context: The runtime state that is associated with the successful authentication of a security principal between the client and the server, such as the security principal itself, the cryptographic key that was generated during authentication, and the rights and privileges of this security principal.

authenticated user: A built-in security group specified in [MS-WSO] whose members include all users that can be authenticated by a computer.

authentication: (1) The ability of one entity to determine the identity of another entity.

(2) The act of proving an identity to a server while providing key material that binds the identity to subsequent communications.

(3) The ability of one entity to determine the identity of another entity by proving an identity to a server while providing key material that binds the identity to subsequent communications.

authentication mode: One of several modes in which an authentication exchange may be performed.

authentication server: The entity that verifies that a person or thing is who or what it claims to be (typically using a cryptographic protocol) and issues a ticket or token attesting to the validity of the claim. The total set of authentication protocol security support providers (SSPs) that are typically available on a Windows server release.

Authentication Service (AS): A service that issues ticket granting tickets (TGTs), which are used for authenticating principals within the realm or domain served by the Authentication Service.

author: The user who created a list item.

authoritative: A DNS server is authoritative for a portion of the DNS namespace if it hosts a primary or secondary zone for that portion of the DNS namespace.

authority: (1) The first portion of a peer name. For secure peer names, this is a hash of a public key represented as 40 hexadecimal characters in printable form. For unsecured peer names, this is "0".

(2) A hierarchical element in a URIscheme used for delegating governance of the name space defined by the remainder of the URI, as defined in [RFC3986] section 3.2.

authority hops: The number of site levels to be navigated from a start address to a specific item.

authorization: The secure computation of roles and accesses granted to an identity.

AutoCaption: A feature that adds a caption to an object automatically when the object is inserted in a document.

AutoFilter: A mechanism that can be used to filter tabular data based on user-defined criteria such as values, strings, and formatting.

AutoFilter item: A value that is used to populate an AutoFilter.

AutoFormat: A built-in set of complementary formatting options that can be applied to ranges of cells and other objects in a document.

automatic calculation mode: A calculation mode in which formulas in a worksheet are recalculated automatically whenever the data changes. See also manual calculation mode.

Automation server: An application that enables its objects, methods, and properties to be controlled by other applications through OLE Automation.

Automation type library: A file or a component within a file that contains OLE Automation standard descriptions of exposed objects, properties, and methods for an application.

AutoRecover: A feature that recovers document and application states in the event of a hardware or software failure.

auto-ringback: A process in which a call park service (CPS) automatically transfers a parked call from the parking lot to the user agent who originally parked the call.

AutoShow: A filter option that enables users to display a specified number of the top- or bottom-most items within a PivotTable field.

auxiliary class: See auxiliary object class.

auxiliary object class: An object class that cannot be instantiated in the directory but can be either added to, or removed from, an existing object to make its attributes available for use on that object; or associated with an abstract or structural object class to add its attributes to that abstract or structural object class.

availability: A numerical value that indicates whether a user can be interrupted for communication. The higher the number, the less available the user.

available site template: An XML-based collection of predefined or user-defined settings that are stored as a site definition configuration or a site template, and can be used when creating a site.

average weighted value: A type of rollup value. It indicates an average that factors the weighted value of all of the child values that are contained within it.