Permissions (Database Engine)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL ServeryesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Every SQL Server securable has associated permissions that can be granted to a principal. Permissions in the Database Engine are managed at the server level assigned to logins and server roles, and at the database level assigned to database users and database roles. The model for SQL Database has the same system for the database permissions, but the server level permissions are not available. This topic contains the complete list of permissions. For a typical implementation of the permissions, see Getting Started with Database Engine Permissions.

The total number of permissions for SQL Server 2017 and SQL Database is 237. Most permissions apply to all platforms, but some do not. For example server level permissions cannot be granted on SQL Database, and a few permissions only make sense on SQL Database. SQL Server 2016 exposed 230 permissions. SQL Server 2014 exposed 219 permissions. SQL Server 2012 exposed 214 permissions. SQL Server 2008 R2 exposed 195 permissions. The sys.fn_builtin_permissions topic specifies which topics are new in recent versions. The following graphic shows the permissions and their relationships to each other. Some of the higher level permissions (such as CONTROL SERVER) are listed many times. Click the image to download the Database Engine Permissions Poster in pdf format.

Database Engine Permissions

Once you understand the permissions, apply server level permissions to logins and database level permissions users with the GRANT, REVOKE, and DENY statements. For Example:

GRANT SELECT ON OBJECT::HumanResources.Employee TO Larry;
REVOKE SELECT ON OBJECT::HumanResources.Employee TO Larry;

For tips on planning a permissions system, see Getting Started with Database Engine Permissions.

Permissions Naming Conventions

The following describes the general conventions that are followed for naming permissions:

  • CONTROL

    Confers ownership-like capabilities on the grantee. The grantee effectively has all defined permissions on the securable. A principal that has been granted CONTROL can also grant permissions on the securable. Because the SQL Server security model is hierarchical, CONTROL at a particular scope implicitly includes CONTROL on all the securables under that scope. For example, CONTROL on a database implies all permissions on the database, all permissions on all assemblies in the database, all permissions on all schemas in the database, and all permissions on objects within all schemas within the database.

  • ALTER

    Confers the ability to change the properties, except ownership, of a particular securable. When granted on a scope, ALTER also bestows the ability to alter, create, or drop any securable that is contained within that scope. For example, ALTER permission on a schema includes the ability to create, alter, and drop objects from the schema.

  • ALTER ANY <Server Securable>, where Server Securable can be any server securable.

    Confers the ability to create, alter, or drop individual instances of the Server Securable. For example, ALTER ANY LOGIN confers the ability to create, alter, or drop any login in the instance.

  • ALTER ANY <Database Securable>, where Database Securable can be any securable at the database level.

    Confers the ability to CREATE, ALTER, or DROP individual instances of the Database Securable. For example, ALTER ANY SCHEMA confers the ability to create, alter, or drop any schema in the database.

  • TAKE OWNERSHIP

    Enables the grantee to take ownership of the securable on which it is granted.

  • IMPERSONATE <Login>

    Enables the grantee to impersonate the login.

  • IMPERSONATE <User>

    Enables the grantee to impersonate the user.

  • CREATE <Server Securable>

    Confers to the grantee the ability to create the Server Securable.

  • CREATE <Database Securable>

    Confers to the grantee the ability to create the Database Securable.

  • CREATE <Schema-contained Securable>

    Confers the ability to create the schema-contained securable. However, ALTER permission on the schema is required to create the securable in a particular schema.

  • VIEW DEFINITION

    Enables the grantee to access metadata.

  • REFERENCES

    The REFERENCES permission on a table is needed to create a FOREIGN KEY constraint that references that table.

    The REFERENCES permission is needed on an object to create a FUNCTION or VIEW with the WITH SCHEMABINDING clause that references that object.

Chart of SQL Server Permissions

For a poster sized chart of all Database Engine permissions in pdf format, see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=229142.

Permissions Applicable to Specific Securables

The following table lists major classes of permissions and the kinds of securables to which they may be applied.

