Connecting with SQLConnect

SQLConnect is the simplest connection function. It requires a data source name and accepts an optional user ID and password. It works well for applications that hard-code a data source name and do not require a user ID or password. It also works well for applications that want to control their own "look and feel" or that have no user interface. Such applications can build a list of data sources using SQLDataSources, prompt the user for data source, user ID, and password, and then call SQLConnect.

The following example connects to the Northwind database, using a DSN called Northwind, and retrieves all of the first and last name fields from all of the records in the Employees table.

// Connecting_with_SQLConnect.cpp  
// compile with: user32.lib odbc32.lib  
#include <windows.h>  
#include <sqlext.h>  
#include <mbstring.h>  
#include <stdio.h>  

#define MAX_DATA 100  
#define MYSQLSUCCESS(rc) ((rc == SQL_SUCCESS) || (rc == SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) )  

class direxec {  
   RETCODE rc; // ODBC return code  
   HENV henv; // Environment     
   HDBC hdbc; // Connection handle  
   HSTMT hstmt; // Statement handle  

   unsigned char szData[MAX_DATA]; // Returned data storage  
   SDWORD cbData; // Output length of data  
   unsigned char chr_ds_name[SQL_MAX_DSN_LENGTH]; // Data source name  

public:  
   direxec(); // Constructor  
   void sqlconn(); // Allocate env, stat, and conn  
   void sqlexec(unsigned char *); // Execute SQL statement  
   void sqldisconn(); // Free pointers to env, stat, conn, and disconnect  
   void error_out(); // Displays errors  
};  

// Constructor initializes the string chr_ds_name with the data source name.  
// "Northwind" is an ODBC data source (odbcad32.exe) name whose default is the Northwind database  
direxec::direxec() {  
   _mbscpy_s(chr_ds_name, SQL_MAX_DSN_LENGTH, (const unsigned char *)"Northwind");  
}  

// Allocate environment handle and connection handle, connect to data source, and allocate statement handle.  
void direxec::sqlconn() {  
   SQLAllocEnv(&henv);  
   SQLAllocConnect(henv, &hdbc);  
   rc = SQLConnect(hdbc, chr_ds_name, SQL_NTS, NULL, 0, NULL, 0);  

   // Deallocate handles, display error message, and exit.  
   if (!MYSQLSUCCESS(rc)) {  
      SQLFreeConnect(henv);  
      SQLFreeEnv(henv);  
      SQLFreeConnect(hdbc);  
      if (hstmt)  
         error_out();  
      exit(-1);  
   }  

   rc = SQLAllocStmt(hdbc, &hstmt);  
}  

// Execute SQL command with SQLExecDirect() ODBC API.  
void direxec::sqlexec(unsigned char * cmdstr) {  
   rc = SQLExecDirect(hstmt, cmdstr, SQL_NTS);  
   if (!MYSQLSUCCESS(rc)) {  //Error  
      error_out();  
      // Deallocate handles and disconnect.  
      SQLFreeStmt(hstmt,SQL_DROP);  
      SQLDisconnect(hdbc);  
      SQLFreeConnect(hdbc);  
      SQLFreeEnv(henv);  
      exit(-1);  
   }  
   else {  
      for ( rc = SQLFetch(hstmt) ; rc == SQL_SUCCESS ; rc=SQLFetch(hstmt) ) {  
         SQLGetData(hstmt, 1, SQL_C_CHAR, szData, sizeof(szData), &cbData);  
         // In this example, the data is sent to the console; SQLBindCol() could be called to bind   
         // individual rows of data and assign for a rowset.  
         printf("%s\n", (const char *)szData);  
      }  
   }  
}  

// Free the statement handle, disconnect, free the connection handle, and free the environment handle.  
void direxec::sqldisconn() {  
   SQLFreeStmt(hstmt,SQL_DROP);  
   SQLDisconnect(hdbc);  
   SQLFreeConnect(hdbc);  
   SQLFreeEnv(henv);  
}  

// Display error message in a message box that has an OK button.  
void direxec::error_out() {  
   unsigned char szSQLSTATE[10];  
   SDWORD nErr;  
   unsigned char msg[SQL_MAX_MESSAGE_LENGTH + 1];  
   SWORD cbmsg;  

   while (SQLError(0, 0, hstmt, szSQLSTATE, &nErr, msg, sizeof(msg), &cbmsg) == SQL_SUCCESS) {  
      sprintf_s((char *)szData, sizeof(szData), "Error:\nSQLSTATE=%s, Native error=%ld, msg='%s'", szSQLSTATE, nErr, msg);  
      MessageBox(NULL, (const char *)szData, "ODBC Error", MB_OK);  
   }  
}  

int main () {  
   direxec x;   // Declare an instance of the direxec object.  
   x.sqlconn();   // Allocate handles, and connect.  
   x.sqlexec((UCHAR FAR *)"SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM employees");   // Execute SQL command  
   x.sqldisconn();   // Free handles and disconnect  
}