Constants (Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server)

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This topic discusses the constants that are defined by the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server.

PDO_SQLSRV Driver Constants

The constants listed on the PDO website are valid in the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server.

The following describe the Microsoft specific constants in the PDO_SQLSRV driver.

Transaction Isolation Level Constants

The TransactionIsolation key, which is used with PDO::__construct, accepts one of the following constants:

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_READ_UNCOMMITTED

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_READ_COMMITTED

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_REPEATABLE_READ

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_SNAPSHOT

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_SERIALIZABLE

For more information about the TransactionIsolation key, see Connection Options.

Encoding Constants

The PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_ENCODING attribute can be passed to PDOStatement::setAttribute, PDO::setAttribute, PDO::prepare, PDOStatement::bindColumn, and PDOStatement::bindParam.

The available values to pass to PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_ENCODING are

PDO_SQLSRV driver constant Description
PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_BINARY Data is a raw byte stream from the server without performing encoding or translation.

Not valid for PDO::setAttribute.
PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_SYSTEM Data is 8-bit characters as specified in the code page of the Windows locale that is set on the system. Any multi-byte characters or characters that do not map into this code page are substituted with a single byte question mark (?) character.
PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_UTF8 Data is in the UTF-8 encoding. This is the default encoding.
PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_DEFAULT Uses PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_SYSTEM if specified during connection.

Use the connection’s encoding if specified in a prepare statement.

Query Timeout

The PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_QUERY_TIMEOUT attribute is any non-negative integer representing the timeout period, in seconds. Zero (0) is the default and means no timeout.

You can specify the PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_QUERY_TIMEOUT attribute with PDOStatement::setAttribute, PDO::setAttribute, and PDO::prepare.

Direct or Prepared Execution

You can select direct query execution or prepared statement execution with the PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY attribute. PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY can be set with PDO::prepare or PDO::setAttribute. For more information about PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY, see Direct Statement Execution and Prepared Statement Execution in the PDO_SQLSRV Driver.

Handling Numeric Fetches

The PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_FETCHES_NUMERIC_TYPE attribute can be used to handle numeric fetches from columns with numeric SQL types (bit, integer, smallint, tinyint, float, and real). When PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_FETCHES_NUMERIC_TYPE is set to true, the results from an integer column will be represented as ints, while SQL floats and reals will be represented as floats. This attribute can be set with PDOStatement::setAttribute.

SQLSRV Driver Constants

The following sections list the constants used by the SQLSRV driver.

ERR Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to specify if sqlsrv_errors returns errors, warnings, or both.

Value Description
SQLSRV_ERR_ALL Errors and warnings generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned. This is the default value.
SQLSRV_ERR_ERRORS Errors generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned.
SQLSRV_ERR_WARNINGS Warnings generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned.

FETCH Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to specify the type of array returned by sqlsrv_fetch_array.

SQLSRV constant Description
SQLSRV_FETCH_ASSOC sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as an associative array.
SQLSRV_FETCH_BOTH sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as an array with both numeric and associative keys. This is the default value.
SQLSRV_FETCH_NUMERIC sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as a numerically indexed array.

Logging Constants

This section lists the constants that are used to change the logging settings with sqlsrv_configure. For more information about logging activity, see Logging Activity.

The following table lists the constants that can be used as the value for the LogSubsystems setting:

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in parentheses) Description
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_ALL (-1) Turns on logging of all subsystems.
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_CONN (2) Turns on logging of connection activity.
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_INIT (1) Turns on logging of initialization activity.
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_OFF (0) Turns logging off.
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_STMT (4) Turns on logging of statement activity.
SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_UTIL (8) Turns on logging of error functions activity (such as handle_error and handle_warning).

The following table lists the constants that can be used as the value for the LogSeverity setting:

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in parentheses) Description
SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_ALL (-1) Specifies that errors, warnings, and notices will be logged.
SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_ERROR (1) Specifies that errors will be logged.
SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_NOTICE (4) Specifies that notices will be logged.
SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_WARNING (2) Specifies that warnings will be logged.

Nullable Constants

The following table lists the constants that you can use to determine whether or not a column is nullable or if this information is not available. You can compare the value of the Nullable key that is returned by sqlsrv_field_metadata to determine the column's nullable status.

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in parentheses) Description
SQLSRV_NULLABLE_YES (0) The column is nullable.
SQLSRV_NULLABLE_NO (1) The column is not nullable.
SQLSRV_NULLABLE_UNKNOWN (2) It is not known if the column is nullable.

PARAM Constants

The following list contains the constants for specifying parameter direction when you call sqlsrv_query or sqlsrv_prepare.

