name record: The NetBIOS name-to-IPv4 address mapping.
named object: A list (2), PivotTable report, chart, or range that can be referenced by name. A sheet is not a type of named object.
named object view: A mode in which only named objects are rendered.
named pipe: A named, one-way, or duplex pipe for communication between a pipe server and one or more pipe clients.
named property: A property that is identified by both a GUID and either a string name or a 32-bit identifier.
named range: See defined name.
named set: A grouping of dimension members or items from a data source or a set expression that is named and treated as a single unit and that can be referenced or reused multiple times.
(2) An abstract container that provides context for the items (names, technical terms, or words) that it holds and allows disambiguation of items that have the same name (residing in different namespaces).
namespace qualified name: A qualified name that refers to a structural type by using the name of the namespace (1), followed by a period, followed by the name of the structural type.
naming context (NC): An NC is a set of objects organized as a tree. It is referenced by a DSName. The DN of the DSName is the distinguishedName attribute of the tree root. The GUID of the DSName is the objectGUID attribute of the tree root. The security identifier (SID) of the DSName, if present, is the objectSid attribute of the tree root; for Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the SID is present if and only if the NC is a domain naming context (domain NC). Active Directory supports organizing several NCs into a tree structure.
NAP: See Network Access Protection (NAP).
narrow katakana: A non-cursive character set (1) that is used to write non-Japanese words phonetically in Japanese. Narrow katakana characters are represented with a single byte. Also referred to as half-width katakana.
NAT binding: The string representation of the protocol sequence, NetworkAddress, and optionally the endpoint. Also referred to as "string binding." For more information, see [C706] section "String Bindings."
native mode: A state of an Active Directory domain in which all current and future domain controllers (DCs) use AD style domains. Native mode allows organizations to take advantage of the new Active Directory features such as universal groups, nested group membership, and interdomain group membership.
native PivotTable: A PivotTable report that is populated with data from a worksheet in the same workbook.
natural language query: (1) Query text that contains words and does not contain any property restrictions (1).
(2) A query constructed using human language instead of query syntax. The generic search service (GSS) is free to interpret the query in order to determine the best results. The interpretation is explicitly not specified in order to allow improvements over time.
navigation node: An element in the navigational structure of a site. The element is a link or a series of links to a specific page in the site.
navigation node element identifier: An integer that identifies a navigation node. This value is unique for every navigation node in the navigational structure of a SharePoint site.
navigation structure: A hierarchical organization of links between related content on a site.
NC: See naming context (NC).
NetBIOS: A particular network transport that is part of the LAN Manager protocol suite. NetBIOS uses a broadcast communication style that was applicable to early segmented local area networks. The LAN Manager protocols were the default in Windows NT environments prior to Windows 2000. A protocol family including name resolution, datagram, and connection services. For more information, see [RFC1001] and [RFC1002].
NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS): A server that stores NetBIOS name-to-IPv4 address mappings and that resolves NetBIOS names for NBT-enabled hosts. A server running the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is the Microsoft implementation of an NBNS.
network access client (NAC): An endpoint that establishes a call session to a NAS in order to perform network access.
Network Access Protection (NAP): A feature of an operating system that provides a platform for system health-validated access to private networks. NAP provides a way of detecting the health state of a network client that is attempting to connect to or communicate on a network, and limiting the access of the network client until the health policy requirements have been met. NAP is implemented through quarantines and health checks, as specified in [TNC-IF-TNCCSPBSoH].
network access server (NAS): A computer server that provides an access service for a user who is trying to access a network. A NAS operates as a client of RADIUS. The RADIUS client is responsible for passing user information to designated RADIUS servers and then acting on the response returned by the RADIUS server. Examples of a NAS include: a VPN server, Wireless Access Point, 802.1x-enabled switch, or Network Access Protection (NAP) server.
network address translation (NAT): The process of converting between IP addresses used within an intranet, or other private network, and Internet IP addresses.
network byte order: The order in which the bytes of a multiple-byte number are transmitted on a network, most significant byte first (in big-endian storage). This may or may not match the order in which numbers are normally stored in memory for a particular processor.
new form: A form that enables users to create a list item.
new workbook session: A session (2) that is not based on an existing workbook file.
next hops: Routes have one or more next hops associated with them. If the destination is not on a directly connected network, the next hop is the address of the next router (or network) on the outgoing network that can best route data to the destination. Each next hop is uniquely identified by the address of the next hop and the interface index used to reach the next hop. If the next hop itself is not directly connected, it is marked as a "remote" next hop. In this case, the forwarder must perform another lookup using the next hop's network address. This lookup is necessary to find the "local" next hop used to reach the remote next hop and the destination.
ninched: A condition in which a group of selected cells or objects do not share a specific property. For example, if a selection has three cells and only two of the cells share the same color formatting, the color formatting of the selection is in a ninched state.
NLCheck: An API that is implemented by grammar checkers that were developed by Microsoft Corporation.
node: (1) A location in a diagram that can have links to other locations.
(2) A computer system that is configured as a member of a cluster. That is, the computer has the necessary software installed and configured to participate in the cluster, and the cluster configuration includes this computer as a member.
(3) An instance of the Peer-to-Peer Graphing Protocol.
(4) An entry identified by name in a DNS zone. A node contains all of the DNS records sets associated with the name.
(6) An instance of PNRP running on a machine.
(7) An instance of DRT running on a machine.
noise word: (1) See stop word.
(2) A word that is ignored by the Windows Search service (WSS) when present in the restrictions specified for the search query, because it has little discriminatory value. English examples include "a," "and," and "the." Implementers of a generic search service (GSS) MAY choose to follow this guideline.
nominated: A candidate pair for which the nominated flag is set.
nonce: A number that is used only once. This is typically implemented as a random number large enough that the probability of number reuse is extremely small. A nonce is used in authentication protocols to prevent replay attacks. For more information, see [RFC2617].
non-contiguous range: A selected range that includes non-adjacent cells.
Normal view: A document view that displays text formatting and a simplified page layout of a document. The Normal view hides some layout elements such as the header and footer. Referred to as Draft view in Office Word 2007 and Word 2010.
notes slide: A slide that contains presentation notes or other information that is not displayed during a slide show. The formatting and content of a notes slide can derive from a notes master slide.
notification: (1) A process in which a subscribing Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client is notified of the state of a subscribed resource by sending a NOTIFY message to the subscriber.
(3) The act of a notifier sending a NOTIFY message to a subscriber to inform the subscriber of the state of a resource.
NOTIFY: A method that is used to notify a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client that an event requested by an earlier SUBSCRIBE method has occurred. The notification optionally provides details about the event.
novice: The side of a Remote Assistance connection that shares its screen with the other computer in order to receive help.
NT File System (NTFS): The native file system for Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information, see [MSFT-NTFS].
NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Authentication Protocol: A protocol using a challenge-response mechanism for authentication (2) in which clients are able to verify their identities without sending a password to the server. It consists of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 (negotiation), Type 2 (challenge) and Type 3 (authentication). For more information, see [MS-NLMP].
nTDSDSA object: An object of class nTDSDSA that is always located in the configuration naming context (config NC). This object represents a domain controller (DC) in the forest. See [MS-ADTS] section 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.
NTFS: See NT File System (NTFS).
NULL cipher: A cipher that does not modify a Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) payload and is defined in the Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP) protocol. It is used when RTP packet encryption is not necessary, but packet authentication (1) is necessary.
NULL GUID: A GUID of all zeros.
number format: A property of a cell or other type of object that determines how numerical data is displayed or interpreted. For example, a currency number format affixes the proper currency symbol to the number.