Compiler Error C3203

'type' : unspecialized class type can't be used as a type argument for type parameter 'param', expected a real type

You passed an invalid argument to a class template or generic. The class template or generic expects a type as a parameter.

This error can be generated as a result of compiler conformance work that was done for Visual C++ 2005: an unspecialized class template can't be used as a template argument in a base class list. To resolve C3203, explicitly add the template type parameter(s) to the template class name when using it as a template parameter in a base class list.

// C3203.cpp
template< typename T >
struct X {
   void f(X) {}

template< typename T >
struct Y : public X<Y> {   // C3203
// try the following line instead
// struct Y : public X<Y<T> > {
   void f(Y) {}

int main() {
   Y<int> y;

The following sample generates C3203:

// C3203_b.cpp
// compile with: /c
template <class T>
struct S1 {};

template <class T>
class C1 {};

typedef C1<S1> MyC1;   // C3203

// OK
template <template <class> class T>
class C2 {};

typedef C2<S1> MyC1;

template <class T>
class C3 {};

typedef C3<S1<int> > MyC12;

C3203 can also occur when using generics:

// C3203_c.cpp
// compile with: /clr /c
generic <class T>
value struct GS1 {};

generic <class T>
value struct GC1 {};

typedef GC1<GS1> MyGC1;   // C3203
typedef GC1<GS1<int> > MyGC2;   // OK