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early media: Media, such as audio and video, that is exchanged before a specific session is accepted by the called user. During a dialog, early media occurs when the initial INVITE is sent, until the user agent server (UAS) generates a final response.

East Asian character: A character that is part of the Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, or Korean character set (1).

edit form: A form that enables users to edit a list item.

edit session: A session (2) that is based on a workbook file and during which changes by one or more users are persisted to that file.

editor: The user who last modified an item or document in a SharePoint list.

effect: A user-specified camera motion that occurs for the duration of a scene.

electronic codebook (ECB): A block cipher mode that does not use feedback and encrypts each block individually. Blocks of identical plaintext, either in the same message or in a different message that is encrypted with the same key, are transformed into identical ciphertext blocks. Initialization vectors cannot be used.

electronic discovery (eDiscovery): A type of legal discovery that focuses on electronic (computer) communications and files.

ElGamal encryption: A public-key encryption scheme, as described in [CRYPTO].

email address: A string that identifies a user and enables the user to receive Internet messages.

embed code: A block of data containing information needed to embed a video in a user interface element. This information can include the path to the video, the height and width of the video, and so on.

embedded image: An image that is stored within a document rather than being linked to a source file that is outside the document.

embedded object: (1) An object that is created by using one application and is hosted in a document that was created by using another application. Embedding an object, rather than inserting or pasting it, ensures that the object retains its original format. Users can double-click an embedded object and edit it with the toolbars and menus from the application that was used to create it. See also Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).

(2) Application data that is stored in documents from other applications.

empty GUID: A 128-bit, 16-byte identification number that is represented by all zeros.

empty string: (1) A string object or variable that is initialized with the value "".

(2) A non-initialized string object that has a null value.

encrypted document: A document that was converted from plaintext into cipher text to disguise the content of the document when it is stored or sent.

encryption: In cryptography, the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge.

encryption key: One of the input parameters to an encryption algorithm. Generally speaking, an encryption algorithm takes as input a clear-text message and a key, and results in a cipher-text message. The corresponding decryption algorithm takes a cipher-text message, and the key, and results in the original clear-text message.

end user presence: A set of attributes (1) for a user who is participating in an edit session.

end-of-file (EOF) key: An index key that is stored near the end of a content index file. It references a content index record that stores the maximum occurrence for a specified property.

endpoint: (1) A client that is on a network and is requesting access to a network access server (NAS).

(2) A network-specific address of a remote procedure call (RPC) server process for remote procedure calls. The actual name and type of the endpoint depends on the RPC protocol sequence that is being used. For example, for RPC over TCP (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_ip_tcp), an endpoint might be TCP port 1025. For RPC over Server Message Block (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_np), an endpoint might be the name of a named pipe. For more information, see [C706].

(3) A participant that uses the Microsoft Groove Dynamics Protocol, as described in [MS-GRVDYNM], to synchronize with a shared space. An endpoint is identified by the combination of an identity URL and a client device URL. Each endpoint maintains a copy of the data in a shared space.

(4) A communication port that is exposed by an application server for a specific shared service and to which messages can be addressed.

(5) A device that is connected to a computer network.

(6) A client on the network that is requesting access to a network access server (NAS).

(7) A network-specific address of a remote procedure call (RPC) server process for remote procedure calls. The actual name and type of the endpoint depends on the RPC protocol sequence being used. For example, for RPC over TCP (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_ip_tcp), an endpoint might be TCP port 1025. For RPC over Server Message Block (SMB) (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_np), an endpoint might be the name of a named pipe. For more information, see [C706].

(8) In the context of a web service, a network target to which a SOAP message can be addressed. See [WSADDR].

(9) An entity, processor, or resource that can be referenced where Web service messages are originated or targeted.

(10) A node that sends or receives a protocol stream.

(11) A tuple (composed of an IP address, port, and protocol number) that uniquely identifies a communication endpoint.

(12) The IP address of a network interface on which the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server is listening for DHCP client requests.

(13) A resource that can be addressed by an endpoint reference.

endpoint identifier (EPID): A unique identifier of a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) endpoint (5). It is formed by combining the value of an epid parameter in a From or To header field with the address-of-record in the corresponding header field.

endpoint reference (EPR): (1) A resource that conveys the information that is needed to address an endpoint.

(2) As specified in section 2 of [WSA].

