SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY control code
The SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY control code retrieves the ideal send backlog (ISB) value for the underlying connection.
int WSAIoctl( (socket) s, // descriptor identifying a socket SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY, // dwIoControlCode NULL, // lpvInBuffer 0, // cbInBuffer (LPVOID) lpvOutBuffer, // output buffer (DWORD) cbOutBuffer, // size of output buffer (LPDWORD) lpcbBytesReturned, // number of bytes returned (LPWSAOVERLAPPED) lpOverlapped, // OVERLAPPED structure (LPWSAOVERLAPPED_COMPLETION_ROUTINE) lpCompletionRoutine, // completion routine );
int WSPIoctl( (socket) s, // descriptor identifying a socket SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY, // dwIoControlCode NULL, // lpvInBuffer 0, // cbInBuffer (LPVOID) lpvOutBuffer, // output buffer (DWORD) cbOutBuffer, // size of output buffer (LPDWORD) lpcbBytesReturned, // number of bytes returned (LPWSAOVERLAPPED) lpOverlapped, // OVERLAPPED structure (LPWSAOVERLAPPED_COMPLETION_ROUTINE) lpCompletionRoutine, // completion routine (LPWSATHREADID) lpThreadId, // a WSATHREADID structure (LPINT) lpErrno // a pointer to the error code. );
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The control code for the operation. Use SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY for this operation.
A pointer to the input buffer. This parameter is unused for this operation.
The size, in bytes, of the input buffer. This parameter is unused for this operation.
A pointer to the output buffer. This parameter should point to a ULONG data type if the lpOverlapped and lpCompletionRoutine parameters are NULL.
The size, in bytes, of the output buffer. This parameter must be at least the size of a ULONG data type.
A pointer to a variable that receives the size, in bytes, of the data stored in the output buffer.
If lpOverlapped is NULL, the DWORD value pointed to by the lpcbBytesReturned parameter that is returned on a successful call cannot be zero.
If the lpOverlapped parameter is not NULL for overlapped sockets, operations that cannot be completed immediately will be initiated, and completion will be indicated at a later time. The DWORD value pointed to by the lpcbBytesReturned parameter that is returned may be zero since the size of the data stored can't be determined until the overlapped operation has completed. The final completion status can be retrieved when the appropriate completion method is signaled when the operation has completed.
A pointer to a WSAOVERLAPPED structure.
If socket s was created without the overlapped attribute, the lpOverlapped parameter is ignored.
If s was opened with the overlapped attribute and the lpOverlapped parameter is not NULL, the operation is performed as an overlapped (asynchronous) operation. In this case, lpOverlapped parameter must point to a valid WSAOVERLAPPED structure.
For overlapped sockets, operations that cannot be completed immediately will be initiated, and completion will be indicated at a later time. The WSAIoctl or WSPIoctl function returns immediately, and the appropriate completion method is signaled when the operation has been completed.
Otherwise, the function does not return until the operation has been completed or an error occurs.
A pointer to the completion routine called when the operation has been completed (ignored for non-overlapped sockets).
A pointer to a WSATHREADID structure to be used by the provider in a subsequent call to WPUQueueApc. The provider should store the referenced WSATHREADID structure (not the pointer to same) until after the WPUQueueApc function returns.
Note This parameter applies only to the WSPIoctl function.
A pointer to the error code.
Note This parameter applies only to the WSPIoctl function.
An overlapped operation was successfully initiated and completion will be indicated at a later time.
An overlapped operation was canceled due to the closure of the socket or the execution of the SIO_FLUSH IOCTL command.
The lpvOutBuffer, lpcbBytesReturned, lpOverlapped, or lpCompletionRoutine parameter is not totally contained in a valid part of the user address space.
The function is invoked when a callback is in progress.
A blocking operation was interrupted.
The dwIoControlCode parameter is not a valid command, or a specified input parameter is not acceptable, or the command is not applicable to the type of socket specified. This error is returned if the cbOutBuffer parameter is less than the size of a ULONG data type.
The network subsystem has failed.
The socket option is not supported on the specified protocol.
The socket s is not connected.
The descriptor s is not a socket.
The specified IOCTL command is not supported. This error is returned if the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL is not supported by the transport provider. This error is also returned when an attempt to use the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL is made on a datagram socket.
The SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL is supported on Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 (SP1), and later versions of the operating system.
