MSBuild Toolset (ToolsVersion)
MSBuild uses a Toolset of tasks, targets, and tools to build an application. Typically, a MSBuild Toolset includes a microsoft.common.tasks file, a microsoft.common.targets file, and compilers such as csc.exe and vbc.exe. Most Toolsets can be used to compile applications to more than one version of the .NET Framework and more than one system platform. However, the MSBuild 2.0 Toolset can only be used to target the .NET Framework 2.0.
Specify the Toolset in the ToolsVersion attribute on the Project element in the project file. The following example specifies that the project should be built by using the MSBuild 2.0 Toolset.
<Project ToolsVersion="2.0" ... </Project>
How the ToolsVersion Attribute Works
When you create a project in Visual Studio, or upgrade an existing project, an attribute named ToolsVersion is automatically included in the project file and its value corresponds to the version of the .NET Framework that is included in the Visual Studio edition. For more information, see Targeting a Specific .NET Framework Version or Profile.
When a ToolsVersion value is defined in a project file, MSBuild uses that value to determine the values of the Toolset properties that are available to the project. One Toolset property is $(MSBuildToolsPath), which specifies the path of the .NET Framework tools. Only that Toolset property (or $(MSBuildBinPath)), is required.
In the following example, MSBuild finds the Microsoft.CSharp.targets file by using the MSBuildToolsPath reserved property.
<Import Project="$(MSBuildToolsPath)\Microsoft.CSharp.targets" />
You can modify the value of MSBuildToolsPath by defining a custom Toolset. For more information, see Standard and Custom Toolset Configurations
When you build a solution on the command line and specify a ToolsVersion for msbuild.exe, all projects and their project-to-project dependencies are built according to that ToolsVersion, even if each project in the solution specifies its own ToolsVersion. To define the ToolsVersion value on a per project basis, see Overriding ToolsVersion Settings.
The ToolsVersion attribute is also used for project migration. For example, if you open a Visual Studio 2008 project in Visual Studio 2010, the project file is updated to include ToolsVersion=”4.0”. If you then try to open that project in Visual Studio 2008, it doesn’t recognize the upgraded ToolsVersion and therefore builds the project as though the attribute was still set to 3.5.
Both Visual Studio 2010 and Visual Studio 2012 use a ToolsVersion of 4.0. In many cases, you can open the project in both versions of Visual Studio without modification.
Sub-toolsets, which are described later in this topic, allow MSBuild to automatically switch which set of tools to use based on the context in which the build is being run. For example, MSBuild uses a newer set of tools when it's run in Visual Studio 2012 than when it's run in Visual Studio 2010, without your having to explicitly change the project file. For more information, see How to: Modify a Project System So That Projects Load in Multiple Versions of Visual Studio.
Implement a Toolset by selecting the paths of the various tools, targets, and tasks that make up the Toolset. The tools in the Toolset that MSBuild defines come from the following sources:
The .NET Framework folder.
Additional managed tools.
The managed tools include ResGen.exe and TlbImp.exe.
MSBuild provides two ways to access the Toolset:
By using Toolset properties
By using ToolLocationHelper methods
Toolset properties specify the paths of the tools. MSBuild uses the value of the ToolsVersion attribute in the project file to locate the corresponding registry key, and then uses the information in the registry key to set the Toolset properties. For example, if ToolsVersion has the value 4.0, then MSBuild sets the Toolset properties according to this registry key: HKLM\Software\Microsoft\MSBuild\ToolsVersions\4.0.
These are Toolset properties:
MSBuildToolsPath specifies the path of the .NET Framework tools.
SDK40ToolsPath specifies the path of additional managed tools for MSBuild 4.0.
SDK35ToolsPath specifies the path of additional managed tools for MSBuild 3.5.
Alternately, you can determine the Toolset programmatically by calling the methods of the ToolLocationHelper class. The class includes these methods:
GetPathToDotNetFramework returns the path of the .NET Framework folder.
GetPathToDotNetFrameworkFile returns the path of a file in the .NET Framework folder.
GetPathToDotNetFrameworkSdk returns the path of the managed tools folder.
GetPathToDotNetFrameworkSdkFile returns the path of a file, which is typically located in the managed tools folder.
As described earlier in this topic, MSBuild uses a registry key to specify the path of the basic tools. If the key has a subkey, MSBuild uses it to specify the path of a sub-toolset that contains additional tools. In this case, the Toolset is defined by combining the property definitions that are defined in both keys.
If toolset property names collide, the value that's defined for the subkey path overrides the value that's defined for the root key path.
Sub-toolsets become active in the presence of the VisualStudioVersion build property. This property may take one of these values:
“10.0” specifies the .NET Framework 4 sub-toolset
“11.0” specifies the .NET Framework 4.5 sub-toolset
During a build, MSBuild automatically determines and sets a default value for the VisualStudioVersion property if it's not already defined.
MSBuild provides overloads for the ToolLocationHelper methods that add a VisualStudioVersion enumerated value as a parameter. In addition, MSBuild provides these new methods to return the paths of additional native tools:
These new methods also take a VisualStudioVersion enumerated value as a parameter to determine which sub-toolset to use. The VisualStudioVersion enumeration can have one of the following values:
Sub-toolsets were introduced in the .NET Framework 4.5.