(3) A combination of WS-Addressing ([WSAddressing]) and WS-Management–addressing elements that together describe an address for a resource in the SOAP message header.

engine: A component that creates and executes commands, and uses the Microsoft Groove Dynamics Protocol, as described in [MS-GRVDYNM], to transport and order those commands.

English Metric Unit (EMU): A measurement in computer typography. There are 635 EMUs per twip, 6,350 EMUs per half-point, 12,700 EMUs per point, and 914,400 EMUs per inch. These units are used to translate on-screen layouts to printed layouts for specified printer hardware.

enhanced metafile format (EMF): A file format that supports the device-independent definitions of images.

enhanced metafile spool format (EMFSPOOL): A format that specifies a structure of enhanced metafile format (EMF) records used for defining application and device-independent printer spool files.

enhanced presence: A presence model that uses categories (4) to specify presence information and uses containers to authorize subscribers. This model includes Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) extensions for publishing and subscribing to presence information and for specifying access control lists for subscribers. It uses the msrtc-event-categories presence document format.

Enhanced ScreenTip: A small, pop-up window that provides context-sensitive Help when users point to an item on the ribbon.

enterprise: A unit of administration of a network of MSMQ queue managers. An enterprise consists of an MSMQ Directory Service, one or more connected networks, and one or more MSMQ sites.

entity: (1) An instance of an EntityType element that has a unique identity and an independent existence. An entity is an operational unit of consistency.

(2) The payload of a transfer (by analogy to the definition in [RFC2616]).

(3) Any document on a server that is accessible by using a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URL.

(4) A unit that is part of the system such as a component or an element.

(5) A single business object about which data can be stored. It is the subject of a table in a relational database.

(6) Tabular data that is stored within the Master Data Services (MSD) system.

Entity: A type of DataClass that represents a type of business data object that is stored in a line-of-business (LOB) system and whose instances have a persistent EntityInstanceId.

Entity Data Model (EDM): A set of concepts that describes the structure of data, regardless of its stored form, as described in [MC-CSDL].

EntityInstance: A set of Field (4) values that have a unique identity that represents a specific instance of an Entity, and are stored in a line-of-business (LOB) system.

EntityInstanceId: A set of Field (4) values of an EntityInstance that collectively and uniquely identify an EntityInstance in a line-of-business (LOB) system.

entry point: A starting address for an assembly that is written in the form NamespaceName.ClassName.

entry point header: A header field whose values specify the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a video frame. See also sequence header.

Enum: A Primitive type whose members are constrained to a set of values. The Primitive type is considered to be an underlying Remoting Type of the Enum. Each value has a name associated with it. An Enum is part of the Remoting Data Model, and an abbreviation for "enumeration." For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1.

enumerator: A station that seeks all LLTD–capable stations on the link by using quick discovery.

envelope: A container that stores the information that is used to send a document, workbook, or presentation in an email message. The information includes the intended recipients, the subject of the email message, and any attachments to be included.

error report: Information contained in a set of files that describes a problem event that has occurred on the system. The report is typically compressed into a single file for transmission.

error report level 1 data: The data that is transmitted to the CER server that contains basic information about the problem.

error report level 2 data: The information that is contained in a set of files that describe a problem event that has occurred on the system. The report is typically compressed into a single file for transmission.

error signature: An ordered collection of strings that represents an individual error or class of errors.

error subpath: A fragment of a directory path on a Server Message Block (SMB) Protocol file server that is composed of strings in an error signature and is used to direct error reports on the file share, as described in [MS-CER].

event: (1) Any significant occurrence in a system or an application that requires users to be notified or an entry to be added to a log.

(2) An action or occurrence to which an application might respond. Examples include state changes, data transfers, key presses, and mouse movements.

(3) A discrete unit of historical data that an application exposes that may be relevant to other applications. An example of an event would be a particular user logging on to the computer.

(4) As defined in [UPNPARCH1.1] section i.7, a notification of one or more changes in state variables exposed by a service.

event class: (1) A collection of events that are grouped together based on criteria that the publishing application specifies.