Permission Applies to
ALTER All classes of objects except TYPE.
CONTROL All classes of objects:
AGGREGATE,
APPLICATION ROLE,
ASSEMBLY,
ASYMMETRIC KEY,
AVAILABILITY GROUP,
CERTIFICATE,
CONTRACT,
CREDENTIALS, DATABASE,
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL,
DEFAULT,
ENDPOINT,
FULLTEXT CATALOG,
FULLTEXT STOPLIST,
FUNCTION,
LOGIN,
MESSAGE TYPE,
PROCEDURE,
QUEUE,
REMOTE SERVICE BINDING,
ROLE,
ROUTE,
RULE,
SCHEMA,
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST,
SERVER,
SERVER ROLE,
SERVICE,
SYMMETRIC KEY,
SYNONYM,
TABLE,
TYPE, USER,
VIEW, and
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION
DELETE All classes of objects except DATABASE SCOPED CONFIGURATION, and SERVER.
EXECUTE CLR types, external scripts, procedures ( Transact-SQL and CLR), scalar and aggregate functions ( Transact-SQL and CLR), and synonyms
IMPERSONATE Logins and users
INSERT Synonyms, tables and columns, views and columns. Permission can be granted at the database, schema, or object level.
RECEIVE Service Broker queues
REFERENCES AGGREGATE,
ASSEMBLY,
ASYMMETRIC KEY,
CERTIFICATE,
CONTRACT,
DATABASE,
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL,
FULLTEXT CATALOG,
FULLTEXT STOPLIST,
FUNCTION,
MESSAGE TYPE,
PROCEDURE,
QUEUE,
RULE,
SCHEMA,
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST,
SEQUENCE OBJECT,
SYMMETRIC KEY,
SYNONYM,
TABLE,
TYPE,
VIEW, and
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION
SELECT Synonyms, tables and columns, views and columns. Permission can be granted at the database, schema, or object level.
TAKE OWNERSHIP All classes of objects except DATABASE SCOPED CONFIGURATION, LOGIN, SERVER, and USER.
UPDATE Synonyms, tables and columns, views and columns. Permission can be granted at the database, schema, or object level.
VIEW CHANGE TRACKING Schemas and tables
VIEW DEFINITION All classes of objects except DATABASE SCOPED CONFIGURATION, and SERVER.

Caution

The default permissions that are granted to system objects at the time of setup are carefully evaluated against possible threats and need not be altered as part of hardening the SQL Server installation. Any changes to the permissions on the system objects could limit or break the functionality and could potentially leave your SQL Server installation in an unsupported state.

SQL Server Permissions

The following table provides a complete list of SQL Server permissions. SQL Database permissions are only available for base securables that are supported. Server level permissions cannot be granted in SQL Database, however in some cases database permissions are available instead.

Base securable Granular permissions on base securable Permission type code Securable that contains base securable Permission on container securable that implies granular permission on base securable
APPLICATION ROLE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY APPLICATION ROLE
APPLICATION ROLE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
APPLICATION ROLE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
ASSEMBLY ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY
ASSEMBLY CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
ASSEMBLY REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
ASSEMBLY TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
ASSEMBLY VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
ASYMMETRIC KEY ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY
ASYMMETRIC KEY CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
ASYMMETRIC KEY REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
ASYMMETRIC KEY TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
ASYMMETRIC KEY VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
AVAILABILITY GROUP ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY AVAILABILITY GROUP
AVAILABILITY GROUP CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
AVAILABILITY GROUP TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
AVAILABILITY GROUP VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION
CERTIFICATE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE
CERTIFICATE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
CERTIFICATE REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
CERTIFICATE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
CERTIFICATE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
CONTRACT ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY CONTRACT
CONTRACT CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
CONTRACT REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
CONTRACT TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
CONTRACT VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
DATABASE ADMINISTER DATABASE BULK OPERATIONS DABO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY DATABASE
DATABASE ALTER ANY APPLICATION ROLE ALAR SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY ALAS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY ALAK SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE ALCF SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY COLUMN ENCRYPTION KEY ALCK

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY COLUMN MASTER KEY ALCM

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY CONTRACT ALSC SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE AUDIT ALDA SERVER ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE DDL TRIGGER ALTG SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT NOTIFICATION ALED SERVER ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT SESSION AADS

Applies to SQL Database.
SERVER ALTER ANY EVENT SESSION
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATABASE SCOPED CONFIGURATION ALDC

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY DATASPACE ALDS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY EXTERNAL DATA SOURCE AEDS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY EXTERNAL FILE FORMAT AEFF SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG ALFT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY MASK AAMK

