R1C1: A reference style in which each row and each column (2) has a numeric heading that is numbered sequentially from top to bottom and left to right, respectively. "R" stands for row and "C" stands for column.
RADIUS client: A client that is responsible for passing user information to designated RADIUS servers, and then acting on the response that is returned.
RADIUS server: A server that is responsible for receiving user connection requests, authenticating the user, and then returning all configuration information necessary for the client to deliver service to the user. A RADIUS server can act as a proxy client to other RADIUS servers or other kinds of authentication servers.
range: (1) An addressable region that is in a workbook. A range typically consists of zero or more cells and represents a single, contiguous rectangle of cells on a single sheet.
(2) A set of continuous item identifiers to which the same clock vector applies. A range is represented by a starting point, an ending point, and a clock vector that applies to all IDs that are in between.
RangeFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can compare its minimum and maximum value with the value of a specific field of the set of EntityInstances and only those EntityInstances where field values that lie between the minimum and maximum are returned.
range-level protection: A mechanism that permits users to change only specific parts of a protected document while restricting access to all other parts of the document. See also range-level protection bookmark.
range-level protection bookmark: An entity in a document that is used to denote a range of content that is an exception to a document-level protection setting.
ranking model: In a search query, a set of weights and numerical parameters that are used to compute a ranking score for each item. All items share the same ranking model for a specific set of search results. See also rank.
RC4: A variable key-length symmetric encryption algorithm. For more information, see [SCHNEIER] section 17.1.
Reading Layout view: A document view that displays a document as it will appear on a printed page and is optimized for reading a document on a computer screen. Two pages are displayed simultaneously, side-by-side.
reading order: The positioning of characters in words and the positioning of words in sentences. This can be left-to-right or right-to-left.
read-only mode: An attribute (1) that indicates that an object cannot be changed or deleted. The object can only be accessed or displayed.
read-only recommended: A file sharing property that displays an alert when a file is being opened. The text of the alert recommends that the user open the file with read-only permission.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS): An XML-based syndication format for content, as described in [RSS2.0].
realm: (1) An administrative boundary that uses one set of authentication servers to manage and deploy a single set of unique identifiers. A realm is a unique logon space.
(2) A collection of key distribution centers (KDCs) with a common set of principals, as described in [RFC4120] section 1.2.
real-time data (RTD): Data that is pushed into a worksheet from an RTD server and is updated continually. Real-time data is frequently used to track stock prices or inventory levels in real time.
Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP): A network transport protocol that enables monitoring of Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) data delivery and provides minimal control and identification functionality, as described in [RFC3550].
Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP): A network transport protocol that provides end-to-end transport functions that are suitable for applications that transmit real-time data, such as audio and video, as described in [RFC3550].
recipient: (1) An entity that can receive email messages.
(3) The recipient of a fax message.
record: (1) A group of related fields (3), which are sometimes referred to as columns, of information that are treated as a unit. Also referred to as row.
(2) The fundamental unit of information in the .NET Binary Format: XML Data Structure encoded as a variable length series of bytes. [MC-NBFX] section 2 specifies the format for each type of record.
(3) A variable-length sequence of bytes with a predefined structure.
(4) A sequence of octets.
rectangular gradient: A type of gradient fill in which the color of a cell or other object gradually changes with each successive inner rectangle of pixels.
Recycle Bin: (1) The location where deleted files are stored until they are either restored, if they were deleted erroneously, or destroyed permanently.
(2) An optional feature that modifies the state model of object deletions and undeletions, making undeletion of deleted-objects possible without loss of the object's attribute values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS] section 18.104.22.168.1.
recycled-object: An object that has been deleted, but remains in storage until a configured amount of time (the tombstone lifetime) has passed, after which the object is permanently removed from storage. Unlike a deleted-object, most of the state of the object has been removed, and the object may no longer be undeleted without loss of information. By keeping the recycled-object in existence for the tombstone lifetime, the deleted state of the object is able to replicate. Recycled-objects exist only when the Recycle Binoptional feature is enabled.
red-green-blue (RGB): A color model that describes color information in terms of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) intensities in a color.
red-green-blue-alpha (RGBA): A color model that describes color information in terms of the red (R), green (G), blue (B), and alpha (A) intensities that comprise a color.
reference: (1) A link in a project to another project, a .NET Framework assembly, or a compatible Component Object Model (COM) library. Adding a reference to a project enables use of the referenced item in a project, but does not copy it to the current project folder.
