SQL Server Audit Records

The SQL Server Audit feature enables you to audit server-level and database-level groups of events and events. For more information, see SQL Server Audit (Database Engine). SQL Server.

Audits consist of zero or more audit action items, which are recorded to an audit target. The audit target can be a binary file, the Windows Application event log or the Windows Security event log. The records sent to the target can contain the elements described in the following table.

Column name Description Type Always available
event_time Date/time when the auditable action is fired. datetime2 Yes
sequence_no Tracks the sequence of records within a single audit record that was too large to fit in the write buffer for audits. int Yes
action_id ID of the action

Tip: To use action_id as a predicate it must be converted from a character string to a numeric value. For more information, see Filter SQL Server Audit on action_id / class_type predicate.
varchar(4) Yes
succeeded Indicates if the action that triggered the event succeeded bit – 1 = Success, 0 = Fail Yes
permission_bitmask When applicable, shows the permissions that were granted, denied, or revoked bigint No
is_column_permission Flag indicating a column level permission bit – 1 = True, 0 = False No
session_id ID of the session on which the event occurred. int Yes
server_principal_id ID of the login context that the action is performed in. int Yes
database_principal_id ID of the database user context that the action is performed in. int No
object_ id The primary ID of the entity on which the audit occurred. This includes:

server objects

databases

database objects

schema objects
int No
target_server_principal_id Server principal that the auditable action applies to. int Yes
target_database_principal_id Database principal that the auditable action applies to. int No
class_type Type of auditable entity that the audit occurs on. varchar(2) Yes
session_server_principal_name Server principal for the session. sysname Yes
server_principal_name Current login. sysname Yes
server_principal_sid Current login SID. varbinary Yes
database_principal_name Current user. sysname No
target_server_principal_name Target login of the action. sysname No
target_server_principal_sid SID of the target login. varbinary No
target_database_principal_name Target user of the action. sysname No
server_instance_name Name of the server instance where the audit occurred. Uses the standard machine\instance format. nvarchar(120) Yes
database_name The database context in which the action occurred. sysname No
schema_name The schema context in which the action occurred. sysname No
object_name The name of the entity on which the audit occurred. This includes:

server objects

databases

database objects

schema objects

TSQL statement (if any)
sysname No
statement TSQL statement (if any) nvarchar(4000) No
additional_information Any additional information about the event, stored as XML. nvarchar(4000) No

Remarks

Some actions do not populate a column's value because it might be non-applicable to the action.

SQL Server Audit stores 4000 characters of data for character fields in an audit record. When the additional_information and statement values returned from an auditable action return more than 4000 characters, the sequence_no column is used to write multiple records into the audit report for a single audit action to record this data. The process is as follows:

  • The statement column is divided into 4000 characters.

  • SQL Server Audit writes as the first row for the audit record with the partial data. All the other fields are duplicated in each row.

  • The sequence_no value is incremented.

  • This process is repeated until all the data is recorded.

    You can connect the data by reading the rows sequentially using the sequence_no value, and the event_Time, action_id and session_id columns to identify the action.

CREATE SERVER AUDIT (Transact-SQL)

ALTER SERVER AUDIT (Transact-SQL)

DROP SERVER AUDIT (Transact-SQL)

CREATE SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

DROP SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

CREATE DATABASE AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

ALTER DATABASE AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

DROP DATABASE AUDIT SPECIFICATION (Transact-SQL)

ALTER AUTHORIZATION (Transact-SQL)

sys.fn_get_audit_file (Transact-SQL)

sys.server_audits (Transact-SQL)

sys.server_file_audits (Transact-SQL)

sys.server_audit_specifications (Transact-SQL)

sys.server_audit_specification_details (Transact-SQL)

sys.database_audit_specifications (Transact-SQL)

sys.database_audit_specification_details (Transact-SQL)

sys.dm_server_audit_status (Transact-SQL)

sys.dm_audit_actions (Transact-SQL)

sys.dm_audit_class_type_map (Transact-SQL)