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current).
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE ALMT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING ALSB SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY ROLE ALRL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY ROUTE ALRT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY SCHEMA ALSM SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY SECURITY POLICY ALSP

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY SERVICE ALSV SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY ALSK SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE ALTER ANY USER ALUS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE AUTHENTICATE AUTH SERVER AUTHENTICATE SERVER
DATABASE BACKUP DATABASE BADB SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE BACKUP LOG BALO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CHECKPOINT CP SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CONNECT CO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CONNECT REPLICATION CORP SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE AGGREGATE CRAG SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE ASSEMBLY CRAS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE ASYMMETRIC KEY CRAK SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE CERTIFICATE CRCF SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE CONTRACT CRSC SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE DATABASE CRDB SERVER CREATE ANY DATABASE
DATABASE CREATE DATABASE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION CRED SERVER CREATE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION
DATABASE CREATE DEFAULT CRDF SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE FULLTEXT CATALOG CRFT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE FUNCTION CRFN SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE MESSAGE TYPE CRMT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE PROCEDURE CRPR SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE QUEUE CRQU SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE REMOTE SERVICE BINDING CRSB SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE ROLE CRRL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE ROUTE CRRT SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE RULE CRRU SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE SCHEMA CRSM SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE SERVICE CRSV SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY CRSK SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE SYNONYM CRSN SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE TABLE CRTB SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE TYPE CRTY SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE VIEW CRVW SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE CREATE XML SCHEMA COLLECTION CRXS SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE DELETE DL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE EXECUTE EX SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE EXECUTE ANY EXTERNAL SCRIPT EAES

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current).
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE INSERT IN SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE KILL DATABASE CONNECTION KIDC

Only applies to SQL Database. Use ALTER ANY CONNECTION in SQL Server.
SERVER ALTER ANY CONNECTION
DATABASE REFERENCES RF SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE SELECT SL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE SHOWPLAN SPLN SERVER ALTER TRACE
DATABASE SUBSCRIBE QUERY NOTIFICATIONS SUQN SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE UNMASK UMSK

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current).
SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE UPDATE UP SERVER CONTROL SERVER
DATABASE VIEW ANY COLUMN ENCRYPTION KEY DEFINITION VWCK

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER VIEW SERVER STATE
DATABASE VIEW ANY COLUMN MASTER KEY DEFINITION vWCM

