Enumerable.Union<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>, IEqualityComparer<TSource>)

Produces the set union of two sequences by using a specified IEqualityComparer<T>.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

Syntax

'Declaration
<ExtensionAttribute> _
Public Shared Function Union(Of TSource) ( _
    first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
    second As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
    comparer As IEqualityComparer(Of TSource) _
) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)
public static IEnumerable<TSource> Union<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> first,
    IEnumerable<TSource> second,
    IEqualityComparer<TSource> comparer
)

Type Parameters

  • TSource
    The type of the elements of the input sequences.

Parameters

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>
An IEnumerable<T> that contains the elements from both input sequences, excluding duplicates.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter.

Exceptions

Exception Condition
ArgumentNullException

first or second is nulla null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

Remarks

This method is implemented by using deferred execution. The immediate return value is an object that stores all the information that is required to perform the action. The query represented by this method is not executed until the object is enumerated either by calling its GetEnumerator method directly or by using foreach in Visual C# or For Each in Visual Basic.

If comparer is nulla null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic), the default equality comparer, Default, is used to compare values.

When the object returned by this method is enumerated, Union enumerates first and second in that order and yields each element that has not already been yielded.

The Concat<TSource> method differs from the Union method because the Concat<TSource> method returns all the elements in the input sequences including duplicates, whereas Union returns only unique values.

Examples

The following example shows how to implement an equality comparer that can be used in the Union method.

Public Class Product
    Public Property Name As String
    Public Property Code As Integer
End Class

' Custom comparer for the Product class
Public Class ProductComparer
    Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product)

    Public Function Equals1(
        ByVal x As Product, 
        ByVal y As Product
        ) As Boolean Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).Equals

        ' Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        If x Is y Then Return True

        'Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        If x Is Nothing OrElse y Is Nothing Then Return False

        ' Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        Return (x.Code = y.Code) AndAlso (x.Name = y.Name)
    End Function

    Public Function GetHashCode1(
        ByVal product As Product
        ) As Integer Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).GetHashCode

        ' Check whether the object is null.
        If product Is Nothing Then Return 0

        ' Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        Dim hashProductName = 
            If(product.Name Is Nothing, 0, product.Name.GetHashCode())

        ' Get hash code for the Code field.
        Dim hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode()

        ' Calculate the hash code for the product.
        Return hashProductName Xor hashProductCode
    End Function
End Class
public class Product
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }
}

// Custom comparer for the Product class
class ProductComparer : IEqualityComparer<Product>
{
    // Products are equal if their names and product numbers are equal.
    public bool Equals(Product x, Product y)
    {

        //Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, y)) return true;

        //Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, null) || Object.ReferenceEquals(y, null))
            return false;

        //Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        return x.Code == y.Code && x.Name == y.Name;
    }

    // If Equals() returns true for a pair of objects 
    // then GetHashCode() must return the same value for these objects.

    public int GetHashCode(Product product)
    {
        //Check whether the object is null
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(product, null)) return 0;

        //Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        int hashProductName = product.Name == null ? 0 : product.Name.GetHashCode();

        //Get hash code for the Code field.
        int hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode();

        //Calculate the hash code for the product.
        return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;
    }

}

After you implement this comparer, you can use sequences of Product objects in the Union method, as shown in the following example.

Dim store1() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}}

Dim store2() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}


...


        ' Get the products from the both arrays
        ' excluding duplicates.

        Dim union = store1.Union(store2, New ProductComparer())
outputBlock.Text += "Union: " + vbCrLf
        For Each product In union
            outputBlock.Text += product.Name & " " & product.Code.ToString() + vbCrLf
        Next

        ' This code produces the following output:
        '
        ' apple 9
        ' orange 4
        ' lemon 12
        ' 
Product[] store1 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                       new Product { Name = "orange", Code = 4 } };

Product[] store2 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                       new Product { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };


...


//Get the products from the both arrays
//excluding duplicates.

IEnumerable<Product> union =
  store1.Union(store2, new ProductComparer());

foreach (var product in union)
    outputBlock.Text += product.Name + " " + product.Code + "\n";

/*
    This code produces the following output:

    apple 9
    orange 4
    lemon 12
*/

Version Information

Silverlight

Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

Platforms

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.