SQL Q&ALarge Transaction Logs, When to Use Repair, and More
Paul S. Randal
Q I've noticed some strange behavior with backups that I'm hoping you can explain. Every so often we back up our 62GB production database to refresh the data used by our application developers. We always delete the old copy before restoring the new one. The restored copy is the same size as the production database and the data looks the same, but the restore process takes many times longer than the backup process. What's going on? Why does it take so much longer to restore than to back up?
A There's really nothing strange going on. Depending on your circumstances, this is generally expected behavior. The difference in time required by a backup versus a restore comes from the steps that each process must perform.
Backing up a database comprises two steps. Basically, it's just doing read IOs on the database and write IOs on the backup device:
Backup Step 1 Read all the allocated data in the data files and write it to the backup device.
Backup Step 2 Read some transaction log and write it to the backup devices.
The exact amount of transaction log required can vary wildly, but it's really the amount required to be able to recover the restored database to a consistent point in time. (I've given a more in-depth explanation of this in a blog post available at sqlskills.com/blogs/paul/2008/01/31/MoreOnHowMuchTransactionLogAFullBackupIncludes.aspx.)
Restoring a database, on the other hand, can comprise up to four steps. And the work involved is more complicated than just read and write IOs:
Restore Step 1 If the database files don't exist, create them.
Restore Step 2 Read all the data and transaction log from the backup and write it to the relevant database files.
Restore Step 3 Run the REDO phase of recovery on the transaction log.
Restore Step 4 Run the UNDO phase of recovery on the transaction log.
The total elapsed time for both steps of the backup should be roughly the same as the time required for Restore Step 2 (assuming it has similar hardware and a server with no user activity). Step 1 of the restore can take a long time if the data files are large and need to be zero-initialized (which is the behavior in SQL Server 2000 and the default behavior in SQL Server 2005).
To prevent this, do not delete the existing files before starting the restore. Or alternatively, enable instant initialization so the files are created very quickly (more information on this can be found at msdn.microsoft.com/library/ms175935.aspx).
Steps 3 and 4 of the restore are running recovery on the restored database to make it transactionally consistent; this is the same process a database would go through during crash recovery. The length of time that recovery will take depends on the amount of transaction log that needs to be processed. For instance, if there was a very long-running transaction active at the time the backup was taken, all the transaction log for that transaction would be in the backup and would have to be rolled back.
Q I'm trying to choose between log shipping and database mirroring to provide a redundant copy of our production database. I'm concerned by the amount of transaction log that will need to be sent between the servers, especially for the index rebuild operations we do every night. I've heard that mirroring sends the actual rebuild commands instead of the transaction log and the rebuilds are done on the mirror. Is this true? This should make mirroring a better solution than even log shipping with the BULK_LOGGED recovery model, right?
A What you've heard is not true. Database mirroring works by sending the actual transaction log records from the principal database to the mirror server, where they are "replayed" in the mirror database. There is no translation or filtering of any kind taking place, nor any kind of interception of T-SQL commands for a mirrored database.
Database mirroring only supports the FULL recovery model, which means an index rebuild operation will always be fully logged. Depending on the size of the indexes concerned, this could mean a significant amount of transaction log being generated and, in turn, a large log file on the principal database and substantial network bandwidth for sending the log records to the mirror.
You can think of database mirroring as real-time log shipping (in fact, this was a name used for the feature early on during SQL Server 2005 development). In log shipping, backups of the primary database's transaction log are shipped regularly to the secondary server and are restored on the secondary database.
Log shipping supports the FULL and BULK_LOGGED recovery models. For an index rebuild operation in a log-shipped database with the FULL recovery model, the same amount of transaction log will be generated as the amount generated for a mirrored database. However, in the log-shipped database scenario, the data is sent to the redundant database in a log backup (or a series of log backups) rather than as a continuous flow.
If the BULK_LOGGED recovery model is used in the log-shipped database while the index rebuild is done, only a minimal amount of transaction log will be generated. However, the next transaction log backup will also contain all the data file extents that were changed by the minimally logged index rebuild operation. This means the log backups covering the index rebuild in the BULK_LOGGED recovery model will be almost exactly the same size as those covering the index rebuild in the FULL recovery model.
So the amount of information that needs to be sent to the redundant database is almost exactly the same for an index rebuild on a mirrored database and on a log-shipped database. The real difference is how the information is sent—continuously or in batches.
There are many other factors to consider when choosing between these two approaches (way too many factors to discuss in just one installment of SQL Q&A). You should see how all of these factors match up to your requirements (such as acceptable data-loss limit and allowable downtime) before you make a decision.
Q I'm running SQL Server 2005 and one of my databases has a transaction log that just keeps growing. The database is in the full recovery mode and I'm doing transaction log backups. I was under the impression that this should prevent the transaction log from growing. What exactly is going wrong here?
A You're right that taking transaction log backups in the full recovery mode is critical. However, there are other factors that can contribute to transaction log growth. It all comes down to what is requiring the transaction log to be needed (or active). Other common factors (aside from a lack of transaction log backups) that may cause your problem include replication, database mirroring, and an active transaction.
Replication works by asynchronously reading your transaction log records and then loading up the transactions to replicate into a separate distribution database. Any transaction log records that haven't yet been read by the replication log reader task cannot be freed. If your workload generates a lot of transaction log records and you've set a large interval for how often the replication log reader will run, then lots of records can accumulate and cause the transaction log to grow.