Applies to SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 through current), SQL Database.
SERVER VIEW SERVER STATE
DATABASE VIEW DATABASE STATE VWDS SERVER VIEW SERVER STATE
DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL ALTER AL DATABASE CONTROL
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
DATABASE SCOPED CREDENTIAL VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
ENDPOINT ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY ENDPOINT
ENDPOINT CONNECT CO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
ENDPOINT CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
ENDPOINT TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
ENDPOINT VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION
FULLTEXT CATALOG ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG
FULLTEXT CATALOG CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
FULLTEXT CATALOG REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
FULLTEXT CATALOG TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
FULLTEXT CATALOG VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
FULLTEXT STOPLIST ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG
FULLTEXT STOPLIST CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
FULLTEXT STOPLIST REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
FULLTEXT STOPLIST TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
FULLTEXT STOPLIST VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
LOGIN ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY LOGIN
LOGIN CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
LOGIN IMPERSONATE IM SERVER CONTROL SERVER
LOGIN VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION
MESSAGE TYPE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE
MESSAGE TYPE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
MESSAGE TYPE REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
MESSAGE TYPE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
MESSAGE TYPE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
OBJECT ALTER AL SCHEMA ALTER
OBJECT CONTROL CL SCHEMA CONTROL
OBJECT DELETE DL SCHEMA DELETE
OBJECT EXECUTE EX SCHEMA EXECUTE
OBJECT INSERT IN SCHEMA INSERT
OBJECT RECEIVE RC SCHEMA CONTROL
OBJECT REFERENCES RF SCHEMA REFERENCES
OBJECT SELECT SL SCHEMA SELECT
OBJECT TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SCHEMA CONTROL
OBJECT UPDATE UP SCHEMA UPDATE
OBJECT VIEW CHANGE TRACKING VWCT SCHEMA VIEW CHANGE TRACKING
OBJECT VIEW DEFINITION VW SCHEMA VIEW DEFINITION
REMOTE SERVICE BINDING ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING
REMOTE SERVICE BINDING CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
REMOTE SERVICE BINDING TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
REMOTE SERVICE BINDING VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
ROLE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY ROLE
ROLE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
ROLE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
ROLE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
ROUTE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY ROUTE
ROUTE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
ROUTE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
ROUTE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST REFERENCES RF SERVER REFERENCES
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SERVER CONTROL
SEARCH PROPERTY LIST VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW DEFINITION
SCHEMA ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY SCHEMA
SCHEMA CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
SCHEMA CREATE SEQUENCE CRSO DATABASE CONTROL
SCHEMA DELETE DL DATABASE DELETE
SCHEMA EXECUTE EX DATABASE EXECUTE
SCHEMA INSERT IN DATABASE INSERT
SCHEMA REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
SCHEMA SELECT SL DATABASE SELECT
SCHEMA TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
SCHEMA UPDATE UP DATABASE UPDATE
SCHEMA VIEW CHANGE TRACKING VWCT DATABASE VIEW CHANGE TRACKING
SCHEMA VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
SERVER ADMINISTER BULK OPERATIONS ADBO Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY AVAILABILITY GROUP ALAG Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY CONNECTION ALCO Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY CREDENTIAL ALCD Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY DATABASE ALDB Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY ENDPOINT ALHE Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION ALES Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY EVENT SESSION AAES Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY LINKED SERVER ALLS Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY LOGIN ALLG Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT ALAA Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER ANY SERVER ROLE ALSR Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER RESOURCES ALRS Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER SERVER STATE ALSS Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER SETTINGS ALST Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ALTER TRACE ALTR Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER AUTHENTICATE SERVER AUTH Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CONNECT ANY DATABASE CADB Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CONNECT SQL COSQ Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CONTROL SERVER CL Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE ANY DATABASE CRDB Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE AVAILABILITY GROUP CRAC Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION CRDE Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE ENDPOINT CRHE Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE SERVER ROLE CRSR Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER CREATE TRACE EVENT NOTIFICATION CRTE Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER EXTERNAL ACCESS ASSEMBLY XA Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER IMPERSONATE ANY LOGIN IAL Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES SUS Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER SHUTDOWN SHDN Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER UNSAFE ASSEMBLY XU Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER VIEW ANY DATABASE VWDB Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION VWAD Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER VIEW SERVER STATE VWSS Not applicable Not applicable
SERVER ROLE ALTER AL SERVER ALTER ANY SERVER ROLE
SERVER ROLE CONTROL CL SERVER CONTROL SERVER
SERVER ROLE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SERVER CONTROL SERVER
SERVER ROLE VIEW DEFINITION VW SERVER VIEW ANY DEFINITION
SERVICE ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY SERVICE
SERVICE CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
SERVICE SEND SN DATABASE CONTROL
SERVICE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
SERVICE VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
SYMMETRIC KEY ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY
SYMMETRIC KEY CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
SYMMETRIC KEY REFERENCES RF DATABASE REFERENCES
SYMMETRIC KEY TAKE OWNERSHIP TO DATABASE CONTROL
SYMMETRIC KEY VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
TYPE CONTROL CL SCHEMA CONTROL
TYPE EXECUTE EX SCHEMA EXECUTE
TYPE REFERENCES RF SCHEMA REFERENCES
TYPE TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SCHEMA CONTROL
TYPE VIEW DEFINITION VW SCHEMA VIEW DEFINITION
USER ALTER AL DATABASE ALTER ANY USER
USER CONTROL CL DATABASE CONTROL
USER IMPERSONATE IM DATABASE CONTROL
USER VIEW DEFINITION VW DATABASE VIEW DEFINITION
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION ALTER AL SCHEMA ALTER
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION CONTROL CL SCHEMA CONTROL
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION EXECUTE EX SCHEMA EXECUTE
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION REFERENCES RF SCHEMA REFERENCES
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION TAKE OWNERSHIP TO SCHEMA CONTROL
XML SCHEMA COLLECTION VIEW DEFINITION VW SCHEMA VIEW DEFINITION

Summary of the Permission Check Algorithm

Checking permissions can be complex. The permission check algorithm includes overlapping group memberships and ownership chaining, both explicit and implicit permission, and can be affected by the permissions on securable classes that contain the securable entity. The general process of the algorithm is to collect all the relevant permissions. If no blocking DENY is found, the algorithm searches for a GRANT that provides sufficient access. The algorithm contains three essential elements, the security context, the permission space, and the required permission.

