Enumerable.Except<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>, IEqualityComparer<TSource>)

Produces the set difference of two sequences by using the specified IEqualityComparer<T> to compare values.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

Syntax

'Declaration
<ExtensionAttribute> _
Public Shared Function Except(Of TSource) ( _
    first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
    second As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
    comparer As IEqualityComparer(Of TSource) _
) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)
public static IEnumerable<TSource> Except<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> first,
    IEnumerable<TSource> second,
    IEqualityComparer<TSource> comparer
)

Type Parameters

  • TSource
    The type of the elements of the input sequences.

Parameters

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>
A sequence that contains the set difference of the elements of two sequences.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter.

Exceptions

Exception Condition
ArgumentNullException

first or second is nulla null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

Remarks

If comparer is nulla null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic), the default equality comparer, Default, is used to compare values.

Examples

The following example shows how to implement an equality comparer that can be used in the Except method.

Public Class Product
    Public Property Name As String
    Public Property Code As Integer
End Class

' Custom comparer for the Product class
Public Class ProductComparer
    Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product)

    Public Function Equals1(
        ByVal x As Product, 
        ByVal y As Product
        ) As Boolean Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).Equals

        ' Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        If x Is y Then Return True

        'Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        If x Is Nothing OrElse y Is Nothing Then Return False

        ' Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        Return (x.Code = y.Code) AndAlso (x.Name = y.Name)
    End Function

    Public Function GetHashCode1(
        ByVal product As Product
        ) As Integer Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).GetHashCode

        ' Check whether the object is null.
        If product Is Nothing Then Return 0

        ' Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        Dim hashProductName = 
            If(product.Name Is Nothing, 0, product.Name.GetHashCode())

        ' Get hash code for the Code field.
        Dim hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode()

        ' Calculate the hash code for the product.
        Return hashProductName Xor hashProductCode
    End Function
End Class
public class Product
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }
}

// Custom comparer for the Product class
class ProductComparer : IEqualityComparer<Product>
{
    // Products are equal if their names and product numbers are equal.
    public bool Equals(Product x, Product y)
    {

        //Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, y)) return true;

        //Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, null) || Object.ReferenceEquals(y, null))
            return false;

        //Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        return x.Code == y.Code && x.Name == y.Name;
    }

    // If Equals() returns true for a pair of objects 
    // then GetHashCode() must return the same value for these objects.

    public int GetHashCode(Product product)
    {
        //Check whether the object is null
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(product, null)) return 0;

        //Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        int hashProductName = product.Name == null ? 0 : product.Name.GetHashCode();

        //Get hash code for the Code field.
        int hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode();

        //Calculate the hash code for the product.
        return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;
    }

}

After you implement this comparer, you can use sequences of Product objects in the Except method, as shown in the following example.

        Dim fruits1() As Product = 
            {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
             New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}, 
             New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}

        Dim fruits2() As Product = 
            {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}}

        ' Get all the elements from the first array
        ' except for the elements from the second array.

        Dim except = fruits1.Except(fruits2, New ProductComparer())

        For Each product In except
            outputBlock.Text += product.Name & " " & product.Code.ToString() + vbCrLf
        Next

        ' This code produces the following output:
        '
        ' orange 4
        ' lemon 12

        Product[] fruits1 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                               new Product { Name = "orange", Code = 4 },
                                new Product { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };

        Product[] fruits2 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 } };

        //Get all the elements from the first array
        //except for the elements from the second array.

        IEnumerable<Product> except =
            fruits1.Except(fruits2, new ProductComparer());

        foreach (var product in except)
            outputBlock.Text += product.Name + " " + product.Code + "\n";

        /*
          This code produces the following output:

          orange 4
          lemon 12
        */

Version Information

Silverlight

Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

Platforms

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.