handle: (1) Any token that can be used to identify and access an object such as a device, file, or a window.
(2) A 32-bit numerical ID that uniquely identifies a resource or a channel. Handles are allocated by the server and communicated to the client via resource or channel creation messages.
(3) A recipient of a message.
(4) A token that can be used to identify and access cursors, chapters, and bookmarks.
handout master slide: A slide that defines layout and positioning information for handout pages, which are pages that are optimized for printing a presentation.
hash: (1) A fixed-size result that is obtained by applying a one-way mathematical function, which is sometimes referred to as a hash algorithm, to an arbitrary amount of data. If the input data changes, the hash also changes. The hash can be used in many operations, including authentication (2) and digital signing.
(2) A hash, such as SHA-1, on the content or content block.
(3) A term that refers to either a hash function, the value computed by such a function, or the act of computing such a value.
hash code: See hash.
Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC): A mechanism for message authentication (2) using cryptographic hash functions. HMAC can be used with any iterative cryptographic hash function (for example, MD5 and SHA-1) in combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function.
header: (1) A line, or lines, of content in the top margin area of a page in a document or a slide in a presentation. A header typically contains elements such as the title of the chapter, the title of the document, a page number, or the name of the author.
(2) A name-value pair that supplies structured data in an Internet email message or MIME entity.
(3) The structure at the beginning of a compound file.
header field: (1) A component of a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) message header, as described in [RFC3261].
(2) As specified in section 4.2 of [RFC2616].
header row: (1) A row in a table, typically the first row, that contains labels for columns (2) in the table.
health state: An abstract notion of the state of a machine that is used to indicate its compliance with network policies. Some examples of such state would include the state of the firewall on the machine, the version of the virus signature files for an antivirus application, and so on.
Help file: A file that contains the documentation for a specific product or technology.
Help topic identifier: A unique identifier for an article that contains Help content.
hidden: A condition of an object that prevents it from being displayed in rendered output.
hidden column: A column (2) that does not appear in a worksheet view because its width is set to 0 (zero). A column can be hidden if an outline is collapsed.
hidden protection: A cell protection property that prevents formulas, but not values, from appearing in a cell when a worksheet is protected.
hidden row: A row that does not appear in a worksheet view because its height is set to "0" (zero). A row can be hidden if the data is filtered or an outline is collapsed.
hierarchy: (1) A logical tree structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each member has one parent member and zero or more child members.
(2) A logical tree structure that organizes a record such that each member has one parent member and zero or more child members.
(3) An arrangement of data items within the Master Data Services (MDS) system in a ranked or graduated series.
high-low lines: Supplemental lines that are added to a line chart and connect the maximum data points of one series with the minimum data points of another series for each category (3). High-low lines are typically used on stock charts.
historical version: Any version of a document or list item that is not one of the current versions. Depending on configuration settings, historical versions can be retained in a back-end database server, and might not be visible to specific users.
hit highlighted summary: A summary that appears on the search results page for each query result. It displays an excerpt from the item that contains the query text and applies highlight formatting to that query text.
HMAC-SHA1: See SHA-1.
home page: On the World Wide Web, a document that serves as a starting point for a set of webpages and other files in a website.
horizontal alignment: A formatting setting that specifies how content is positioned within the horizontal space of a cell, object, or page. Content can be aligned along the left or right edge, or distributed evenly across the horizontal space.
horizontal indent: An indent that is used in a cell to adjust cell content horizontally.
horizontal text: Text that is rendered horizontally in a cell.
host: (1) A general-purpose computer that is networking capable.
(2) In DirectPlay, the computer responsible for responding to DirectPlay game session enumeration requests and maintaining the master copy of all the player and group lists for the game. One computer is designated as the host of the DirectPlay game session. All other participants in the DirectPlay game session are called peers. However, in peer-to-peer mode the name table entry representing the host of the session is also marked as a peer.
Host Candidate: A candidate that is obtained by binding to ports on the local interfaces of the host computer. The local interfaces include both physical interfaces and logical interfaces such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).
host data language: The data culture of a site.
host extender: An Automation type that is provided by a host application to extend the functionality of an Automation server.
host header: An Internet host and port number that identifies a network resource.
host hop: The process of traversing to a server with a different host name during a crawl.
host name: (1) The name of a physical server, as described in [RFC952].
(2) The name of a host on a network that is used for identification and access purposes by humans and other computers on the network.
HRESULT: An integer value that indicates the result or status of an operation. A particular HRESULT can have different meanings depending on the protocol using it. See [MS-ERREF] section 2.1 and specific protocol documents for further details.
HTML fragment: Lines of text that adhere to HTML tag rules, as described in [HTML], but do not have processing instructions or any other type of header information.
HTTP GET: An HTTP method for retrieving a resource, as described in [RFC2616].
HTTP HEAD: An HTTP method for retrieving header information for a resource, as described in [RFC2616].
HTTP OK: An HTTP response with status code 200, as described in [RFC2616] section 6.1.1.
HTTP OPTIONS: An HTTP method for determining the options and requirements that are associated with a resource, or the capabilities of a protocol server, as described in [RFC2616].
HTTP POST: An HTTP method, as described in [RFC2616].
HTTP proxy: An intermediary program that acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients. For more information, see [RFC2616].
HTTP referer: A string in an HTTP request-header field that identifies the address of the resource that is making the current request, as described in [RFC2616].
hue-saturation-luminance (HSL): A color model that defines a color by using three dimensions: hue, the color itself; saturation, the purity of the color; and luminance, the amount of light that is either reflected or absorbed by the color. See also color scheme and color space.
hybrid compression: A type of data compression that uses a combination of run length encoding and bit-wise compression.
hyperlink location: A portion of a hyperlink that specifies the location of a specific item, such as a bookmark (1), within a document, object, or other type of resource; for example “#bookmark” in the hyperlink location C:\Documents\Document.docx#bookmark.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol 1.0 (HTTP/1.0): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol 1.1 (HTTP/1.1): Version 1.1 of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), as described in [RFC2068].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts webpage requests.