Note

You cannot grant, deny, or revoke permissions to sa, dbo, the entity owner, information_schema, sys, or yourself.

  • Security context

    This is the group of principals that contribute permissions to the access check. These are permissions that are related to the current login or user, unless the security context was changed to another login or user by using the EXECUTE AS statement. The security context includes the following principals:

    • The login

    • The user

    • Role memberships

    • Windows group memberships

    • If module signing is being used, any login or user account for the certificate used to sign the module that the user is currently executing, and the associated role memberships of that principal.

  • Permission space

    This is the securable entity and any securable classes that contain the securable. For example, a table (a securable entity) is contained by the schema securable class and by the database securable class. Access can be affected by table-, schema-, database-, and server-level permissions. For more information, see Permissions Hierarchy (Database Engine).

  • Required permission

    The kind of permission that is required. For example, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, EXECUTE, ALTER, CONTROL, and so on.

    Access can require multiple permissions, as in the following examples:

    • A stored procedure can require both EXECUTE permission on the stored procedure and INSERT permission on several tables that are referenced by the stored procedure.

    • A dynamic management view can require both VIEW SERVER STATE and SELECT permission on the view.

General Steps of the Algorithm

When the algorithm is determining whether to allow access to a securable, the precise steps that it uses can vary, depending on the principals and the securables that are involved. However, the algorithm performs the following general steps:

  1. Bypass the permission check if the login is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or if the user is the dbo user in the current database.

  2. Allow access if ownership chaining is applicable and the access check on the object earlier in the chain passed the security check.

  3. Aggregate the server-level, database-level, and signed-module identities that are associated with the caller to create the security context.

  4. For that security context, collect all the permissions that are granted or denied for the permission space. The permission can be explicitly stated as a GRANT, GRANT WITH GRANT, or DENY; or the permissions can be an implied or covering permission GRANT or DENY. For example, CONTROL permission on a schema implies CONTROL on a table. And CONTROL on a table implies SELECT. Therefore, if CONTROL on the schema was granted, SELECT on the table is granted. If CONTROL was denied on the table, SELECT on the table is denied.

    Note

    A GRANT of a column-level permission overrides a DENY at the object level.

  5. Identify the required permission.

  6. Fail the permission check if the required permission is directly or implicitly denied to any of the identities in the security context for the objects in the permission space.

  7. Pass the permission check if the required permission was not denied and the required permission contains a GRANT or a GRANT WITH GRANT permission either directly or implicitly to any of the identities in the security context for any object in the permission space.

Secial considerations for column level permissions

Column level permissions are granted with the syntax <table_name>(<column _name>). For example:

GRANT SELECT ON OBJECT::Customer(CustomerName) TO UserJoe;

A DENY on the table is overridden by a GRANT on a column. However, a subsequent DENY on the table will remove the column GRANT.

Examples

The examples in this section show how to retrieve permissions information.

A. Returning the complete list of grantable permissions

The following statement returns all Database Engine permission by using the fn_builtin_permissions function. For more information, see sys.fn_builtin_permissions (Transact-SQL).

SELECT * FROM fn_builtin_permissions(default);  
GO  

B. Returning the permissions on a particular class of objects

The following example uses fn_builtin_permissions to view all the permissions that are available for a category of securable. The example returns permissions on assemblies.

SELECT * FROM fn_builtin_permissions('assembly');  
GO    

C. Returning the permissions granted to the executing principal on an object

The following example uses fn_my_permissions to return a list of the effective permissions that are held by the calling principal on a specified securable. The example returns permissions on an object named Orders55. For more information, see sys.fn_my_permissions (Transact-SQL).

SELECT * FROM fn_my_permissions('Orders55', 'object');  
GO  

D. Returning the permissions applicable to a specified object

The following example returns permissions applicable to an object called Yttrium. Notice that the built-in function OBJECT_ID is used to retrieve the ID of object Yttrium.

SELECT * FROM sys.database_permissions   
    WHERE major_id = OBJECT_ID('Yttrium');  
GO  

See Also

Permissions Hierarchy (Database Engine)
sys.database_permissions (Transact-SQL)