When sending data over a TCP connection using Windows sockets, it is important to keep a sufficient amount of data outstanding (sent but not acknowledged yet) in TCP in order to achieve the highest throughput. The ideal value for the amount of data outstanding to achieve the best throughput for the TCP connection is called the ideal send backlog (ISB) size. The ISB value is a function of the bandwidth-delay product of the TCP connection and the receiver's advertised receive window (and partly the amount of congestion in the network).
The ISB value per connection is available from the TCP protocol implementation in Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista with SP1, and later versions of the operating system. The SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL can be used by an application to get a notification when the ISB value changes dynamically for a connection.
On Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista with SP1, and later versions of the operating system, the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_CHANGE and SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTLs are supported on stream-oriented sockets that are in a connected state.
The range for the ISB value for a TCP connection can theoretically vary from 0 to a maximum of 16 megabytes.
The typical usage of the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_CHANGE and SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTLs is based on the send method used by the applications. Two common cases are discussed.
Applications that perform one blocking or non-blocking send request at a time typically rely on internal send buffering by Winsock to achieve decent throughput. The send buffer limit for a given connection is controlled by the SO_SNDBUF socket option. For the blocking and non-blocking send method, the send buffer limit determines how much data is kept outstanding in TCP. If the ISB value for the connection is larger than the send buffer limit, then the throughput achieved on the connection will not be optimal. In order to achieve better throughput, the applications can set the send buffer limit based on the result of the ISB query as ISB change notifications occur on the connection.
For applications that use the overlapped send method with multiple send requests outstanding, the amount of data kept outstanding in TCP is determined by the send buffer limit in Winsock and the total amount of data contained in the outstanding overlapped send requests. In this case, applications should use the ISB value to determine how many outstanding send requests they should keep and what the data size for each send request should be. Ideally, the application should try to keep the following equation satisfied:
ISB value == send buffer limit + (number of simultaneous overlapped send requests * data length per send request)
Note that using the ISB IOCTLs over TCP sockets in the above fashion can lead to increased memory usage in exchange for increased throughput on connections with a high bandwidth-delay product. The TCP implementation in Windows will throttle ISB values as necessary based on overall system memory usage.
Any IOCTL may block indefinitely, depending on the service provider's implementation. If the application cannot tolerate blocking in a WSAIoctl or WSPIoctl function call, overlapped I/O would be advised for IOCTLs that are especially likely to block.
The SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL is not likely to block so it is normally called synchronously with the lpOverlapped and lpCompletionRoutine parameters set to NULL.
The SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL can fail with WSAEINTR or WSA_OPERATION_ABORTED under the following cases:
- The TCP connection is gracefully disconnected in the send direction. This can occur as a result of a call to shutdown function with the how parameter set to SD_SEND, a call to the DisconnectEx function, or a call to the TransmitFile or TransmitPackets function with dwFlags parameter set to TF_DISCONNECT or TF_REUSE.
- The TCP connection has been reset or aborted.
- The request is canceled by the I/O Manager.
Two inline wrapper functions for these IOCTLs are defined in the Ws2tcpip.h header file. It is recommended that these inline functions be used instead of using the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_CHANGE and SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTLs directly.
The inline wrapper function for the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_CHANGE IOCTL is the idealsendbacklognotify function.
The inline wrapper function for the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTL is the idealsendbacklogquery function.
Dynamic send buffering for TCP was added on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. By default, dynamic send buffering for TCP is enabled unless an application sets the SO_SNDBUF socket option on the stream socket.
Using netsh is the recommended method to query or set dynamic send buffering for TCP.
The current value for dynamic send buffering for TCP can be retrieved using the following command:
netsh winsock show autotuning
Dynamic send buffering for TCP can be disabled using the following command:
netsh winsock set autotuning off
Dynamic send buffering for TCP can be enabled using the following command:
netsh winsock set autotuning on
While it is discouraged, dynamic send buffering can be disabled from an application by setting the following registry value to zero:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\Current Control Set\Services\AFD\Parameters\DynamicSendBufferDisable
When changing the value for dynamic send buffering using NetSh.exe or changing the registry value, the computer must be restarted for the change to take effect.
With dynamic send buffering on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the use of the SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_CHANGE and SIO_IDEAL_SEND_BACKLOG_QUERY IOCTLs are needed only in special circumstances.
Minimum supported client
Windows Vista with SP1 [desktop apps only]
Minimum supported server
Windows Server 2008 [desktop apps only]