Spatial Types - geometry (Transact-SQL)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO:yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabasenoAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

The planar spatial data type, geometry, is implemented as a common language runtime (CLR) data type in SQL Server. This type represents data in a Euclidean (flat) coordinate system.

SQL Server supports a set of methods for the geometry spatial data type. These methods include methods on geometry that are defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard and a set of Microsoft extensions to that standard.

The error tolerance for the geometry methods can be as large as 1.0e-7 * extents. The extents refer to the approximate maximal distance between points of the geometryobject.

Registering the geometry Type

The geometry type is predefined and available in each database. You can create table columns of type geometry and operate on geometry data in the same manner as you would use other CLR types. Can be used in persisted and non-persisted computed columns.


A. Showing how to add and query geometry data

The following two examples show how to add and query geometry data. The first example creates a table with an identity column and a geometry column, GeomCol1. A third column renders the geometry column into its Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Well-Known Text (WKT) representation, and uses the STAsText() method. Two rows are then inserted: one row contains a LineString instance of geometry, and one row contains a Polygon instance.

IF OBJECT_ID ( 'dbo.SpatialTable', 'U' ) IS NOT NULL   
    DROP TABLE dbo.SpatialTable;  

CREATE TABLE SpatialTable   
    ( id int IDENTITY (1,1),  
    GeomCol1 geometry,   
    GeomCol2 AS GeomCol1.STAsText() );  

INSERT INTO SpatialTable (GeomCol1)  
VALUES (geometry::STGeomFromText('LINESTRING (100 100, 20 180, 180 180)', 0));  

INSERT INTO SpatialTable (GeomCol1)  
VALUES (geometry::STGeomFromText('POLYGON ((0 0, 150 0, 150 150, 0 150, 0 0))', 0));  

B. Returning the intersection of two geometry instances

The second example uses the STIntersection() method to return the points where the two previously inserted geometry instances intersect.

DECLARE @geom1 geometry;  
DECLARE @geom2 geometry;  
DECLARE @result geometry;  

SELECT @geom1 = GeomCol1 FROM SpatialTable WHERE id = 1;  
SELECT @geom2 = GeomCol1 FROM SpatialTable WHERE id = 2;  
SELECT @result = @geom1.STIntersection(@geom2);  
SELECT @result.STAsText();  

C. Using geometry in a computed column

The following example creates a table with a persisted computed column using a geometry type.

IF OBJECT_ID ( 'dbo.SpatialTable', 'U' ) IS NOT NULL   
    DROP TABLE dbo.SpatialTable;  

CREATE TABLE SpatialTable  
    locationId int IDENTITY(1,1),  
    location geometry,  
    deliveryArea as location.STBuffer(10) persisted  

See Also

Spatial Data (SQL Server)