model Database

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL ServernoAzure SQL DatabasenoAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

The model database is used as the template for all databases created on an instance of SQL Server. Because tempdb is created every time SQL Server is started, the model database must always exist on a SQL Server system. The entire contents of the model database, including database options, are copied to the new database. Some of the settings of model are also used for creating a new tempdb during start up, so the model database must always exist on a SQL Server system.

Newly created user databases use the same recovery model as the model database. The default is user configurable. To learn the current recovery model of the model, see View or Change the Recovery Model of a Database (SQL Server).

Important

If you modify the model database with user-specific template information, we recommend that you back up model. For more information, see Back Up and Restore of System Databases (SQL Server).

model Usage

When a CREATE DATABASE statement is issued, the first part of the database is created by copying in the contents of the model database. The rest of the new database is then filled with empty pages.

If you modify the model database, all databases created afterward will inherit those changes. For example, you could set permissions or database options, or add objects such as tables, functions, or stored procedures. File properties of the model database are an exception, and are ignored except the initial size of the data file. The default initial size of the model database data and log file is 8 MB.

Physical Properties of model

The following table lists initial configuration values of the model data and log files.

File Logical name Physical name File growth
Primary data modeldev model.mdf Autogrow by 64 MB until the disk is full.
Log modellog modellog.ldf Autogrow by 64 MB to a maximum of 2 terabytes.

For versions before SQL Server 2016, see model Databasefor default file growth values.

To move the model database or log files, see Move System Databases.

Database Options

The following table lists the default value for each database option in the model database and whether the option can be modified. To view the current settings for these options, use the sys.databases catalog view.

Database option Default value Can be modified
ALLOW_SNAPSHOT_ISOLATION OFF Yes
ANSI_NULL_DEFAULT OFF Yes
ANSI_NULLS OFF Yes
ANSI_PADDING OFF Yes
ANSI_WARNINGS OFF Yes
ARITHABORT OFF Yes
AUTO_CLOSE OFF Yes
AUTO_CREATE_STATISTICS ON Yes
AUTO_SHRINK OFF Yes
AUTO_UPDATE_STATISTICS ON Yes
AUTO_UPDATE_STATISTICS_ASYNC OFF Yes
CHANGE_TRACKING OFF No
CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF Yes
CURSOR_CLOSE_ON_COMMIT OFF Yes
CURSOR_DEFAULT GLOBAL Yes
Database Availability Options ONLINE

MULTI_USER

READ_WRITE
No

Yes

Yes
DATE_CORRELATION_OPTIMIZATION OFF Yes
DB_CHAINING OFF No
ENCRYPTION OFF No
MIXED_PAGE_ALLOCATION ON No
NUMERIC_ROUNDABORT OFF Yes
PAGE_VERIFY CHECKSUM Yes
PARAMETERIZATION SIMPLE Yes
QUOTED_IDENTIFIER OFF Yes
READ_COMMITTED_SNAPSHOT OFF Yes
RECOVERY Depends on SQL Server edition* Yes
RECURSIVE_TRIGGERS OFF Yes
Service Broker Options DISABLE_BROKER No
TRUSTWORTHY OFF No

*To verify the current recovery model of the database, see View or Change the Recovery Model of a Database (SQL Server) or sys.databases (Transact-SQL).

For a description of these database options, see ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL).

Restrictions

The following operations cannot be performed on the model database:

  • Adding files or filegroups.

  • Changing collation. The default collation is the server collation.

  • Changing the database owner. model is owned by sa.

  • Dropping the database.

  • Dropping the guest user from the database.

  • Enabling change data capture.

  • Participating in database mirroring.

  • Removing the primary filegroup, primary data file, or log file.

  • Renaming the database or primary filegroup.

  • Setting the database to OFFLINE.

  • Setting the primary filegroup to READ_ONLY.

  • Creating procedures, views, or triggers using the WITH ENCRYPTION option. The encryption key is tied to the database in which the object is created. Encrypted objects created in the model database can only be used in model.

System Databases

sys.databases (Transact-SQL)

sys.master_files (Transact-SQL)

Move Database Files