ALTER LOGIN (Transact-SQL)

Changes the properties of a SQL Server login account.

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SQL Server

Syntax

-- Syntax for SQL Server  

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
    {   
    <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,... ]  
    | <cryptographic_credential_option>  
    }   
[;]  

<status_option> ::=  
        ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=              
    PASSWORD = 'password' | hashed_password HASHED  
    [   
      OLD_PASSWORD = 'oldpassword'  
      | <password_option> [<password_option> ]   
    ]  
    | DEFAULT_DATABASE = database  
    | DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = language  
    | NAME = login_name  
    | CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }  
    | CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }  
    | CREDENTIAL = credential_name  
    | NO CREDENTIAL  

<password_option> ::=   
    MUST_CHANGE | UNLOCK  

<cryptographic_credentials_option> ::=   
    ADD CREDENTIAL credential_name  
  | DROP CREDENTIAL credential_name  

Arguments

login_name
Specifies the name of the SQL Server login that is being changed. Domain logins must be enclosed in brackets in the format [domain\user].

ENABLE | DISABLE
Enables or disables this login. Disabling a login does not affect the behavior of logins that are already connected. (Use the KILL statement to terminate an existing connections.) Disabled logins retain their permissions and can still be impersonated.

PASSWORD ='password'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies the password for the login that is being changed. Passwords are case-sensitive.

PASSWORD =hashed_password
Applies to the HASHED keyword only. Specifies the hashed value of the password for the login that is being created.

Important

When a login (or a contained database user) connects and is authenticated, the connection caches identity information about the login. For a Windows Authentication login, this includes information about membership in Windows groups. The identity of the login remains authenticated as long as the connection is maintained. To force changes in the identity, such as a password reset or change in Windows group membership, the login must logoff from the authentication authority (Windows or SQL Server), and log in again. A member of the sysadmin fixed server role or any login with the ALTER ANY CONNECTION permission can use the KILL command to end a connection and force a login to reconnect. SQL Server Management Studio can reuse connection information when opening multiple connections to Object Explorer and Query Editor windows. Close all connections to force reconnection.

HASHED
Applies to SQL Server logins only. Specifies that the password entered after the PASSWORD argument is already hashed. If this option is not selected, the password is hashed before being stored in the database. This option should only be used for login synchronization between two servers. Do not use the HASHED option to routinely change passwords.

OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. The current password of the login to which a new password will be assigned. Passwords are case-sensitive.

MUST_CHANGE
Applies only to SQL Server logins. If this option is included, SQL Server will prompt for an updated password the first time the altered login is used.

DEFAULT_DATABASE =database
Specifies a default database to be assigned to the login.

DEFAULT_LANGUAGE =language
Specifies a default language to be assigned to the login. The default language for all SQL Database logins is English and cannot be changed. The default language of the sa login on SQL Server on Linux, is English but it can be changed.

NAME = login_name
The new name of the login that is being renamed. If this is a Windows login, the SID of the Windows principal corresponding to the new name must match the SID associated with the login in SQL Server. The new name of a SQL Server login cannot contain a backslash character (\).

CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies whether password expiration policy should be enforced on this login. The default value is OFF.

CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that the Windows password policies of the computer on which SQL Server is running should be enforced on this login. The default value is ON.

CREDENTIAL = credential_name
The name of a credential to be mapped to a SQL Server login. The credential must already exist in the server. For more information, see Credentials (Database Engine). A credential cannot be mapped to the sa login.

NO CREDENTIAL
Removes any existing mapping of the login to a server credential. For more information, see Credentials (Database Engine).

UNLOCK
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that a login that is locked out should be unlocked.

ADD CREDENTIAL
Adds an Extensible Key Management (EKM) provider credential to the login. For more information, see Extensible Key Management (EKM).

DROP CREDENTIAL
Removes an Extensible Key Management (EKM) provider credential from the login. For more information, see [Extensible Key Management (EKM)] (../.. /relational-databases/security/encryption/extensible-key-management-ekm.md).

Remarks

When CHECK_POLICY is set to ON, the HASHED argument cannot be used.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to ON, the following behavior occurs:

  • The password history is initialized with the value of the current password hash.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to OFF, the following behavior occurs:

  • CHECK_EXPIRATION is also set to OFF.

