Enumerable.Intersect<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>)

Produces the set intersection of two sequences by using the default equality comparer to compare values.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

Syntax

'Declaration
<ExtensionAttribute> _
Public Shared Function Intersect(Of TSource) ( _
    first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
    second As IEnumerable(Of TSource) _
) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)
public static IEnumerable<TSource> Intersect<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> first,
    IEnumerable<TSource> second
)

Type Parameters

  • TSource
    The type of the elements of the input sequences.

Parameters

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>
A sequence that contains the elements that form the set intersection of two sequences.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter.

Exceptions

Exception Condition
ArgumentNullException

first or second is nulla null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

Remarks

This method is implemented by using deferred execution. The immediate return value is an object that stores all the information that is required to perform the action. The query represented by this method is not executed until the object is enumerated either by calling its GetEnumerator method directly or by using foreach in Visual C# or For Each in Visual Basic.

The intersection of two sets A and B is defined as the set that contains all the elements of A that also appear in B, but no other elements.

When the object returned by this method is enumerated, Intersect enumerates first, collecting all distinct elements of that sequence. It then enumerates second, marking those elements that occur in both sequences. Finally, the marked elements are yielded in the order in which they were collected.

The default equality comparer, Default, is used to compare values of the types that implement the IEqualityComparer<T> generic interface. To compare a custom data type, you need to implement this interface and provide your own GetHashCode and Equals methods for the type.

Examples

The following code example demonstrates how to use Intersect<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>) to return the elements that appear in each of two sequences of integers.

      ' Create two integer arrays.
      Dim id1() As Integer = {44, 26, 92, 30, 71, 38}
      Dim id2() As Integer = {39, 59, 83, 47, 26, 4, 30}

      ' Find the set intersection of the two arrays.
      Dim intersection As IEnumerable(Of Integer) = id1.Intersect(id2)

      Dim output As New System.Text.StringBuilder
      For Each id As Integer In intersection
         output.AppendLine(id)
      Next

      ' Display the output.
      outputBlock.Text &= output.ToString() & vbCrLf

      ' This code produces the following output:
      '
      ' 26
      ' 30

      int[] id1 = { 44, 26, 92, 30, 71, 38 };
      int[] id2 = { 39, 59, 83, 47, 26, 4, 30 };

      IEnumerable<int> both = id1.Intersect(id2);

      foreach (int id in both)
         outputBlock.Text += id + "\n";

      /*
       This code produces the following output:

       26
       30
      */

If you want to compare sequences of objects of a custom data type, you have to implement the IEqualityComparer<T> generic interface in the class. The following code example shows how to implement this interface in a custom data type and provide GetHashCode and Equals methods.

Public Class Product
    Implements IEquatable(Of Product)

    Public Property Name As String
    Public Property Code As Integer

    Public Function Equals1(
        ByVal other As Product
        ) As Boolean Implements IEquatable(Of Product).Equals

        ' Check whether the compared object is null.
        If other Is Nothing Then Return False

        ' Check whether the compared object references the same data.
        If Me Is Other Then Return True

        ' Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        Return Code.Equals(other.Code) AndAlso Name.Equals(other.Name)
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer

        ' Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        Dim hashProductName = If(Name Is Nothing, 0, Name.GetHashCode())

        ' Get hash code for the Code field.
        Dim hashProductCode = Code.GetHashCode()

        ' Calculate the hash code for the product.
        Return hashProductName Xor hashProductCode
    End Function
End Class

public class Product : IEquatable<Product>
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }

    public bool Equals(Product other)
    {

        //Check whether the compared object is null.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(other, null)) return false;

        //Check whether the compared object references the same data.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(this, other)) return true;

        //Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        return Code.Equals(other.Code) && Name.Equals(other.Name);
    }

    // If Equals() returns true for a pair of objects 
    // then GetHashCode() must return the same value for these objects.

    public override int GetHashCode()
    {

        //Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        int hashProductName = Name == null ? 0 : Name.GetHashCode();

        //Get hash code for the Code field.
        int hashProductCode = Code.GetHashCode();

        //Calculate the hash code for the product.
        return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;
    }
}

After you implement this interface, you can use sequences of Product objects in the Intersect method, as shown in the following example.

Dim store1() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}}

Dim store2() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}


...


' Get the products from the first array 
' that have duplicates in the second array.

Dim duplicates = store1.Intersect(store2)

For Each product In duplicates
    outputBlock.Text &= product.Name & " " & product.Code.ToString() & vbCrLf
Next
' This code produces the following output:
'
' apple 9
' 
Product[] store1 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                       new Product { Name = "orange", Code = 4 } };

Product[] store2 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                       new Product { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };


...


// Get the products from the first array 
// that have duplicates in the second array.

IEnumerable<Product> duplicates =
    store1.Intersect(store2);

foreach (var product in duplicates)
    outputBlock.Text += product.Name + " " + product.Code + "\n";

/*
    This code produces the following output:
    apple 9
*/

Version Information

Silverlight

Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

Platforms

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.