If you are running asynchronous database mirroring, then there could be a backlog of transaction log records that have not been sent from the principal to the mirror (called the database mirroring SEND queue). The transaction log records cannot be freed until they have been successfully sent. With a high rate of transaction log record generation and limited bandwidth on the network (or other hardware issues), the backlog can grow quite large and cause the transaction log to grow.
Finally, if a user starts an explicit transaction (such as using a BEGIN TRAN statement) and then does a modification of some sort (such as a DDL statement or an insert/update/delete action), the transaction log records that are generated need to be kept around until the user either commits or rolls back the transaction. This means that any subsequent transaction log records generated by other transactions also cannot be freed, as the transaction log cannot be selectively freed. If that user, for example, goes home for the day without completing the transaction, the transaction log will continue to grow as more and more transaction log records are generated but can't be freed.
You can find out why the transaction log cannot be freed by querying the sys.databases system catalog view and examining the log_reuse_wait_desc column, like so:
SELECT name AS [Database], log_reuse_wait_desc AS [Reason] FROM master.sys.databases;
If the cause turns out to be an active transaction, you can use the DBCC OPENTRAN statement to get more information about the transaction:
DBCC OPENTRAN ('dbname')
Q I've heard that REPAIR_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS should only be used as a last resort for recovering from corruption; restoring from backups should be used instead. Can you explain why "repair for SQL Server 2005" shouldn't be used and why it is in the product considering how "dangerous" it is?
A First off, I actually wrote repair for SQL Server 2005. The problem with REPAIR_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS (which I'll just call repair from here on out) is that it's not clear how it works. The name of the repair option was chosen to call out that running it could lead to loss of data from the database. The way the feature usually repairs a corrupt database structure is to delete the corrupt structure and then fix up everything else in the database that referenced or was referenced by the deleted structure. Repair really is intended to be a last resort way of getting the database structurally consistent—it is not focused on saving user data. Repair doesn't go out of its way to delete user data, but it doesn't go out of its way to save user data either.
This may seem like an irresponsible way to conduct repairs, but when the repair option needs to be used, it provides the fastest and most reliable method to fix corruption. Speed is of paramount importance in a disaster recovery situation and correctness is absolutely required. It is almost impossible to engineer more complex repair algorithms that can be proven to work quickly and correctly in all cases. There are some complex algorithms in the repair code to resolve the case when two indexes have the same page or extent allocated, for instance, but mostly the algorithm is repair plus fix-up.
Still, there are some issues with repair that you should be aware of:
- Repair does not consider foreign-key constraints when deleting corrupt structures, so it may delete records from a table that has a foreign-key relationship with another table. There is no way to determine whether this has happened without running DBCC CHECKCONSTRAINTS after running repair.
- Repair does not (and cannot) consider any inherent business logic or data relationships defined at the application level that could be broken by some data being deleted. Again, there is no way to determine whether anything is broken without running whatever custom consistency check is built into the application.
- Some repair operations can't be replicated. Running repair on a publisher or a node in a peer-to-peer topology may introduce inconsistencies within the topology, which must be corrected manually.
For these reasons, it is always a good idea to recover from corruption using a backup rather than running the repair option. But repair is offered in the product because there is always the potential of getting in a situation where your database is corrupt, there is no backup, and you need some way to get the database back online quickly.
Q I've just moved to a new company as a DBA, and I've been given responsibility for several applications and their back-end databases. One of the applications has very poor performance doing updates. I investigated and found that the tables used by the application have an enormous number of indexes on each. After asking around, it seems that the previous DBA had a habit of adding an index of each table column, plus some combinations. I can't believe that all of these indexes are necessary—how can I tell which ones I can safely drop? We run SQL Server 2005.
A The large number of indexes is most likely a major contributor to the poor performance, as you surmise. Every time a row is inserted, updated, or deleted in the table, corresponding operations need to be done in every non-clustered index. This adds a lot of overhead in terms of I/Os, CPU utilization, and transaction log generation.
In SQL Server 2000, the only way to determine which indexes were being used was to use profiling and examine query plans. With SQL Server 2005 there is a new Dynamic Management View (DMV) that tracks index usage—sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats.
This DMV tracks every time an index has been used (and how it was used) since the database it is part of started up. The statistics for all databases are lost when SQL Server is shutdown, and the statistics for a single database are lost when it is closed or detached. The idea is that if an index does not appear in the output, then it has not been used since the database was started up.
A simple approach to tracking index usage over time is to take periodic snapshots of the DMV output and then compare the snapshots. One thing that many people miss is that you must track the index usage over an entire business cycle. If you just took a snapshot for a single day, you may find several indexes that aren't used. But if those indexes are used, say, to help the end-of-month reports run magnitudes faster, then the indexes probably shouldn't be removed. If an index really hasn't been used over a whole business cycle, then you can probably drop it and reclaim space and performance.
For some simple code you can use to take periodic snapshots of the DMV, see my blog post at sqlskills.com/blogs/paul/2007/10/05/IndexesFromEveryAngleHowCanYouTellIfAnIndexIsBeingUsed.aspx.
Paul S. Randal is the Managing Director of SQLskills.com and a SQL Server MVP. Paul wrote DBCC CHECKDB/repair for SQL Server 2005 and was responsible for the Core Storage Engine during SQL Server 2008 development. An expert on disaster recovery, high availability, and database maintenance, Paul is a regular presenter at conferences. He blogs at SQLskills.com/blogs/paul.