  • The password history is cleared.

  • The value of lockout_time is reset.

If MUST_CHANGE is specified, CHECK_EXPIRATION and CHECK_POLICY must be set to ON. Otherwise, the statement will fail.

If CHECK_POLICY is set to OFF, CHECK_EXPIRATION cannot be set to ON. An ALTER LOGIN statement that has this combination of options will fail.

You cannot use ALTER_LOGIN with the DISABLE argument to deny access to a Windows group. For example, ALTER_LOGIN [domain\group] DISABLE will return the following error message:

"Msg 15151, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 "Cannot alter the login '*Domain\Group*', because it does not exist or you do not have permission."

This is by design.

In SQL Database, login data required to authenticate a connection and server-level firewall rules are temporarily cached in each database. This cache is periodically refreshed. To force a refresh of the authentication cache and make sure that a database has the latest version of the logins table, execute DBCC FLUSHAUTHCACHE (Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY LOGIN permission.

If the CREDENTIAL option is used, also requires ALTER ANY CREDENTIAL permission.

If the login that is being changed is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or a grantee of CONTROL SERVER permission, also requires CONTROL SERVER permission when making the following changes:

  • Resetting the password without supplying the old password.

  • Enabling MUST_CHANGE, CHECK_POLICY, or CHECK_EXPIRATION.

  • Changing the login name.

  • Enabling or disabling the login.

  • Mapping the login to a different credential.

A principal can change the password, default language, and default database for its own login.

Examples

A. Enabling a disabled login

The following example enables the login Mary5.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 ENABLE;  

B. Changing the password of a login

The following example changes the password of login Mary5 to a strong password.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>';  

C. Changing the password of a login when logged in as the login

If you are attempting to change the password of the login that you're currently logged in with and you do not have the ALTER ANY LOGIN permission you must specify the OLD_PASSWORD option.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>' OLD_PASSWORD = '<oldWeakPasswordHere>';  

D. Changing the name of a login

The following example changes the name of login Mary5 to John2.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH NAME = John2;  

E. Mapping a login to a credential

The following example maps the login John2 to the credential Custodian04.

ALTER LOGIN John2 WITH CREDENTIAL = Custodian04;  

F. Mapping a login to an Extensible Key Management credential

The following example maps the login Mary5 to the EKM credential EKMProvider1.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5  
ADD CREDENTIAL EKMProvider1;  
GO  

F. Unlocking a login

To unlock a SQL Server login, execute the following statement, replacing **** with the desired account password.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH PASSWORD = '****' UNLOCK ;  

GO  

To unlock a login without changing the password, turn the check policy off and then on again.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF;  
ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = ON;  
GO  

G. Changing the password of a login using HASHED

The following example changes the password of the TestUser login to an already hashed value.

ALTER LOGIN TestUser WITH   
PASSWORD = 0x01000CF35567C60BFB41EBDE4CF700A985A13D773D6B45B90900 HASHED ;  
GO  

See Also

Credentials (Database Engine)
CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
DROP LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
CREATE CREDENTIAL (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
Extensible Key Management (EKM)

 

Azure SQL Database single database/elastic pool

SQL Server

Syntax

-- Syntax for Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Data Warehouse 

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
  {   
      <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,.. .n ]   
  }   
[;]  

<status_option> ::=  
    ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=   
    PASSWORD ='password'   
    [  
      OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'  
    ]   
    | NAME = login_name  

Arguments

login_name
Specifies the name of the SQL Server login that is being changed. Domain logins must be enclosed in brackets in the format [domain\user].

ENABLE | DISABLE
Enables or disables this login. Disabling a login does not affect the behavior of logins that are already connected. (Use the KILL statement to terminate an existing connections.) Disabled logins retain their permissions and can still be impersonated.

PASSWORD ='password'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies the password for the login that is being changed. Passwords are case-sensitive.

Continuously active connections to SQL Database require reauthorization (performed by the Database Engine) at least every 10 hours. The Database Engine attempts reauthorization using the originally submitted password and no user input is required. For performance reasons, when a password is reset in SQL Database, the connection will not be re-authenticated, even if the connection is reset due to connection pooling. This is different from the behavior of on-premises SQL Server. If the password has been changed since the connection was initially authorized, the connection must be terminated and a new connection made using the new password. A user with the KILL DATABASE CONNECTION permission can explicitly terminate a connection to SQL Database by using the KILL command. For more information, see KILL (Transact-SQL).