(2) A means of accessing a variable, such as an element in an array or a field in a record.
(3) A means by which cells, objects, and chart elements can be referenced in a formula.
reference style: A system that is used in formulas to specify cells or ranges of cells. A reference style specifies a cell in a two-dimensional table by identifying the row and column (2) that contain that cell or range of cells.
refinement bin: A set of data that is returned with query results and represents a statistical distribution of those results. The data is based on values of the managed property with which a refiner is associated.
refiner: A configuration that is used for query refinement and is associated with one managed property.
reflexive transport address: A transport address that is given to a protocol client and identifies the public address of that client as seen by a protocol server. The address is communicated to the protocol client through the XOR MAPPED ADDRESS attribute (1) in an allocate response message.
refresh: A process that retrieves values from a data source and populates a workbook with those values.
region: (1) See disk extent.
(2) A graphics object that is nonrectilinear in shape and is defined by an array of scanlines.
(3) A geographic location or area information. Region names are stored in a region file.
regional settings: See locale settings (1).
REGISTER: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used by an SIP client to register the client address with an SIP server.
registry: A local system-defined database in which applications and system components store and retrieve configuration data. It is a hierarchical data store with lightly typed elements that are logically stored in tree format. Applications use the registry API to retrieve, modify, or delete registry data. The data stored in the registry varies according to the version of Windows.
Regular Nomination: The process of selecting a valid candidate pair for media flow by validating the candidate pairs with Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) binding requests, and then selecting a valid candidate pair by sending STUN binding requests with a flag indicating that the candidate pair was nominated.
relative distinguished name (RDN): (1) An attribute-value pair used in the distinguished name of an object. For more information, see [RFC2251].
(2) In the Active Directory directory service, the unique name of a child element relative to its parent in Active Directory. The RDN of a child element combined with the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) (2) of the parent forms the FQDN of the child.
(3) The name of an object relative to its parent. This is the leftmost attribute-value pair in the distinguished name (DN) of an object. For example, in the DN "cn=Peter Houston, ou=NTDEV, dc=microsoft, dc=com", the RDN is "cn=Peter Houston". For more information, see [RFC2251].
(4) In the Active Directory directory service, the unique name of a child element relative to its parent in Active Directory. The RDN of a child element combined with the fully qualified distinguished name (FQDN) of the parent forms the FQDN of the child.
(5) As specified in [X500], the portion of a distinguished name that is unique to an organization unit but might not be unique inside a domain.
relative identifier (RID): The last item in the series of SubAuthority values in a SID (as specified in [SIDD]). It distinguishes one account or group from all other accounts and groups in the domain. No two accounts or groups in any domain share the same relative identifier.
relative path: (1) A path that is implied by the active working directory or is calculated based on a specified directory. If users enter a command that refers to a file and the full path is not entered, the active working directory is the relative path of the referenced file.
(2) A path that is implied by the current working directory or is calculated based on a specified directory. When a user enters a command that refers to a file, and the full path is not entered, the current working directory becomes the relative path of the referenced file.
(3) A string that specifies a folder path or a web directory (such as "/details") relative to either the current report directory (such as "/salesreports") or the current URL for the report server (such as "http://reportserver").
relative reference: A reference to a location on a sheet that is relative to the cell that contains the reference. A relative reference can be stored as a cell reference or as an offset.
relative security descriptor: A security descriptor that contains all associated security information in a contiguous block of memory.
relay server: A server application that provides message transmission services for Simple Symmetric Transport Protocol (SSTP) messages.
relay URL: A string of characters that uniquely identifies a relay server and conforms to the syntax of a URI, as described in [RFC3986].
