Data type conversion rules for dwloader - Parallel Data Warehouse

This topic describes the input data formats and implicit data type conversions that dwloader Command-Line Loader supports when it loads data into PDW. The implicit data conversions occur when the input data does not match the data type in the SQL Server PDW target table. Use this information when designing your loading process to ensure your data will load successfully into SQL Server PDW.

Inserting Literals into Binary Types

The following table defines the accepted literal types, format, and conversion rules for loading a literal value into a SQL Server PDW column of type binary (n) or varbinary(n).

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to binary or varbinary Data Type
Binary literal [0x]hexidecimal_string

Example: 12Ef or 0x12Ef
The 0x prefix is optional.

The data source length cannot exceed the number of bytes specified for the data type.

If the data source length is less than size of the binary data type, the data is padded to the right with zeros to reach the data type size.

Inserting Literals into Date and Time Types

Date and time literals are represented by using string literals in specific formats, enclosed in single quotation marks. The following tables define the allowed literal types, format, and conversion rules for loading a date or time literal into a column of type datetime, smalldatetime, date, time, datetimeoffset, or datetime2. The tables define the default format for the given data type. Other formats that can be specified are defined in the section Datetime Formats. Date and time literals cannot include leading or trailing spaces. date, smalldatetime, and null values cannot be loaded in fixed width mode.

datetime Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type datetime. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '1900-01-01 12:00:00.000'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to datetime Data Type
String literal in datetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss[.fff]'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123'
Missing fractional digits are set to 0 when the value is inserted. For example, the literal '2007-05-08 12:35' is inserted as '2007-05-08 12:35:00.000'.
String literal in smalldatetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35'
Seconds and remaining fractional digits are set to 0 when the value is inserted.
String literal in date format 'yyyy-MM-dd'

Example: '2007-05-08'
Time values (hour, minutes, seconds, and fractions) are set to 12:00:00.000 when the value is inserted.
String literal in datetime2 format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.fffffff'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.1234567'
The source data cannot exceed three fractional digits. For example, the literal '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123' will be inserted, but the value '2007-05-8 12:35:29.1234567' generates an error.

smalldatetime Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type smalldatetime. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '1900-01-01 12:00'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to smalldatetime Data Type
String literal in smalldatetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm' or 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:00' or '2007-05-08 12:00:15'
The source data must have values for year, month, date, hour and minute. Seconds are optional and, if present, must be set to the value 00. Any other value generates an error.

Seconds are optional. When loading into a smalldatetime column, dwloader will round up seconds and fractional seconds. For example, 1999-01-05 20:10:35.123 will load as 01-05 20:11.
String literal in date format 'yyyy-MM-dd'

Example: '2007-05-08'
Time values (hour, minutes, seconds, and fractions) are set to 0 when the value is inserted.

date Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type date. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '1900-01-01'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to date Data Type
String literal in date format 'yyyy-MM-dd'

Example: '2007-05-08'

time Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type time. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '00:00:00.0000'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to time Data Type
String literal in time format 'hh:mm:ss.fffffff'

Example: '12:35:29.1234567'
If the data source has a smaller or equal precision (number of fractional digits) than the precision of the time data type, the data is padded to the right with zeros. For example, a literal value '12:35:29.123' is inserted as '12:35:29.1230000'.

datetimeoffset Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type datetimeoffset (n). The default format is 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.fffffff {+|-}hh:mm'. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '1900-01-01 12:00:00.0000000 +00:00'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error. The number of fractional digits depends on the column definition. For example, a column defined as datetimeoffset (2) will have two fractional digits.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to datetimeoffset Data Type
String literal in datetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss[.fff]'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123'
Missing fractional digits and offset values are set to 0 when the value is inserted. For example, the literal '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123' is inserted as '2007-05-08 12:35:29.1230000 +00:00'.
String literal in smalldatetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35'
Seconds, remaining fractional digits and offset values are set to 0 when the value is inserted.
String literal in date format 'yyyy-MM-dd'

