Querying Azure Cosmos DB resources using the REST API

Azure Cosmos DB is a globally distributed multi-model database with support for multiple APIs. This article describes how to use REST to query resources using the Azure Cosmos DB API.

What resources can be queried by using REST?

All Azure Cosmos DB resources except account resources can be queried using Azure Cosmos DB SQL language. For more information on Azure Cosmos DB SQL Language, see Query with Azure Cosmos DB SQL.

How do I query a resource by using REST?

To perform a SQL query on a resource, do the following:

  • Execute a POST method against a resource path using JSON with the "query" property set to the SQL query string, and the "parameters" property set to the array of optional parameter values.
  • Set the x-ms-documentdb-isquery header to true.
  • Set the Content-Type header to application/query+json.

For a sample showing how to perform a SQL query on a resource using .NET, see REST from .NET Sample.

Example

Below is an example REST query operation on document resources. In this example, we would like to find all documents that have "Don" as an author.

POST https://contosomarketing.documents.azure.com/dbs/XP0mAA==/colls/XP0mAJ3H-AA=/docs HTTP/1.1  
x-ms-documentdb-isquery: True  
x-ms-date: Mon, 18 Apr 2015 13:05:49 GMT  
authorization: type%3dmaster%26ver%3d1.0%26sig%3dkOU%2bBn2vkvIlHypfE8AA5fulpn8zKjLwdrxBqyg0YGQ%3d  
x-ms-version: 2015-12-16  
x-ms-query-enable-crosspartition: true  
Accept: application/json  
Content-Type: application/query+json  
Host: contosomarketing.documents.azure.com  
Content-Length: 50  

{  
    query: "SELECT * FROM root WHERE (root.Author.id = 'Don')",  
    parameters: []  
}  

Request Details

Method Request URI
POST Required. The authentication type and signature token. Only the master key token is allowed for this operation. For more information, see Access Control on Cosmos DB Resources.

Request Headers

The following table contains the common headers used to perform query operations.

Standard Header Description
Authorization Required. The authentication type and signature token. Only the master key token is allowed for this operation. For more information, see Access Control on Cosmos DB Resources.
Content-Type Required. Must be set to application/query+json.
Accept Optional. At the moment, Cosmos DB always returns the response payload in standard JSON format. The client must be able to accept the response body in standard JSON format.
User-Agent Optional. The user agent performing the request. The recommended format is {user agent name}/{version}. For example, the DocumentDB .NET SDK sets the User-Agent string to Microsoft.Document.Client/1.0.0.0.
Custom Header Description
x-ms-date Required. The date of the request, as specified in RFC 1123. The date format is expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), for example. Fri, 08 Apr 2015 03:52:31 GMT.
x-ms-documentdb-isquery Required. This property must be set to true.
x-ms-max-item-count Optional. To page through a result set, set this header to the maximum number for items to be returned back in a single page.
x-ms-continuation Optional. To navigate to the next page of items, set this header to the continuation token for the next page.
x-ms-version Optional. The version of Cosmos DB REST service. The latest version is used when the header is not provided. For more information, see Azure Cosmos DB REST API Reference.
x-ms-documentdb-query-enable-scan Optional. Use an index scan to process the query if the right index path of type is not available.
x-ms-session-token Optional. The session token for the request. Used for session consistency.
x-ms-partition-key Optional. If specified, the query is executed only on documents that match the partition key value in the header.
x-ms-documentdb-query-enablecrosspartition Optional. Must be set to true for any queries that do not filter against a single partition key. Queries that filter against a single partition key value will be executed against only a single partition even if this is set to true.

Request Body

The request body should be a valid JSON document containing the SQL query and parameters. If the input is malformed or invalid SQL syntax, the operation with fails with a 400 Bad Request error.

Property Description
query Required. The SQL query string for the query. For more information see Azure Cosmos DB DocumentDB API: SQL syntax reference.
parameters Required. A JSON array of parameters specified as name value pairs. The parameter array can contain from zero to many parameters.Each parameter must have the following values:name: the name of the parameter. Parameter names must be valid string literals and begin with ‘@’.value: the value of the parameter. Can be any valid JSON value (string, number, object, array, Boolean or null).

Request Example

The following example makes a parameterized SQL request with a string parameter for @author.

