FV Function

Returns a Double specifying the future value of an annuity based on periodic, fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

Function FV( _
   ByVal Rate As Double, _
   ByVal NPer As Double, _
   ByVal Pmt As Double, _
   Optional ByVal PV As Double = 0, _
   Optional ByVal Due As DueDate = DueDate.EndOfPeriod _
) As Double


  • Rate
    Required. Double specifying interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.

  • NPer
    Required. Double specifying total number of payment periods in the annuity. For example, if you make monthly payments on a four-year car loan, your loan has a total of 4 x 12 (or 48) payment periods.

  • Pmt
    Required. Double specifying payment to be made each period. Payments usually contain principal and interest that doesn't change over the life of the annuity.

  • PV
    Optional. Double specifying present value (or lump sum) of a series of future payments. For example, when you borrow money to buy a car, the loan amount is the present value to the lender of the monthly car payments you will make. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

  • Due
    Optional. Object of type DueDate Enumeration that specifies when payments are due. This argument must be either DueDate.EndOfPeriod if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or DueDate.BegOfPeriod if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, DueDate.EndOfPeriod is assumed.


An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

The Rate and NPer arguments must be calculated using payment periods expressed in the same units. For example, if Rate is calculated using months, NPer must also be calculated using months.

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.


This example uses the FV function to return the future value of an investment given the percentage rate that accrues per period (APR / 12), the total number of payments (TotPmts), the payment (Payment), the current value of the investment (PVal), and a number that indicates whether the payment is made at the beginning or end of the payment period (PayType). Note that because Payment represents cash paid out, it is a negative number.

Sub TestFV()
    Dim TotPmts As Integer 
    Dim Payment, APR, PVal, Fval As Double 
    Dim PayType As DueDate
    Dim Response As MsgBoxResult

    ' Define money format. 
    Dim Fmt As String = "###,###,##0.00"
    Payment = CDbl(InputBox("How much do you plan to save each month?"))
    APR = CDbl(InputBox("Enter the expected interest annual percentage rate."))
    ' Ensure proper form. 
    If APR > 1 Then APR = APR / 100
    TotPmts = CInt(InputBox("For how many months do you expect to save?"))
    Response = MsgBox("Do you make payments at the end of month?", MsgBoxStyle.YesNo)
    If Response = MsgBoxResult.No Then
        PayType = DueDate.BegOfPeriod
        PayType = DueDate.EndOfPeriod
    End If
    PVal = CDbl(InputBox("How much is in this savings account now?"))
    Fval = FV(APR / 12, TotPmts, -Payment, -PVal, PayType)
    MsgBox("Your savings will be worth " & Format(Fval, Fmt) & ".")
End Sub




Assembly: Visual Basic Runtime Library (in Microsoft.VisualBasic.dll)

See Also


Financial Summary