Important

When a login (or a contained database user) connects and is authenticated, the connection caches identity information about the login. For a Windows Authentication login, this includes information about membership in Windows groups. The identity of the login remains authenticated as long as the connection is maintained. To force changes in the identity, such as a password reset or change in Windows group membership, the login must logoff from the authentication authority (Windows or SQL Server), and log in again. A member of the sysadmin fixed server role or any login with the ALTER ANY CONNECTION permission can use the KILL command to end a connection and force a login to reconnect. SQL Server Management Studio can reuse connection information when opening multiple connections to Object Explorer and Query Editor windows. Close all connections to force reconnection.

OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. The current password of the login to which a new password will be assigned. Passwords are case-sensitive.

NAME = login_name
The new name of the login that is being renamed. If this is a Windows login, the SID of the Windows principal corresponding to the new name must match the SID associated with the login in SQL Server. The new name of a SQL Server login cannot contain a backslash character (\).

Remarks

In SQL Database, login data required to authenticate a connection and server-level firewall rules are temporarily cached in each database. This cache is periodically refreshed. To force a refresh of the authentication cache and make sure that a database has the latest version of the logins table, execute DBCC FLUSHAUTHCACHE ( Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY LOGIN permission.

If the login that is being changed is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or a grantee of CONTROL SERVER permission, also requires CONTROL SERVER permission when making the following changes:

  • Resetting the password without supplying the old password.

  • Changing the login name.

  • Enabling or disabling the login.

  • Mapping the login to a different credential.

A principal can change the password for its own login.

Examples

These examples also include examples for using other SQL products. Please see which arguments are supported above.

A. Enabling a disabled login

The following example enables the login Mary5.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 ENABLE;  

B. Changing the password of a login

The following example changes the password of login Mary5 to a strong password.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>';  

C. Changing the name of a login

The following example changes the name of login Mary5 to John2.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH NAME = John2;  

D. Mapping a login to a credential

The following example maps the login John2 to the credential Custodian04.

ALTER LOGIN John2 WITH CREDENTIAL = Custodian04;  

E. Mapping a login to an Extensible Key Management credential

The following example maps the login Mary5 to the EKM credential EKMProvider1.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5  
ADD CREDENTIAL EKMProvider1;  
GO  

F. Unlocking a login

To unlock a SQL Server login, execute the following statement, replacing **** with the desired account password.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH PASSWORD = '****' UNLOCK ;  

GO  

To unlock a login without changing the password, turn the check policy off and then on again.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF;  
ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = ON;  
GO  

G. Changing the password of a login using HASHED

The following example changes the password of the TestUser login to an already hashed value.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN TestUser WITH   
PASSWORD = 0x01000CF35567C60BFB41EBDE4CF700A985A13D773D6B45B90900 HASHED ;  
GO  

See Also

Credentials (Database Engine)
CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
DROP LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
CREATE CREDENTIAL (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
Extensible Key Management (EKM)

 

Azure SQL Database managed instance

Syntax

-- Syntax for SQL Server and Azure SQL Database managed instance

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
    {   
    <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,... ]  
    | <cryptographic_credential_option>  
    }   
[;]  

<status_option> ::=  
        ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=              
    PASSWORD = 'password' | hashed_password HASHED  
    [   
      OLD_PASSWORD = 'oldpassword'  
      | <password_option> [<password_option> ]   
    ]  
    | DEFAULT_DATABASE = database  
    | DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = language  
    | NAME = login_name  
    | CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }  
    | CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }  
    | CREDENTIAL = credential_name  
    | NO CREDENTIAL  

<password_option> ::=   
    MUST_CHANGE | UNLOCK  

<cryptographic_credentials_option> ::=   
    ADD CREDENTIAL credential_name  
  | DROP CREDENTIAL credential_name  

Important

Azure AD logins for SQL Database managed instance is in public preview.