POST https://contosomarketing.documents.azure.com/dbs/XP0mAA==/colls/XP0mAJ3H-AA=/docs HTTP/1.1  
x-ms-documentdb-isquery: True  
x-ms-date: Mon, 18 Apr 2015 13:05:49 GMT  
authorization: type%3dmaster%26ver%3d1.0%26sig%3dkOU%2bBn2vkvIlHypfE8AA5fulpn8zKjLwdrxBqyg0YGQ%3d  
x-ms-version: 2015-04-08  
Accept: application/json  
Content-Type: application/query+json  
Host: contosomarketing.documents.azure.com  
Content-Length: 50  

{  
    query: "SELECT * FROM root WHERE (root.Author.id = @author)",  
    parameters:   
    [  
        { name: "@author", value: "Leo Tolstoy"}  
    ]  
}  

For more information on the DocumentDB API SQL Language, see Query with DocumentDB API SQL.

Response Details

The following are common status codes returned by this operation. For information about error status codes, please see HTTP Status Codes for Azure Cosmos DB.

Code Description
200 Ok The operation is successful.
400 Bad Request The syntax of the SQL statement is incorrect.
401 Unauthorized Either the Authorization or x-ms-date header is not set. 401 is also returned when the Authorization header is set to an invalid authorization token.
403 Forbidden The authorization token has expired.
404 Not Found The collection is no longer a resource. For example, the resource may have been deleted.

Response Headers

This operation returns the following common headers. There may be additional standard and common headers returned.

Standard Header Description
Content-Type The Content-Type is application/json. Cosmos DB always return the response body in standard JSON format.
Date The date-time of the response operation. This date time format conforms to the [RFC1123] date time format expressed in UTC.
Custom Header Description
x-ms-item-count The number of item returned by the operation.
x-ms-continuation This is an opaque string returned when the query has potentially more items to be retrieved.

The x-ms-continuation can be included in subsequent requests as a request header to resume execution of the query.
x-ms-request-charge This is the number of request units (RU) consumed by the operation. For more information about request units, see Managing Azure Cosmos DB Capacity and Performance.
x-ms-activity-id This is a unique identifier for the operation. It can be used for tracing execution of Cosmos DB requests.
x-ms-session-token The session token to be used for subsequent requests. Used for session consistency.

Response Body

The response body for the query operation consists of the _rid of the parent resource of the resource being queried, and the resource array containing the resource properties for the projection and selection. As per the example, if a query was performed on the docs path of the collection with an _rid of XP0mAJ3H-AA=, the response would be as follows:

{"_rid":" XP0mAJ3H-AA=","Documents":   [  ….  ….   ],"_count":10}  
Property Description
_rid The resource id for the collection used within the query.
_count The number of items returned.
Resource array The array containing the query results.

Building the query request body

The query request must be a valid JSON document containing a query property that contains a valid SQL query string and a parameters property that contains an array of optional parameters. Each parameter should have a name and value property of parameters that are specified within the query. Parameter names must begin with the “@” character. Values can be any valid JSON values – strings, integers, Booleans and nulls.

It is valid to specifiy only a subset of parameters specified in the query text. Expressions that reference these unspecified parameters will evaluate to undefined. It is also valid to specify additional parameters that are not used within the query text.

Some examples of valid query requests are shown below. For example, the following query has a single parameter @id.

{  
    "query": "select * from docs d where d.id = @id",   
    "parameters": [   
        {"@id": "newdoc"}   
     ]  
}  

The following example has two parameters, one with a string value and another with an integer value.

{  
    "query": "select * from docs d where d.id = @id and d.prop = @prop",   
    "parameters": [   
        {"@id": "newdoc"},  
        {"@prop": 5}   
     ]  
}  

The following example uses parameters within the SELECT clause, as well as a property accessed through the parameter name as a parameter.

{  
    "query": "select @id, d[@propName] from docs d",   
    "parameters": [   
        {"@id": "newdoc"},  
        {"@propName": "prop"}  
     ]  
}  

Pagination of query results

Query requests support pagination through the x-ms-max-item-count and x-ms-continuation request headers. The x-ms-max-item-count header specifies the maximum number of values that can be returned by the query execution. This can be between 1 and 1000, and is configured with a default of 100.

Queries will return from zero up to the maximum specified x-ms-max-item-count values from the results of the execution. The query result includes an x-ms-item-count header that specifies the actual number of documents returned by the query. If there are additional results that could be retrieved from the query, then the response includes a non-empty value for the x-ms-continuation header.

Clients can fetch subsequent pages of results by echoing the x-ms-continuation header as another request. In order to read all results, clients must repeat this process until an empty x-ms-continuation is returned.

Cosmos DB query executions are stateless at the server side, and can be resumed at any time using the x-ms-continuation header. The x-ms-continuation value uses the last processed document resource ID (_rid) to track progress of execution. Therefore if documents are deleted and re-inserted between fetching of pages, then it could potentially be excluded from any of the query batches. However, the behavior and format of the x-ms-continuation header might change in a future service update.

See Also