The SQL Server error log contains user-defined events and certain system events you will want for troubleshooting.
How to view the logs
- In SSMS, select Object Explorer
To open Object Explorer: Keyboard shortcuy is F8. Or, on the top menu, click View/Object Explorer
In Object Explorer, connect to an instance of the SQL Server and then expand that instance.
Find and expand the Management section (Assuming you have permissions to see it).
Right-click on SQL Server Logs, select View, and choose View SQL Server Log.
The Log File Viewer will appear (It might take a minute) with a list of logs for you to view.
Several people have recommended MSSQLTips.com's helpful post Identify location of the SQL Server Error Log file. They have a lot of terrific information - be sure to check them out!