-- Syntax for Azure SQL Database managed instance using Azure AD logins

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
  {   
      <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,.. .n ]   
  }   
[;]  

<status_option> ::=  
    ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=
     DEFAULT_DATABASE = database
   | DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = language

Arguments

Arguments applicable to SQL and Azure AD logins

login_name
Specifies the name of the SQL Server login that is being changed. Azure AD logins must be specified as user@domain. For example, john.smith@contoso.com, or as the Azure AD group or application name. For Azure AD logins, the login_name must correspond to an existing Azure AD login created in the master database.

ENABLE | DISABLE
Enables or disables this login. Disabling a login does not affect the behavior of logins that are already connected. (Use the KILL statement to terminate an existing connection.) Disabled logins retain their permissions and can still be impersonated.

DEFAULT_DATABASE =database
Specifies a default database to be assigned to the login.

DEFAULT_LANGUAGE =language
Specifies a default language to be assigned to the login. The default language for all SQL Database logins is English and cannot be changed. The default language of the sa login on SQL Server on Linux, is English but it can be changed.

Arguments applicable only to SQL logins

PASSWORD ='password'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies the password for the login that is being changed. Passwords are case-sensitive. Passwords also do not apply when used with external logins, like Azure AD logins.

Continuously active connections to SQL Database require reauthorization (performed by the Database Engine) at least every 10 hours. The Database Engine attempts reauthorization using the originally submitted password and no user input is required. For performance reasons, when a password is reset in SQL Database, the connection will not be re-authenticated, even if the connection is reset due to connection pooling. This is different from the behavior of on-premises SQL Server. If the password has been changed since the connection was initially authorized, the connection must be terminated and a new connection made using the new password. A user with the KILL DATABASE CONNECTION permission can explicitly terminate a connection to SQL Database by using the KILL command. For more information, see KILL (Transact-SQL).

PASSWORD =hashed_password
Applies to the HASHED keyword only. Specifies the hashed value of the password for the login that is being created.

HASHED
Applies to SQL Server logins only. Specifies that the password entered after the PASSWORD argument is already hashed. If this option is not selected, the password is hashed before being stored in the database. This option should only be used for login synchronization between two servers. Do not use the HASHED option to routinely change passwords.

OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. The current password of the login to which a new password will be assigned. Passwords are case-sensitive.

MUST_CHANGE
Applies only to SQL Server logins. If this option is included, SQL Server will prompt for an updated password the first time the altered login is used.

NAME = login_name
The new name of the login that is being renamed. If the login is a Windows login, the SID of the Windows principal corresponding to the new name must match the SID associated with the login in SQL Server. The new name of a SQL Server login cannot contain a backslash character (\).

CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies whether password expiration policy should be enforced on this login. The default value is OFF.

CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that the Windows password policies of the computer on which SQL Server is running should be enforced on this login. The default value is ON.

CREDENTIAL = credential_name
The name of a credential to be mapped to a SQL Server login. The credential must already exist in the server. For more information, see Credentials (Database Engine). A credential cannot be mapped to the sa login.

NO CREDENTIAL
Removes any existing mapping of the login to a server credential. For more information, see Credentials (Database Engine).

UNLOCK
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that a login that is locked out should be unlocked.

ADD CREDENTIAL
Adds an Extensible Key Management (EKM) provider credential to the login. For more information, see Extensible Key Management (EKM).

DROP CREDENTIAL
Removes an Extensible Key Management (EKM) provider credential from the login. For more information, see Extensible Key Management (EKM).

Remarks

When CHECK_POLICY is set to ON, the HASHED argument cannot be used.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to ON, the following behavior occurs:

  • The password history is initialized with the value of the current password hash.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to OFF, the following behavior occurs:

  • CHECK_EXPIRATION is also set to OFF.

  • The password history is cleared.

  • The value of lockout_time is reset.

If MUST_CHANGE is specified, CHECK_EXPIRATION and CHECK_POLICY must be set to ON. Otherwise, the statement will fail.

If CHECK_POLICY is set to OFF, CHECK_EXPIRATION cannot be set to ON. An ALTER LOGIN statement that has this combination of options will fail.

You cannot use ALTER_LOGIN with the DISABLE argument to deny access to a Windows group. This is by design. For example, ALTER_LOGIN [domain\group] DISABLE will return the following error message:

"Msg 15151, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 "Cannot alter the login '*Domain\Group*', because it does not exist or you do not have permission."