Relayed Candidate: A candidate that is allocated on the Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) server by sending an Allocate Request to the TURN server.
relying party (RP): (1) The entity (person or computer) using information from a certificate in order to make a security decision. Typically, the RP is responsible for guarding some resource and applying access control policies based on information learned from a certificate.
Remote Administration Protocol (RAP): A synchronous request/response protocol, used prior to the development of the remote procedure call (RPC) protocol, for marshaling and unmarshaling procedure call input and output arguments into messages and for reliably transporting messages to and from clients and servers.
remote application: An application running on a remote server.
Remote Assistance (RA): A feature of the operating system that allows screen, keyboard, and mouse sharing so that a computer user can be assisted by a remote helper.
Remote Assistance connection: A communication framework that is established between two computers that facilitates Remote Assistance.
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS): A protocol for carrying authentication, authorization, and configuration information between a network access server (NAS) that prefers to authenticate connection requests from endpoints and a shared server that performs authentication, authorization, and accounting.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP): A multi-channel protocol that allows a user to connect to a computer running Microsoft Terminal Services (TS). RDP enables the exchange of client and server settings and also enables negotiation of common settings to use for the duration of the connection, so that input, graphics, and other data can be exchanged and processed between client and server.
remote differential compression (RDC): Any of a class of compression algorithms that are designed to compare two files residing on different machines without requiring one of the files to be transmitted in its entirety to the other machine. For more information, see [MS-RDC].
remote endpoint: See peer.
Remote Method: Part of the Remoting Data Model. A Remote Method is a remotely callable operation. A Remote Method can either be One-Way or Two-Way. In the case of a One-Way Method, there is no reply from the implementation. For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1
remote procedure call (RPC): A context-dependent term commonly overloaded with three meanings. Note that much of the industry literature concerning RPC technologies uses this term interchangeably for any of the three meanings. Following are the three definitions: The runtime environment providing remote procedure call facilities. The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC runtime". The pattern of request and response message exchange between two parties (typically, a client and a server). The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC exchange". A single message from an exchange as defined in the previous definition. The preferred usage for this term is "RPC message". For more information, see [C706].
remote user: (1) A user who has a persistent identity within an enterprise and is connected from outside the enterprise network boundary.
(2) An Address Book object known to be from a foreign or remote messaging system.
Remoting Data Model: A model that is used to represent higher-layer–defined data structures and values, and to represent a Remote Method invocation and the Return Value or error information from that invocation. A protocol, such as [MS-NRLS], that is built on top of this protocol can be defined by using the Remoting Data Model, and can be agnostic to the serialization format. For more information, see Abstract Data Model (section 3.1.1).
Remoting Type: Part of the Remoting Data Model. Class, Array, Enum, and Primitive are different kinds of Remoting Types. All Remoting Types are identified by a name that is case sensitive. For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1
repeating group: A group that can occur more than once in the data source for an InfoPath form. Controls such as repeating sections and repeating tables can be bound to repeating groups. See also bind.
replica: (1) A server that hosts an instance of a message item in a folder.
(2) A copy of the data that is in a user's mailbox at a specific point in time.
(3) A variable containing a set of objects.
(4) A particular repository of file and directory information to be synchronized, and the metadata store that represents that repository.
(6) A set of data together with associated synchronization metadata.
Replica Tree Root: The folder whose "children" (that is, files and folders) are replicated.
replicated update: An update performed to a naming context (NC) replica by the replication system, to propagate the effect of an originating update at another NC replica. The stamp assigned during the originating update to attribute values or a link value is preserved by replication.
replication: (1) The process of propagating the effects of all originating writes to any replica of a naming context (NC), to all replicas of the NC. If originating writes cease and replication continues, all replicas converge to a common application-visible state.
(2) An administration scenario in which a replication client application automatically copies multiple conglomerations from a replication source to one or more replication targets.
report: (1) A database object that provides a static representation of a set of data and can be used to group, sort, summarize, and aggregate data. The data in a report cannot be edited.
