CLR User-Defined Aggregates - Requirements

APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server noAzure SQL Database noAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

A type in a common language runtime (CLR) assembly can be registered as a user-defined aggregate function, as long as it implements the required aggregation contract. This contract consists of the SqlUserDefinedAggregate attribute and the aggregation contract methods. The aggregation contract includes the mechanism to save the intermediate state of the aggregation, and the mechanism to accumulate new values, which consists of four methods: Init, Accumulate, Merge, and Terminate. When you have met these requirements, you will be able to take full advantage of user-defined aggregates in Microsoft SQL Server. The following sections of this topic provide additional details about how to create and work with user-defined aggregates. For an example, see Invoking CLR User-Defined Aggregate Functions.


For more information, see SqlUserDefinedAggregateAttribute.

Aggregation Methods

The class registered as a user-defined aggregate should support the following instance methods. These are the methods that the query processor uses to compute the aggregation:

Method Syntax Description
Init public void Init(); The query processor uses this method to initialize the computation of the aggregation. This method is invoked once for each group that the query processor is aggregating. The query processor may choose to reuse the same instance of the aggregate class for computing aggregates of multiple groups. The Init method should perform any clean-up as necessary from previous uses of this instance, and enable it to re-start a new aggregate computation.
Accumulate public void Accumulate ( input-type value[, input-type value, ...]); One or more parameters representing the parameters of the function. input_type should be the managed SQL Server data type equivalent to the native SQL Server data type specified by input_sqltype in the CREATE AGGREGATE statement. For more information, see Mapping CLR Parameter Data.

For user-defined types (UDTs), the input-type is the same as the UDT type. The query processor uses this method to accumulate the aggregate values. This is invoked once for each value in the group that is being aggregated. The query processor always calls this only after calling the Init method on the given instance of the aggregate-class. The implementation of this method should update the state of the instance to reflect the accumulation of the argument value being passed in.
Merge public void Merge( udagg_class value); This method can be used to merge another instance of this aggregate class with the current instance. The query processor uses this method to merge multiple partial computations of an aggregation.
Terminate public return_type Terminate(); This method completes the aggregate computation and returns the result of the aggregation. The return_type should be a managed SQL Server data type that is the managed equivalent of return_sqltype specified in the CREATE AGGREGATE statement. The return_type can also be a user-defined type.

Table-Valued Parameters

Table-valued parameters (TVPs), user-defined table types that are passed into a procedure or function, provide an efficient way to pass multiple rows of data to the server. TVPs provide similar functionality to parameter arrays, but offer greater flexibility and closer integration with Transact-SQL. They also provide the potential for better performance. TVPs also help reduce the number of round trips to the server. Instead of sending multiple requests to the server, such as with a list of scalar parameters, data can be sent to the server as a TVP. A user-defined table type cannot be passed as a table-valued parameter to, or be returned from, a managed stored procedure or function executing in the SQL Server process. Also, TVPs cannot be used within the scope of a context connection. However, a TVP can be used with SqlClient in managed stored procedures or functions executing in the SQL Server process, if it is used in a connection that is not a context connection. The connection can be to the same server that is executing the managed procedure or function. For more information about TVPs, see Use Table-Valued Parameters (Database Engine).

Change History

Updated content
Updated the description of the Accumulate method; it now accepts more than one parameter.

See Also

CLR User-Defined Types
Invoking CLR User-Defined Aggregate Functions