Example: '2007-05-08'
Time values (hour, minutes, seconds, and fractions) are set to 0 when the value is inserted. For example, the literal '2007-05-08' is inserted as '2007-05-08 00:00:00.0000000 +00:00'.
String literal in datetime2 format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.fffffff'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.1234567'
The source data cannot exceed the specified number of fractional seconds in the datetimeoffset column. If the data source has a smaller or equal number of fractional seconds, the data is padded to the right with zeros. For example, if the data type is datetimeoffset (5), the literal value '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123 +12:15' is inserted as '12:35:29.12300 +12:15'.
String literal in datetimeoffset format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.fffffff {+|-} hh:mm'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.1234567 +12:15'
The source data cannot exceed the specified number of fractional seconds in the datetimeoffset column. If the data source has a smaller or equal number of fractional seconds, the data is padded to the right with zeros. For example, if the data type is datetimeoffset (5), the literal value '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123 +12:15' is inserted as '12:35:29.12300 +12:15'.

datetime2 Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type datetime2 (n). The default format is 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.fffffff'. An empty string ('') is converted to the default value '1900-01-01 12:00:00'. Strings that contain only blanks (' ') generate an error. The number of fractional digits depends on the column definition. For example, a column defined as datetime2 (2) will have two fractional digits.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to datetime2 Data Type
String literal in datetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss[.fff]'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.123'
Fractional seconds are optional and are set to 0 when the value is inserted.
String literal in smalldatetime format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm'

Example: '2007-05-08 12'
Optional seconds and remaining fractional digits are set to 0 when the value is inserted.
String literal in date format 'yyyy-MM-dd'

Example: '2007-05-08'
Time values (hour, minutes, seconds, and fractions) are set to 0 when the value is inserted. For example, the literal '2007-05-08' is inserted as '2007-05-08 12:00:00.0000000'.
String literal in datetime2 format 'yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss:fffffff'

Example: '2007-05-08 12:35:29.1234567'
If the data source contains data and time components that are less than or equal to the value specified in datetime2(n), the data is inserted; otherwise an error is generated.

Datetime Formats

Dwloader supports the following data formats for the input data that it is loading into SQL Server PDW. More details are listed after the table.

datetime smalldatetime date datetime2 datetimeoffset
[M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fff] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy HH:mm[:00] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy hh:mm[:00][tt] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [M[M]]M-[d]d-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz
[M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fff] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d HH:mm[:00] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d hh:mm[:00][tt] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [M[M]]M-[yy]yy-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz
[yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fff] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d HH:mm[:00] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d hh:mm[:00][tt] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [yy]yy-[M[M]]M-[d]d hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz
[yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fff] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M HH:mm[:00] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M hh:mm[:00][tt] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [yy]yy-[d]d-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz
[d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fff] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy HH:mm[:00] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy hh:mm[:00][tt] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [d]d-[M[M]]M-[yy]yy hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz
[d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fff] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M HH:mm[:00] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M HH:mm:ss[.fffffff] zzz
[d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fff][tt] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M hh:mm[:00][tt] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] [d]d-[yy]yy-[M[M]]M hh:mm:ss[.fffffff][tt] zzz

Details:

  • To separate month, day and year values, you can use ' – ', ' / ', or ' . '. For simplicity, the table uses only the ' – ' separator.

  • To specify the month as text use three or more characters. Months with 1 or 2 characters will be interpreted as a number.

  • To separate time values, use the ' : ' symbol.

  • Letters enclosed in square brackets are optional.

  • The letters 'tt' designate [AM|PM|am|pm]. AM is the default. When 'tt' is specified, the hour value (hh) must be in the range of 0 to 12.

  • The letters 'zzz' designate the time zone offset for the system's current time zone in the format {+|-}HH:ss].

Inserting Literals into Numeric Types

The following tables define the default format and conversion rules for loading a literal value into a SQL Server PDW column that uses a numeric type.

bit Data Type

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type bit. An empty string ('') or a string that contain only blanks (' ') is converted to 0.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to bit Data Type
String literal in integer format 'ffffffffff'

Example: '1' or '321'
An integer value formatted as a string literal cannot contain a negative value. For example, the value '-123' generates an error.