(2) An object that is a combination of three kinds of information: data or other kinds of information about how to obtain the data (queries) as well as the structure of the data; layout or formatting information that describes how the data is presented; and properties of the report, such as author of the report, report parameters, and images included in the report.
report item: An object that exists on a report layout.
report server: A location on the network to which clients can connect by using SOAP over HTTP or SOAP over HTTPS to publish, manage, and execute reports.
report view: An object that is used to display data in a dashboard. It can be coordinated with other report views by using filters. Examples of report views include analytic grids and charts, PivotTable reports, strategy maps, trend charts, and webpages.
Representational State Transfer (REST): (1) A class of web services that is used to transfer domain-specific data by using HTTP, without additional messaging layers or session tracking, and returns textual data, such as XML.
(2) A software architecture implementation for distributed hypermedia systems, such as the World Wide Web.
request: (1) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in [MS-WSRVCRR] section 2.2.1.
(3) An HTTP message sent from the client to the server, as defined in [RFC2616].
request identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a specific action or procedure that is sent to a protocol server or a protocol client.
request message: (1) A Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) message that is sent from a protocol client to a protocol server.
(2) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in Request Message (section 2.2.1).
Request URI: A URI that provides an address of a Server Object. The Request URI has two major components: a component that is used by the underlying transport to route the message to an appropriate transport endpoint (Channel URI); and another component to map the message to a Server Object within a server (Server Object URI).
resource: (1) Any component that a computer can access where data can be read, written, or processed. This resource could be an internal component such as a disk drive, or another computer on a network that is used to access a file.
(4) An endpoint that represents a distinct type of management operation or value. A client exposes one or more resources and some resources can have more than one instance. For example, the Win32_LogicalDisk class represents a resource and Win32_LogicalDisk="C:\" is a specific instance of the resource.
(7) An object created and retained by the composition engine running on the client, on behalf of the server. Resources are referenced in the protocol via handles. Resource handles are scoped to the channel on which they are created. The server may create multiple resources per channel.
resource folder: A folder that contains images, templates, and other resource files for a content type.
resource management: A method of allocating the hardware resources of a computer to tasks being performed on that computer. It includes a system of accounting for hardware resources by task. The purpose of the WSRM Protocol is to control the resource management of a computer.
resource manager (RM): The participant that is responsible for coordinating the state of a resource with the outcome of atomic transactions. For a specified transaction, a resource manager enlists with exactly one transaction manager to vote on that transaction outcome and to obtain the final outcome. A resource manager is either durable or volatile, depending on its resource.
responder: (1) The computer that responds to request messages.
(2) The party that responds to the first message of an AuthIP exchange.
(3) The party that responds to the first message of an IKE exchange.
(4) An OCSP Extensions server that provides OCSP responses (see [RFC2560]).
response: (1) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in [MS-WSRVCRR] section 2.2.2.
(3) An HTTP message sent from the server to the client, as defined in [RFC2616].
(4) A typed buffer of data sent by the client to the server in response to a notification.
response message: (1) A Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) message that is sent from a protocol server to a protocol client in response to a request message. It is sent when the request message is handled successfully by the protocol server.
(2) A SOAP message with additional constraints as specified in Response Message (section 2.2.2).
restriction: (1) A set of conditions that an item meets to be included in the search results that are returned by a query server in response to a search query.
(2) A filter used to map some domain into a subset of itself, by passing only those items from the domain that match the filter. Restrictions can be used to filter existing Table objects or to define new ones, such as search folder (2) or rule criteria.
(3) A set of conditions that a file must meet to be included in the search results returned by the Generic Search Service (GSS) in response to a search query. A restriction narrows the focus of a search query, limiting the files that the Generic Search Service (GSS) will include in the search results only to those files matching the conditions.
(4) A set of conditions that a file must meet to be included in the search results returned by the indexing service in response to a search query. A restriction narrows the focus of a search query, limiting the files that the indexing service includes in the search results only to those files matching the conditions.
result provider: A component or application that serves a query to a search provider and translates the resulting data into a result set.
result set: (1) A list of records that results from running a stored procedure or query, or applying a filter. The structure and content of the data in a result set varies according to the implementation.
