SQLFreeHandle Function

Conformance
Version Introduced: ODBC 3.0 Standards Compliance: ISO 92

Summary
SQLFreeHandle frees resources associated with a specific environment, connection, statement, or descriptor handle.

Note

This function is a generic function for freeing handles. It replaces the ODBC 2.0 functions SQLFreeConnect (for freeing a connection handle) and SQLFreeEnv (for freeing an environment handle). SQLFreeConnect and SQLFreeEnv are both deprecated in ODBC 3.x. SQLFreeHandle also replaces the ODBC 2.0 function SQLFreeStmt (with the SQL_DROP Option) for freeing a statement handle. For more information, see "Comments." For more information about what the Driver Manager maps this function to when an ODBC 3.x application is working with an ODBC 2.x driver, see Mapping Replacement Functions for Backward Compatibility of Applications.

Syntax


SQLRETURN SQLFreeHandle(  
     SQLSMALLINT   HandleType,  
     SQLHANDLE     Handle);  

Arguments

HandleType
[Input] The type of handle to be freed by SQLFreeHandle. Must be one of the following values:

  • SQL_HANDLE_DBC

  • SQL_HANDLE_DBC_INFO_TOKEN

  • SQL_HANDLE_DESC

  • SQL_HANDLE_ENV

  • SQL_HANDLE_STMT

    SQL_HANDLE_DBC_INFO_TOKEN handle is used only by the Driver Manager and driver. Applications should not use this handle type. For more information about SQL_HANDLE_DBC_INFO_TOKEN, see Developing Connection-Pool Awareness in an ODBC Driver.

    If HandleType is not one of these values, SQLFreeHandle returns SQL_INVALID_HANDLE.

    Handle
    [Input] The handle to be freed.

Returns

SQL_SUCCESS, SQL_ERROR, or SQL_INVALID_HANDLE.

If SQLFreeHandle returns SQL_ERROR, the handle is still valid.

Diagnostics

When SQLFreeHandle returns SQL_ERROR, an associated SQLSTATE value may be obtained from the diagnostic data structure for the handle that SQLFreeHandle tried to free but could not. The following table lists the SQLSTATE values typically returned by SQLFreeHandle and explains each one in the context of this function; the notation "(DM)" precedes the descriptions of SQLSTATEs returned by the Driver Manager. The return code associated with each SQLSTATE value is SQL_ERROR, unless noted otherwise.

SQLSTATE Error Description
HY000 General error An error occurred for which there was no specific SQLSTATE and for which no implementation-specific SQLSTATE was defined. The error message returned by SQLGetDiagRec in the *MessageText buffer describes the error and its cause.
HY001 Memory allocation error The driver was unable to allocate memory that is required to support execution or completion of the function.
HY010 Function sequence error (DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_ENV, and at least one connection was in an allocated or connected state. SQLDisconnect and SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_DBC must be called for each connection before calling SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_ENV.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_DBC, and the function was called before calling SQLDisconnect for the connection.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_DBC. An asynchronously executing function was called with Handle and the function was still executing when this function was called.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_STMT. SQLExecute, SQLExecDirect, SQLBulkOperations, or SQLSetPos was called with the statement handle and returned SQL_NEED_DATA. This function was called before data was sent for all data-at-execution parameters or columns.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_STMT. An asynchronously executing function was called on the statement handle or on the associated connection handle and the function was still executing when this function was called.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_DESC. An asynchronously executing function was called on the associated connection handle; and the function was still executing when this function was called.

(DM) All subsidiary handles and other resources were not released before SQLFreeHandle was called.

(DM) SQLExecute, SQLExecDirect, or SQLMoreResults was called for one of the statement handles associated with the Handle and HandleType was set to SQL_HANDLE_STMT or SQL_HANDLE_DESC returned SQL_PARAM_DATA_AVAILABLE. This function was called before data was retrieved for all streamed parameters.
HY013 Memory management error The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_STMT or SQL_HANDLE_DESC, and the function call could not be processed because the underlying memory objects could not be accessed, possibly because of low memory conditions.
HY017 Invalid use of an automatically allocated descriptor handle. (DM) The Handle argument was set to the handle for an automatically allocated descriptor.
HY117 Connection is suspended due to unknown transaction state. Only disconnect and read-only functions are allowed. (DM) For more information about suspended state, see SQLEndTran Function.
HYT01 Connection timeout expired The connection timeout period expired before the data source responded to the request. The connection timeout period is set through SQLSetConnectAttr, SQL_ATTR_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT.
IM001 Driver does not support this function (DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_DESC, and the driver was an ODBC 2.x driver.

(DM) The HandleType argument was SQL_HANDLE_STMT, and the driver was not a valid ODBC driver.

