Binding and Data Transfer of Table-Valued Parameters and Column Values

Applies to: yesSQL Server (all supported versions) YesAzure SQL Database YesAzure SQL Managed Instance yesAzure Synapse Analytics yesAnalytics Platform System (PDW)

Table-valued parameters (TVP), like other parameters, must be bound before they're passed to the server. The application binds table-valued parameters the same way it binds other parameters: using SQLBindParameter or equivalent calls to SQLSetDescField or SQLSetDescRec. The server data type for a table-valued parameter is SQL_SS_TABLE. The C type can be specified either as SQL_C_DEFAULT or SQL_C_BINARY.

In SQL Server 2008 or later, only input table-valued parameters are supported. Therefore, any attempt to set SQL_DESC_PARAMETER_TYPE to a value other than SQL_PARAM_INPUT returns SQL_ERROR with SQLSTATE = HY105 and the message "Invalid parameter type".

Entire table-valued parameter columns can be assigned default values by using the attribute SQL_CA_SS_COL_HAS_DEFAULT_VALUE. Individual table-valued parameter column values, however, can't be assigned default values by using SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM in StrLen_or_IndPtr with SQLBindParameter. Table-valued parameters as a whole can't be set to a default value by using SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM in StrLen_or_IndPtr with SQLBindParameter. If these rules aren't followed, SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect returns SQL_ERROR. A diagnostic record is generated with SQLSTATE=07S01 and the message "Invalid use of default parameter for parameter <p>," where <p> is the ordinal of the TVP in the query statement.


Table-valued parameters do not have a default value that can be set, because SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM indicates no rows. So if there are no rows, there are no columns to bind.

After binding the table-valued parameter, the application must then bind each table-valued parameter column. To do this, the application first calls SQLSetStmtAttr to set SQL_SOPT_SS_PARAM_FOCUS to the ordinal of a table-valued parameter. The application binds the columns of the table-valued parameter by calls to the following routines: SQLBindParameter, SQLSetDescRec, and SQLSetDescField. Setting SQL_SOPT_SS_PARAM_FOCUS to 0 restores the usual effect of SQLBindParameter, SQLSetDescRec, and SQLSetDescField in operating on regular top-level parameters.


For the Linux and Mac ODBC drivers with unixODBC 2.3.1 to 2.3.4, when setting the TVP name through SQLSetDescField with the SQL_CA_SS_TYPE_NAME descriptor field, unixODBC doesn't automatically convert between ANSI and Unicode strings depending on the exact function called (SQLSetDescFieldA / SQLSetDescFieldW). It is necessary to either always use SQLBindParameter or SQLSetDescFieldW with a Unicode (UTF-16) string to set the TVP name.

No actual data is sent or received for the table-valued parameter itself, but data is sent and received for each of its constituent columns. Because the table-valued parameter is a pseudo column, the parameters for SQLBindParameter refer to different attributes than other data types, as follows:

Parameter Related attribute for non-table-valued parameter types, including columns Related attribute for table-valued parameters

For table-valued parameter columns, this must be the same as the setting for the table-valued parameter itself.

This must be SQL_PARAM_INPUT.


This must be SQL_SS_TABLE.

This depends on the value of ParameterType.

Can also be set using SQL_ATTR_PARAM_SET_SIZE when the parameter focus is set to the table-valued parameter.

For a table-valued parameter, this is the number of rows in the table-valued parameter column buffers.
DecimalDigits SQL_DESC_PRECISION or SQL_DESC_SCALE in IPD. Unused. This must be 0.

If this parameter isn't 0, SQLBindParameter returns SQL_ERROR, and a diagnostic record is generated with SQLSTATE= HY104 and the message "Invalid precision or scale".

This is optional for stored procedure calls, and NULL can be specified if it isn't required. It must be specified for SQL statements that aren't procedure calls.

This parameter also serves as a unique value that the application can use to identify this table-valued parameter when variable row binding is used. For more information, see the "Variable Table-Valued Parameter Row Binding" section, later in this topic.

When a table-valued parameter type name is specified on a call to SQLBindParameter, it must be specified as a Unicode value, even in applications built as ANSI applications. The value used for the parameter StrLen_or_IndPtr should be either SQL_NTS or the string length of the name multiplied by size of (WCHAR).
BufferLength SQL_DESC_OCTET_LENGTH in APD. The length of the table-valued parameter type name in bytes.

This can be SQL_NTS if the type name is null-terminated, or 0 if the table-valued parameter type name isn't required.

For table-valued parameters, this is a row count rather than a data length.

Two data transfer modes are supported for table-valued parameters: fixed row binding and variable row binding.

Fixed Table-Valued Parameter Row Binding

For fixed row binding, an application allocates buffers (or buffer arrays) large enough for all possible input column values. The application does the following:

  1. Binds all parameters by using SQLBindParameter, SQLSetDescRec, or SQLSetDescField calls.

    1. Sets SQL_DESC_ARRAY_SIZE to the maximum number of rows that can be transferred for each table-valued parameter. This can be done in the SQLBindParameter call.
  2. Calls SQLSetStmtAttr to set SQL_SOPT_SS_PARAM_FOCUS to the ordinal of each table-valued parameter.