(2) A set of data streams that represents the result of a query.
(3) A set of records that are selected by a query.
result source: A local or remote search catalog, a remote Exchange search endpoint or an OpenSearch1.0/1.1-compliant search engine that may include a list of attributes that defines a set of search results for a search query.
retention action: An action that occurs on an object, such as a document or site, in response to an event defined by a retention formula in a larger retention policy. Examples of retention actions are delete, move to a different location, and delete previous versions.
retention formula: A logical equation or function that is used to calculate when a retention action occurs on an object, such as a document or content type, as defined by a larger retention policy that applies to that object.
return code: A code that is used to report the outcome of a procedure or to influence subsequent events when a routine or process terminates (returns) and passes control of the system to another routine. For example, a return code can indicate whether an operation was successful.
Return Value: A Data Value that is returned as part of the results of a Remote Method invocation. For more information, see Remote Method in Abstract Data Model (section 3.1.1).
ReturnTypeDescriptor: An attribute (1) of a MethodInstance. It is the TypeDescriptor that identifies the portion of a Method's return or output Parameters to extract and return as the result of executing the MethodInstance. It defines the View of the EntityInstances returned, with its child TypeDescriptors denoting the Fields of the View.
revision: (1) A change in a document, file, or other object.
revision history: A list of data that describes document updates, such as when and by whom a document was modified.
revision record: Any of the records in the revision stream of a shared workbook that stores user edits to the workbook and other tracked information.
revocation: The process of invalidating a certificate. For more details, see [RFC3280] section 3.3.
ribbon: A set of controls that represents tasks or commands within an application. The tasks and commands are organized into tabs. The ribbon appears at the top of an application window and is part of the Microsoft Office Fluent user interface, which replaces the previous system of layered menus, toolbars, and task panes.
rich text: Text that is formatted in the Rich Text Format, as described in [MSFT-RTF].
rights: Tasks that a user is permitted to perform on a computer, site, domain, or other system resource. See also permission.
right-to-left: A reading and display order that is optimized for right-to-left languages.
RMD: See reliable messaging destination (RMD).
RMS: See reliable messaging source (RMS).
role: (1) A symbolic name that defines a class of users for a set of components. A role defines which users can call interfaces on a component.
(2) The domain role quantifies the relationship between a computer and a domain. Domain roles include the following: Joined: Linked to a domain for purposes of policy and security. Standalone: Not associated with any domain. Domain controller: Linked to a domain, and hosting that domain.
(3) A set of role members that represents authorization for a set of operations that is supported by a conglomeration. A role is identified by a role name.
(4) An association between a pair of entities. One entity is the source or origin of the role and the other entity is the target or destination of the role. The role specifically describes how the target entity is related to the source entity. For each role there is a naturally occurring corresponding role called the related role, where the source entity of the related role is the target entity of the role and the target entity of the related role is the source entity of the role. The association repeats for each subsequent pair of entities, so that the target of one role becomes the source of the next role. In this way, entities in an information model may be associated through chains of roles that extend from one entity to the next throughout the information model.
role assignment: An association between a principal or a site group and a role definition.
role definition: A named set of permissions for a SharePoint site. See also permission level.
role identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a role definition within a SharePoint site.
role member: A predicate indicating that a particular user account belongs to a role.
role name: A string that identifies a role within a conglomeration.
rollup: A type of calculated value that is derived from the aggregated scores of child or descendant key performance indicators (KPIs) in a scorecard.
root distributed object: The top-level distributed object to which a protocol client or protocol server (2) connects immediately after a channel is created. After a connection is established with a root distributed object, all other distributed objects on the same channel are connected.
root folder: The folder at the top of a hierarchy of folders in a list.
root TypeDescriptor: A TypeDescriptor that is contained by a Parameter and has no parent TypeDescriptor. A Parameter can contain only one root TypeDescriptor.
routing link cost: A value that models the relative cost of direct communication between two MSMQ sites.
routing slip: Information that specifies how a document is to be distributed from a document originator and processed by one or more recipients. It also specifies subject and message body text that is associated with the document routing process and routing status or workflow information.