(2) A collection of historical data grouped together using criteria specified by the publishing application.

event handler: A software routine that executes in response to an event.

event host: A site collection, site (2), list (1), list item, workflow (2), feature, or content type that hosts an event receiver.

event interface: A collection of event methods. An event class contains one or more event interfaces.

event log: A collection of records, each of which corresponds to an event.

event method: A method called by the publisher-subscriber framework when the publisher application generates an event.

event package: A specification that defines a set of state information to be reported by a notifying Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client to a subscriber. An event package also defines further syntax and semantics based on the framework that is required to convey such state information.

event receiver: A structured modular component that enables built-in or user-defined managed code classes to act upon objects, such as list items, lists (1), or content types, when specific triggering actions occur.

event sink: (1) A structured, modular component that enables built-in or user-defined classes to act on documents in document libraries when specific triggering actions occur. Event sinks are a deprecated, implementation-specific capability of Windows SharePoint Services 2.0. In Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and SharePoint Foundation 2010, they are replaced by the capabilities of event receivers.

(2) A destination for an event stream within the CEP platform. In the current version, only output adapters can be event sinks.

Excel Linked Library (XLL): A Dynamic Link Library (DLL) that is authored to function as an add-in for Microsoft Excel.

Excel macro (XLM): A programming language that provides development capability in Microsoft Excel. XLM was superseded by VBA.

exclusion list: (1) A list of items to exclude from query results and to remove from a search index the next time that a crawl occurs.

(2) A list of processes that cannot be managed because of the negative system impact such management could create. Processes in an exclusion list are unmanaged and can consume resources freely. Both system-defined and user-defined exclusion lists are defined.

exclusive lock: A condition in which one protocol client or protocol server can read or write data, but no transaction can acquire a shared lock on the data until the exclusive lock is released.

expand: The process of opening a level in a dimension hierarchy on a PivotTable report to view data from lower levels in the user interface.

expand/collapse button: A user interface control that is used to determine which hierarchical level is displayed in an outline, or in row and column groupings.

expanded outline state: A state in which nested content within an outline is displayed.

ExpandingGrid control: A type of ButtonPopup control that displays and sets a value from a continuous range of possible values when the user drags across the menu area.

expire: A process in which an object, such as an external data connection, becomes invalid because its allotted time period has ended.

explicit authentication: An authentication (2) mechanism that requires users to provide credentials, such as a login name and password, before they can gain access to one or more resources.

export: The process of creating an installer package file for a conglomeration or partition on a COMA server, so that it can be imported onto another server.

export attribute flow: The process of updating the metaverse attribute values of the current metaverse object during an export operation.

expression: (1) A combination of operators, symbols, constants, literal values, functions, names of fields or columns (2), controls, and properties that evaluates to a single value.

(2) A construct that serves two purposes: specifies the logical operator (AND/OR) to be used between 2 conditions of a policy; and specifies the index of the expressions that are parent to it. Taken together, conditions and expressions specify policy classification criteria.

(3) A combination of symbols (identifiers, literals, functions, and operators) that yields a single data value.

Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), which is commonly used to describe programming languages and formal languages. EBNF extends standard BNF to better enable the concise expression of such languages, as described in [ISO-14977].

extended payload: An arbitrary BLOB of data associated with a Peer Name and published by an application.

extended type library: A component that contains Automation standard descriptions of exposed objects, properties, and methods that are implemented by an aggregatable server and supplemented by another Automation server.

Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML): (1) A declarative XML-based language that is used to represent a tree of objects. XAML markup is stored in .xaml files or, for workflow schemas, .xoml files.

(2) An XML schema that defines the appearance and some aspects of the behavior of an application's user interface.

Extensible Message and Presence Protocol (XMPP): An application profile of XML that enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities.

Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL): An XML vocabulary that is used to transform XML data to another form, such as HTML, by means of a style sheet that defines presentation rules.

external content type: A type of DataClass object that is stored in a line-of-business (LOB) system and whose instances have a persistent EntityInstanceId. Also referred to as Entity.

external data: Data that is stored in a repository outside a workbook.

external group: A group whose membership is controlled by an external component, such as an AD DS domain group or a role that is managed by a role provider in ASP.NET.

external link: A reference to a cell, range, defined name, or other object in another worksheet or workbook.

external list: A container that is within a SharePoint site and that references a set of EntityInstances that are sourced from a line-of-business (LOB) system. It has a customizable schema that is composed of one or more Fields (4).

external security provider: An external object that manages permissions on a site.

external user: Any user who is located outside the enterprise network boundary, including remote users (1), federated users, and public instant messaging (IM) users.