    1. For each table-valued parameter, binds table-valued parameter columns by using SQLBindParameter, SQLSetDescRec, or SQLSetDescField calls.

    2. For each table-valued parameter column that is to have default values, calls SQLSetDescField to set SQL_CA_SS_COL_HAS_DEFAULT_VALUE to 1.

  3. Calls SQLSetStmtAttr to set SQL_SOPT_SS_PARAM_FOCUS to 0. This must be done before SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect is called. Otherwise, SQL_ERROR is returned, and a diagnostic record is generated with SQLSTATE=HY024 and the message "Invalid attribute value, SQL_SOPT_SS_PARAM_FOCUS (must be zero at execution time)."

  4. Sets StrLen_or_IndPtr or SQL_DESC_OCTET_LENGTH_PTR to SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM for a table-valued parameter with no rows, or the number of rows to be transferred on the next call of SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect if the table-valued parameter has rows. StrLen_or_IndPtr or SQL_DESC_OCTET_LENGTH_PTR can't be set to SQL_NULL_DATA for a table-valued parameter as table-valued parameters aren't nullable (though table-valued parameter constituent columns may be nullable). If this is set to an invalid value, SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect returns SQL_ERROR, and a diagnostic record is generated with SQLSTATE=HY090 and the message "Invalid string or buffer length for parameter <p>," where p is the parameter number.

  5. Calls SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect.

    Input table-valued parameter column values can be passed in pieces if StrLen_or_IndPtr is set to SQL_LEN_DATA_AT_EXEC(length) or SQL_DATA_AT_EXEC for the column. This is similar to passing values in pieces when arrays of parameters are used. As with all data-at-execution parameters, SQLParamData doesn't indicate which row of the array the driver is requesting data for; the application must take care of this. The application can't make any assumptions about the order in which the driver requests values.

Variable Table-Valued Parameter Row Binding

For variable row binding, rows are transferred in batches at execution time, and the application passes rows to the driver on demand. This is similar to data-at-execution for individual parameter values. For variable row binding, the application does the following:

  1. Binds parameters and table-valued parameter columns, as described in steps 1 to 3 of the previous section, "Fixed Table-Valued Parameter Row Binding."

  2. Sets StrLen_or_IndPtr or SQL_DESC_OCTET_LENGTH_PTR for any table-valued parameters to be passed at execution time to SQL_DATA_AT_EXEC. If neither is set, the parameter is processed as described in the previous section.

  3. Calls SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect. This returns SQL_NEED_DATA if there are any SQL_PARAM_INPUT or SQL_PARAM_INPUT_OUTPUT parameters to be handled as data-at-execution parameters. In this case, the application does the following:

    • Calls SQLParamData. This returns the ParameterValuePtr value for a data-at-execution parameter and a return code of SQL_NEED_DATA. When all parameter data has been passed to the driver, SQLParamData returns SQL_SUCCESS, SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO, or SQL_ERROR. For data-at-execution parameters, ParameterValuePtr, which is the same as the descriptor field SQL_DESC_DATA_PTR, can be regarded as a token to identify a parameter for which a value is required uniquely. This "token" is passed from the application to the driver at bind time, then passed back to the application at execution time.
  4. To send table-valued parameter row data for null table-valued parameters, if the table-valued parameter has no rows, an application calls SQLPutData with StrLen_or_Ind set to SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM.

    For non-NULL TVPs, an application:

    • Sets Str_Len_or_Ind for all the table-valued parameter columns to appropriate values, and populates data buffers for table-valued parameter columns that aren't to be data-at-execution parameters. You can use data-at-execution for table-valued parameter columns in a similar way to that in which ordinary parameters can be passed to the driver in pieces.

    • Calls SQLPutData with Str_Len_or_Ind set to the number of rows to be sent to the server. Any value outside the range 0 to SQL_DESC_ARRAY_SIZE or SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM is an error, and returns SQLSTATE HY090, with the message "Invalid string or buffer length." 0 indicates that all rows have been sent, and there's no more data for a table-valued parameter (as noted in the second bullet item in this list). SQL_DEFAULT_PARAM can only be used the first time the driver requests data for a table-valued parameter (as described in the first bullet item in this list).

  5. When all rows have been sent, calls SQLPutData for the table-valued parameter with a Str_Len_or_Ind value of 0, then proceed to step 3a above.

  6. Calls SQLParamData again. If there are any data-at-execution parameters among the table-valued parameter columns, these are identified by the value ValuePtrPtr returned by SQLParamData. When all column values are available, SQLParamData returns the ParameterValuePtr value for the table-valued parameter, and the application begins again.

Next steps

Table-Valued Parameters ODBC