A value larger than 1 is converted to 1. For example, the value '123' is converted to 1.
String literal 'TRUE' or 'FALSE'

Example: 'true'
The value 'TRUE' is converted to 1; the value 'FALSE' is converted to 0.
Integer literal fffffffn

Example: 1 or 321
A value larger than 1 or less than 0 is converted to 1. For example, the values 123 and -123 are converted to 1.
Decimal literal fffnn.fffn

Example: 1234.5678
A value larger than 1 or less than 0 is converted to 1. For example, the values 123.45 and -123.45 are converted to 1.

decimal Data Type

The following table defines the rules for loading literal values into a column of type decimal (p,s). Data conversion rules are the same as for SQL Server. For more information, see Data Type Conversion (Database Engine) on MSDN.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples
Integer literal 321312313123
Decimal literal 123344.34455

float and real Data Types

The following table defines rules for loading literal values into a column of type float or real. Data conversion rules are the same as for SQL Server. For more information, see Data Type Conversion (Database Engine) on MSDN.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples
Integer literal 321312313123
Decimal literal 123344.34455
Floating point literal 3.12323E+14

int, bigint, tinyint, smallint Data Types

The following table defines the rules for loading literal values into a column of type int, bigint, tinyint, or smallint. The data source cannot exceed the range allowed for the given data type. For example, the range for tinyint is 0 to 255 and the range for int is -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to Integer Data Types
Integer literal 321312313123
Decimal literal 123344.34455 The values to the right of the decimal point are truncated.

money and smallmoney Data Types

Money literal values are represented as a string of numbers with an optional decimal point and an optional currency symbol as a prefix. The data source cannot exceed the range allowed for the given data type. For example, the range for smallmoney is -214,748.3648 to 214,748.3647 and the range for money is -922,337,203,685,477.5808 to 922,337,203,685,477.5807. The following table defines the rules for loading literal values into a column of type money or smallmoney.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion To money or smallmoney Data Type
Integer literal 321312 Missing digits after the decimal point are set to 0 when the value is inserted. For example, the literal 12345 is inserted as 12345.0000
Decimal literal 123344.34455 If the number of digits after the decimal point exceed 4, the value is rounded up to the nearest value. For example, the value 123344.34455 is inserted as 123344.3446.
Money literal $123456.7890 The currency symbol is not inserted with the value.

If the number of digits after the decimal point exceed 4, the value is rounded up to the nearest value.

Inserting Literals into String Types

The following tables define the default format and conversion rules for loading a literal value into a SQL Server PDW column that uses a string type.

char, varchar, nchar and nvarchar Data Types

The following table defines the default format and rules for loading literal values into a column of type char, varchar, nchar and nvarchar. The data source length cannot exceed the size specified for the data type. If the data source length is less than size of the char or nchar data type, the data is padded to the right with blank spaces to reach the data type size.

Input Data Type Input Data Examples Conversion to Character Data Types
String literal Format: 'character string'

Example: 'abc'
NA
Unicode string literal Format: N'character string'

Example: N'abc'
NA
Integer literal Format: ffffffffffn

Example: 321312313123
NA
Decimal literal Format: ffffff.fffffff

Example: 12344.34455
NA
Money literal Format: $ffffff.fffnn

Example: $123456.99
The optional currency symbol is not inserted with the value. To insert the currency symbol, insert the value as a string literal. This will match the format of the loader, which treats every literal as a string literal.

Commas are not allowed.

If the number of digits after the decimal point exceed 2, the value is rounded up to the nearest value. For example, the value 123.946789 is inserted as 123.95.

Only the default style 0 (no commas and 2 digits after the decimal point) is allowed when using the CONVERT function to insert money literals.

General Remarks

dwloader performs the same implicit conversions that SMP SQL Server performs, but does not support all of the implicit conversions that SMP SQL Server supports.