Installation guidance for SQL Server on Linux

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This article provides guidance for installing, updating, and uninstalling SQL Server 2017 on Linux.

Tip

This guide coves several deployment scenarios. If you are only looking for step-by-step installation instructions, jump to one of the quickstarts:

For answers to frequently asked questions, see the SQL Server on Linux FAQ.

Supported platforms

SQL Server 2017 is supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES), and Ubuntu. It is also supported as a Docker image, which can run on Docker Engine on Linux or Docker for Windows/Mac.

Platform Supported version(s) Get
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3 or 7.4 Get RHEL 7.4
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server v12 SP2 Get SLES v12 SP2
Ubuntu 16.04 Get Ubuntu 16.04
Docker Engine 1.8+ Get Docker

Microsoft also supports deploying and managing SQL Server containers by using OpenShift and Kubernetes.

Note

SQL Server is tested and supported on Linux for the previously listed distributions. If you choose to install SQL Server on an unsupported operating system, please review the Support policy section of the Technical support policy for Microsoft SQL Server to understand the support implications.

System requirements

SQL Server 2017 has the following system requirements for Linux:

Memory 2 GB
File System XFS or EXT4 (other file systems, such as BTRFS, are unsupported)
Disk space 6 GB
Processor speed 2 GHz
Processor cores 2 cores
Processor type x64-compatible only

If you use Network File System (NFS) remote shares in production, note the following support requirements:

  • Use NFS version 4.2 or higher. Older versions of NFS do not support required features, such as fallocate and sparse file creation, common to modern file systems.
  • Locate only the /var/opt/mssql directories on the NFS mount. Other files, such as the SQL Server system binaries, are not supported.
  • Ensure that NFS clients use the 'nolock' option when mounting the remote share.

Configure source repositories

When you install or upgrade SQL Server, you get the latest version of SQL Server 2017 from your configured Microsoft repository. The quickstarts use the Cumulative Update (CU) respository. But you can instead configure the GDR repository. For more information on repositories and how to configure them, see Configure repositories for SQL Server on Linux.

Important

If you previously installed a CTP or RC version of SQL Server 2017, you must remove the preview repository and register a General Availability (GA) one. For more information, see Configure repositories for SQL Server on Linux.

Install SQL Server

You can install SQL Server on Linux from the command line. For instructions, see one of the following quickstarts:

Update SQL Server

To update the mssql-server package to the latest release, use one of the following commands based on your platform:

Platform Package update command(s)
RHEL sudo yum update mssql-server
SLES sudo zypper update mssql-server
Ubuntu sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install mssql-server

These commands download the newest package and replace the binaries located under /opt/mssql/. The user generated databases and system databases are not affected by this operation.

Rollback SQL Server

To rollback or downgrade SQL Server to a previous release, use the following steps:

  1. Identify the version number for the SQL Server package you want to downgrade to. For a list of package numbers, see the Release notes.

  2. Downgrade to a previous version of SQL Server. In the following commands, replace <version_number> with the SQL Server version number you identified in step one.

    Platform Package update command(s)
    RHEL sudo yum downgrade mssql-server-<version_number>.x86_64
    SLES sudo zypper install --oldpackage mssql-server=<version_number>
    Ubuntu sudo apt-get install mssql-server=<version_number>
    sudo systemctl start mssql-server

Note

It is only supported to downgrade to a release within the same major version, such as SQL Server 2017.

Check installed SQL Server version

To verify your current version and edition of SQL Server on Linux, use the following procedure:

  1. If not already installed, install the SQL Server command-line tools.

  2. Use sqlcmd to run a Transact-SQL command that displays your SQL Server version and edition.

    sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -Q 'select @@VERSION'
    

Uninstall SQL Server

To remove the mssql-server package on Linux, use one of the following commands based on your platform:

Platform Package removal command(s)
RHEL sudo yum remove mssql-server
SLES sudo zypper remove mssql-server
Ubuntu sudo apt-get remove mssql-server

Removing the package does not delete the generated database files. If you want to delete the database files, use the following command:

sudo rm -rf /var/opt/mssql/

Unattended install

You can perform an unattended installation in the following way:

  • Follow the initial steps in the quickstarts to register the repositories and install SQL Server.
  • When you run mssql-conf setup, set environment variables and use the -n (no prompt) option.

The following example configures the Developer edition of SQL Server with the MSSQL_PID environment variable. It also accepts the EULA (ACCEPT_EULA) and sets the SA user password (MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD). The -n parameter performs an unprompted installation where the configuration values are pulled from the environment variables.

sudo MSSQL_PID=Developer ACCEPT_EULA=Y MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD='<YourStrong!Passw0rd>' /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf -n setup

You can also create a script that performs other actions. For example, you could install other SQL Server packages.

For a more detailed sample script, see the following examples:

Offline install

If your Linux machine does not have access to the online repositories used in the quick starts, you can download the package files directly. These packages are located in the Microsoft repository, https://packages.microsoft.com.

Tip

If you successfully installed with the steps in the quick starts, you do not need to download or manually install the SQL Server package(s). This section is only for the offline scenario.

  1. Download the database engine package for your platform. Find package download links in the package details section of the Release Notes.

  2. Move the downloaded package to your Linux machine. If you used a different machine to download the packages, one way to move the packages to your Linux machine is with the scp command.

  3. Install the database engine package. Use one of the following commands based on your platform. Replace the package file name in this example with the exact name you downloaded.

    Platform Package install command
    RHEL sudo yum localinstall mssql-server_versionnumber.x86_64.rpm
    SLES sudo zypper install mssql-server_versionnumber.x86_64.rpm
    Ubuntu sudo dpkg -i mssql-server_versionnumber_amd64.deb

    Note

    You can also install the RPM packages (RHEL and SLES) with the rpm -ivh command, but the commands in the previous table automatically install dependencies if available from approved repositories.

  4. Resolve missing dependencies: You might have missing dependencies at this point. If not, you can skip this step. On Ubuntu, if you have access to approved repositories containing those dependencies, the easiest solution is to use the apt-get -f install command. This command also completes the installation of SQL Server. To manually inspect dependencies, use the following commands:

    Platform List dependencies command
    RHEL rpm -qpR mssql-server_versionnumber.x86_64.rpm
    SLES rpm -qpR mssql-server_versionnumber.x86_64.rpm
    Ubuntu dpkg -I mssql-server_versionnumber_amd64.deb

    After resolving the missing dependencies, attempt to install the mssql-server package again.

  5. Complete the SQL Server setup. Use mssql-conf to complete the SQL Server setup:

    sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf setup
    

Optional SQL Server features

After installation, you can also install or enable optional SQL Server features.

info_tip Get Help

Tip

For answers to frequently asked questions, see the SQL Server on Linux FAQ.