(2) A table maintained by each MSMQ site gate for inter-site routing. For each MSMQ site in an enterprise, the table specifies the MSMQ site to which a message should be forwarded in order to minimize the total routing link cost for that message.
row: (1) A collection of columns (1) that contains property values that describe a single item in a set of items that match the restriction (1) specified in a query.
(2) A single set of data that is displayed horizontally in a worksheet or a table.
(3) The collection of columns containing the property values that describe a single result from the set of objects that matched the restrictions specified in the search query submitted to the Generic Search Service (GSS).
(4) The collection of columns that contains the property values that describe a single file from the set of files that matched the restriction specified in the search query submitted to the indexing service
row banding: A table formatting option that applies background colors to alternating rows to increase legibility.
row field: A PivotTable field that is contained in the PivotTable area where row values are shown.
RPC transport: The underlying network services used by the remote procedure call (RPC) runtime for communications between network nodes. For more information, see [C706] section 2.
RSA: RSA Data Security, Inc., a major developer and publisher of public key cryptography standards (PKCS).
RSS channel: An RSS channel, as described in [RSS2.0].
RSS item: An item element in an RSS feed, as described in [RSS2.0].
RTCP packet: A control packet consisting of a fixed header part similar to that of RTP packets, followed by structured elements that vary depending upon the RTCP packet type. Typically, multiple RTCP packets are sent together as a compound RTCP packet in a single packet of the underlying protocol; this is enabled by the length field in the fixed header of each RTCP packet. See [RFC3550] section 3.
RTD server: A Component Object Model (COM) Automation server that is used by the real-time data (RTD) function to retrieve data in real time. The RTD server can exist as an ActiveX DLL or as an executable (.exe) file that runs on the same local computer or on a remote server.
RTP packet: A data packet consisting of the fixed RTP header, a possibly empty list of contributing sources, and the payload data. Some underlying protocols may require an encapsulation of the RTP packet to be defined. Typically one packet of the underlying protocol contains a single RTP packet, but several RTP packets can be contained if permitted by the encapsulation method. See [RFC3550] section 3.
RTP payload: The data transported by RTP in a packet, for example audio samples or compressed video data. For more information, see [RFC3550] section 3.
RTP profile: A collection that contains payload type codes and mappings to payload formats, such as media encodings. It can also define extensions or modifications to the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) that are specific to a particular class of applications. Typically, an application operates under only one profile.
RTP session: An association among a set of participants (2) who are communicating by using the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP), as described in [RFC3550]. Each RTP session maintains a full, separate space of Synchronization Source (SSRC) identifiers.
RTVC1: A Microsoft proprietary implementation of the VC1 codec for real-time transmission purposes, as described in [SMPTE-VC-1]. Microsoft extensions to VC1 are based on cached frame and SP-frame, as described in [MS-RTVPF].
RTVideo: A video stream (2) that carries an RTVC1 bit stream.
RTVideo frame: A video frame that is encoded by using an RTVC1 codec.
Ruby: A text layout setting that displays annotative characters above or to the right of the text to which it applies. It is typically used in East Asian documents to indicate pronunciation or to provide a brief annotation.
rule: (1) A condition or action, or a set of conditions or actions, that performs tasks automatically based on events and values.
(2) A set of qualifiers, such as enumeration values, and quantifiers, such as numeric arguments, that are specified as usage guidelines for a set of objects or data.
(3) A mapping of a file type to a location in a document repository.
ruler: A user interface element that enables users to adjust page margins and to measure and align objects in a document.
rules extension: A .NET assembly that is located on the server in the synchronization engine's "extensions" folder and implements the IMASynchronization interface.
run length encoding: A lossless compression method that replaces a contiguous series (run) of identical values in a data stream with a pair of values that represent the length of the series and the value itself. For example, a data stream that contains 57 consecutive entries with the value "10" could replace them all with the shorter pair of values "57", "10".