SQLSRV constant Description
SQLSRV_PARAM_IN Indicates an input parameter.
SQLSRV_PARAM_INOUT Indicates a bidirectional parameter.
SQLSRV_PARAM_OUT Indicates an output parameter.

PHPTYPE Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to describe PHP data types. For information about PHP data types, see PHP Types.

SQLSRV constant PHP data type
SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_INT Integer
SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_DATETIME Datetime
SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_FLOAT Float
SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM($encoding1) Stream
SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING($encoding1) String
  1. SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM and SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING accept a parameter that specifies the stream encoding. The following table contains the SQLSRV constants that are acceptable parameters, and a description of the corresponding encoding.
SQLSRV constant Description
SQLSRV_ENC_BINARY Data is returned as a raw byte stream from the server without performing encoding or translation.
SQLSRV_ENC_CHAR Data is returned in 8-bit characters as specified in the code page of the Windows locale that is set on the system. Any multi-byte characters or characters that do not map into this code page are substituted with a single byte question mark (?) character.

This is the default encoding.
"UTF-8" Data is returned in the UTF-8 encoding. This constant was added in version 1.1 of the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server. For more information about UTF-8 support, see How to: Send and Retrieve UTF-8 Data Using Built-In UTF-8 Support.
Note

When you use SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM or SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING, the encoding must be specified. If no parameter is supplied, an error will be returned.

For more information about these constants, see How to: Specify PHP Data Types, How to: Retrieve Character Data as a Stream Using the SQLSRV Driver.

SQLTYPE Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to describe SQL Server data types. Some constants are function-like and may take parameters that correspond to precision, scale, and/or length. When binding parameters, the function-like constants should be used. For type comparisons, the standard (non function-like) constants are required. For information about SQL Server data types, see Data Types (Transact-SQL). For information about precision, scale, and length, see Precision, Scale, and Length (Transact-SQL).

SQLSRV constant SQL Server data type
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BIGINT bigint
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BINARY binary
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BIT bit
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_CHAR char5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_CHAR($charCount) char
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATE date4
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIME datetime
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIME2 datetime24
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIMEOFFSET datetimeoffset4
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL decimal5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL($precision, $scale) decimal
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_FLOAT float
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_IMAGE image1
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_INT int
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_MONEY money
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NCHAR nchar5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NCHAR($charCount) nchar
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC numeric5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC($precision, $scale) numeric
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR nvarchar5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR($charCount) nvarchar
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR('max') nvarchar(MAX)
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NTEXT ntext2
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_REAL real
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLDATETIME smalldatetime
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLINT smallint
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLMONEY smallmoney
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TEXT text3
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TIME time4
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TIMESTAMP timestamp
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TINYINT tinyint
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_UNIQUEIDENTIFIER uniqueidentifier
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_UDT UDT
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY varbinary5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY($byteCount) varbinary
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY('max') varbinary(MAX)
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR varchar5
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR($charCount) varchar
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR('max') varchar(MAX)
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_XML xml
  1. This is a legacy type that maps to the varbinary(max) type.

  2. This is a legacy type that maps to the newer nvarchar type.

  3. This is a legacy type that maps to the newer varchar type.

  4. Support for this type was added in version 1.1 of the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server.

  5. These constants should be used in type comparison operations and don't replace the function-like constants with similar syntax. For binding parameters, you should use the function-like constants.

The following table lists the SQLTYPE constants that accept parameters and the range of values allowed for the parameter.

SQLTYPE Parameter Allowable range for parameter
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_CHAR,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR
charCount 1 - 8000
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NCHAR,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR
charCount 1 - 4000
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BINARY,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY
byteCount 1 - 8000
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC
precision 1 - 38
SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC
scale 1 - precision

Transaction Isolation Level Constants

The TransactionIsolation key, which is used with sqlsrv_connect, accepts one of the following constants:

  • SQLSRV_TXN_READ_UNCOMMITTED

  • SQLSRV_TXN_READ_COMMITTED

  • SQLSRV_TXN_REPEATABLE_READ

  • SQLSRV_TXN_SNAPSHOT

  • SQLSRV_TXN_SERIALIZABLE

Cursor and Scrolling Constants

The following constants specify the kind of cursor that you can use in a result set:

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_FORWARD

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_STATIC

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_DYNAMIC

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_KEYSET

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_CLIENT_BUFFERED

The following constants specify which row to select in the result set:

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_NEXT

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_PRIOR

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_FIRST

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_LAST

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_ABSOLUTE

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_RELATIVE

For information on using these constants, see Specifying a Cursor Type and Selecting Rows.

See Also

SQLSRV Driver API Reference