Comments

SQLFreeHandle is used to free handles for environments, connections, statements, and descriptors, as described in the following sections. For general information about handles, see Handles.

An application should not use a handle after it has been freed; the Driver Manager does not check the validity of a handle in a function call.

Freeing an Environment Handle

Before it calls SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_ENV, an application must call SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_DBC for all connections allocated under the environment. Otherwise, the call to SQLFreeHandle returns SQL_ERROR and the environment and any active connection remains valid. For more information, see Environment Handles and Allocating the Environment Handle.

If the environment is a shared environment, the application that calls SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_ENV no longer has access to the environment after the call, but the environment's resources are not necessarily freed. The call to SQLFreeHandle decrements the reference count of the environment. The reference count is maintained by the Driver Manager. If it does not reach zero, the shared environment is not freed, because it is still being used by another component. If the reference count reaches zero, the resources of the shared environment are freed.

Freeing a Connection Handle

Before it calls SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_DBC, an application must call SQLDisconnect for the connection if there is a connection on this handle. Otherwise, the call to SQLFreeHandle returns SQL_ERROR and the connection remains valid.

For more information, see Connection Handles and Disconnecting from a Data Source or Driver.

Freeing a Statement Handle

A call to SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_STMT frees all resources that were allocated by a call to SQLAllocHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_STMT. When an application calls SQLFreeHandle to free a statement that has pending results, the pending results are deleted. When an application frees a statement handle, the driver frees the four automatically allocated descriptors associated with that handle. For more information, see Statement Handles and Freeing a Statement Handle.

Notice that SQLDisconnect automatically drops any statements and descriptors open on the connection.

Freeing a Descriptor Handle

A call to SQLFreeHandle with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_DESC frees the descriptor handle in Handle. The call to SQLFreeHandle does not release any memory allocated by the application that may be referenced by a pointer field (including SQL_DESC_DATA_PTR, SQL_DESC_INDICATOR_PTR, and SQL_DESC_OCTET_LENGTH_PTR) of any descriptor record of Handle. The memory allocated by the driver for fields that are not pointer fields is freed when the handle is freed. When a user-allocated descriptor handle is freed, all statements that the freed handle had been associated with revert to their respective automatically allocated descriptor handles.

Note

ODBC 2.x drivers do not support freeing descriptor handles, just as they do not support allocating descriptor handles.

Notice that SQLDisconnect automatically drops any statements and descriptors open on the connection. When an application frees a statement handle, the driver frees all the automatically generated descriptors associated with that handle.

For more information about descriptors, see Descriptors.

Code Example

For additional code samples, see SQLBrowseConnect and SQLConnect.

Code

// SQLFreeHandle.cpp  
// compile with: user32.lib odbc32.lib  
#include <windows.h>  
#include <sqlext.h>  
#include <stdio.h>  

int main() {  
   SQLRETURN retCode;  
   HWND desktopHandle = GetDesktopWindow();   // desktop's window handle  
   SQLCHAR connStrbuffer[1024];  
   SQLSMALLINT connStrBufferLen;  

   // Initialize the environment, connection, statement handles.  
   SQLHENV henv = NULL;   // Environment     
   SQLHDBC hdbc = NULL;   // Connection handle  
   SQLHSTMT hstmt = NULL;   // Statement handle  

   // Allocate the environment.  
   retCode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, SQL_NULL_HANDLE, &henv);  

   // Set environment attributes.  
   retCode = SQLSetEnvAttr(henv, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION, (void*)SQL_OV_ODBC3, -1);  

   // Allocate the connection.  
   retCode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, henv, &hdbc);  

   // Set the login timeout.  
   retCode = SQLSetConnectAttr(hdbc, SQL_LOGIN_TIMEOUT, (SQLPOINTER)10, 0);  

   // Let the user select the data source and connect to the database.  
   retCode = SQLDriverConnect(hdbc, desktopHandle, (SQLCHAR *)"Driver={SQL Server}", SQL_NTS, connStrbuffer, 1025, &connStrBufferLen, SQL_DRIVER_PROMPT);  

   retCode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hdbc, &hstmt);  

   // Free handles, and disconnect.     
   if (hstmt) {   
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hstmt);  
      hstmt = NULL;   
   }  
   if (hdbc) {   
      SQLDisconnect(hdbc);  
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, hdbc);  
      hdbc = NULL;   
   }  
   if (henv) {   
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv);  
      henv = NULL;   
   }  
}  
For information about See
Allocating a handle SQLAllocHandle Function
Canceling statement processing SQLCance Functionl
Setting a cursor name SQLSetCursorName Function

See Also

ODBC API Reference
ODBC Header Files
Sample ODBC Program