In SQL Database, login data required to authenticate a connection and server-level firewall rules are temporarily cached in each database. This cache is periodically refreshed. To force a refresh of the authentication cache and make sure that a database has the latest version of the logins table, execute DBCC FLUSHAUTHCACHE (Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY LOGIN permission.

If the CREDENTIAL option is used, also requires ALTER ANY CREDENTIAL permission.

If the login that is being changed is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or a grantee of CONTROL SERVER permission, also requires CONTROL SERVER permission when making the following changes:

  • Resetting the password without supplying the old password.

  • Enabling MUST_CHANGE, CHECK_POLICY, or CHECK_EXPIRATION.

  • Changing the login name.

  • Enabling or disabling the login.

  • Mapping the login to a different credential.

A principal can change the password, default language, and default database for its own login.

Only a SQL principal with sysadmin privileges can execute an ALTER LOGIN command against an Azure AD login.

Examples

These examples also include examples for using other SQL products. Please see which arguments are supported above.

A. Enabling a disabled login

The following example enables the login Mary5.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 ENABLE;  

B. Changing the password of a login

The following example changes the password of login Mary5 to a strong password.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>';  

C. Changing the name of a login

The following example changes the name of login Mary5 to John2.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH NAME = John2;  

D. Mapping a login to a credential

The following example maps the login John2 to the credential Custodian04.

ALTER LOGIN John2 WITH CREDENTIAL = Custodian04;  

E. Mapping a login to an Extensible Key Management credential

The following example maps the login Mary5 to the EKM credential EKMProvider1.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017, and Azure SQL Database managed instance.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5  
ADD CREDENTIAL EKMProvider1;  
GO  

F. Unlocking a login

To unlock a SQL Server login, execute the following statement, replacing **** with the desired account password.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH PASSWORD = '****' UNLOCK ;  

GO  

To unlock a login without changing the password, turn the check policy off and then on again.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF;  
ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = ON;  
GO  

G. Changing the password of a login using HASHED

The following example changes the password of the TestUser login to an already hashed value.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017, and Azure SQL Database managed instance.

ALTER LOGIN TestUser WITH   
PASSWORD = 0x01000CF35567C60BFB41EBDE4CF700A985A13D773D6B45B90900 HASHED ;  
GO  

H. Disabling the login of an Azure AD user

The following example disables the login of an Azure AD user, joe@contoso.com.

ALTER LOGIN [joe@contoso.com] DISABLE

See Also

Credentials (Database Engine)
CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
DROP LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
CREATE CREDENTIAL (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
Extensible Key Management (EKM)

 

Azure SQL Data Warehouse

Syntax

-- Syntax for Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Data Warehouse 

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
  {   
      <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,.. .n ]   
  }   
[;]  

<status_option> ::=  
    ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=   
    PASSWORD ='password'   
    [  
      OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'  
    ]   
    | NAME = login_name  

Arguments

login_name
Specifies the name of the SQL Server login that is being changed. Domain logins must be enclosed in brackets in the format [domain\user].

ENABLE | DISABLE
Enables or disables this login. Disabling a login does not affect the behavior of logins that are already connected. (Use the KILL statement to terminate an existing connections.) Disabled logins retain their permissions and can still be impersonated.

PASSWORD ='password'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies the password for the login that is being changed. Passwords are case-sensitive.

Continuously active connections to SQL Database require reauthorization (performed by the Database Engine) at least every 10 hours. The Database Engine attempts reauthorization using the originally submitted password and no user input is required. For performance reasons, when a password is reset in SQL Database, the connection will not be re-authenticated, even if the connection is reset due to connection pooling. This is different from the behavior of on-premises SQL Server. If the password has been changed since the connection was initially authorized, the connection must be terminated and a new connection made using the new password. A user with the KILL DATABASE CONNECTION permission can explicitly terminate a connection to SQL Database by using the KILL command. For more information, see KILL (Transact-SQL).

Important

When a login (or a contained database user) connects and is authenticated, the connection caches identity information about the login. For a Windows Authentication login, this includes information about membership in Windows groups. The identity of the login remains authenticated as long as the connection is maintained. To force changes in the identity, such as a password reset or change in Windows group membership, the login must logoff from the authentication authority (Windows or SQL Server), and log in again. A member of the sysadmin fixed server role or any login with the ALTER ANY CONNECTION permission can use the KILL command to end a connection and force a login to reconnect. SQL Server Management Studio can reuse connection information when opening multiple connections to Object Explorer and Query Editor windows. Close all connections to force reconnection.

OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. The current password of the login to which a new password will be assigned. Passwords are case-sensitive.

NAME = login_name
The new name of the login that is being renamed. If this is a Windows login, the SID of the Windows principal corresponding to the new name must match the SID associated with the login in SQL Server. The new name of a SQL Server login cannot contain a backslash character (\).

Remarks

In SQL Database, login data required to authenticate a connection and server-level firewall rules are temporarily cached in each database. This cache is periodically refreshed. To force a refresh of the authentication cache and make sure that a database has the latest version of the logins table, execute DBCC FLUSHAUTHCACHE ( Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY LOGIN permission.

If the login that is being changed is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or a grantee of CONTROL SERVER permission, also requires CONTROL SERVER permission when making the following changes:

  • Resetting the password without supplying the old password.

  • Changing the login name.

  • Enabling or disabling the login.

  • Mapping the login to a different credential.

A principal can change the password for its own login.

Examples

These examples also include examples for using other SQL products. Please see which arguments are supported above.

A. Enabling a disabled login

The following example enables the login Mary5.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 ENABLE;  

B. Changing the password of a login

The following example changes the password of login Mary5 to a strong password.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>';  

C. Changing the name of a login

The following example changes the name of login Mary5 to John2.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH NAME = John2;  

D. Mapping a login to a credential

The following example maps the login John2 to the credential Custodian04.

ALTER LOGIN John2 WITH CREDENTIAL = Custodian04;  

E. Mapping a login to an Extensible Key Management credential

The following example maps the login Mary5 to the EKM credential EKMProvider1.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5  
ADD CREDENTIAL EKMProvider1;  
GO  

F. Unlocking a login

To unlock a SQL Server login, execute the following statement, replacing **** with the desired account password.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH PASSWORD = '****' UNLOCK ;  

GO  

To unlock a login without changing the password, turn the check policy off and then on again.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF;  
ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = ON;  
GO  

G. Changing the password of a login using HASHED

The following example changes the password of the TestUser login to an already hashed value.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN TestUser WITH   
PASSWORD = 0x01000CF35567C60BFB41EBDE4CF700A985A13D773D6B45B90900 HASHED ;  
GO  

See Also

Credentials (Database Engine)
CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
DROP LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
CREATE CREDENTIAL (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
Extensible Key Management (EKM)

 

Parallel Data Warehouse

Syntax

-- Syntax for Parallel Data Warehouse  

ALTER LOGIN login_name   
    {   
    <status_option>   
    | WITH <set_option> [ ,... ]  
    }   

<status_option> ::=ENABLE | DISABLE  

<set_option> ::=              
    PASSWORD ='password'   
    [   
      OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'  
      | <password_option> [<password_option> ]   
    ]  
    | NAME = login_name  
    | CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }  
    | CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }   

<password_option> ::=   
    MUST_CHANGE | UNLOCK  

Arguments

login_name
Specifies the name of the SQL Server login that is being changed. Domain logins must be enclosed in brackets in the format [domain\user].

ENABLE | DISABLE
Enables or disables this login. Disabling a login does not affect the behavior of logins that are already connected. (Use the KILL statement to terminate an existing connection.) Disabled logins retain their permissions and can still be impersonated.

PASSWORD ='password'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies the password for the login that is being changed. Passwords are case-sensitive.

Important

When a login (or a contained database user) connects and is authenticated, the connection caches identity information about the login. For a Windows Authentication login, this includes information about membership in Windows groups. The identity of the login remains authenticated as long as the connection is maintained. To force changes in the identity, such as a password reset or change in Windows group membership, the login must logoff from the authentication authority (Windows or SQL Server), and log in again. A member of the sysadmin fixed server role or any login with the ALTER ANY CONNECTION permission can use the KILL command to end a connection and force a login to reconnect. SQL Server Management Studio can reuse connection information when opening multiple connections to Object Explorer and Query Editor windows. Close all connections to force reconnection.

OLD_PASSWORD ='oldpassword'
Applies only to SQL Server logins. The current password of the login to which a new password will be assigned. Passwords are case-sensitive.

MUST_CHANGE
Applies only to SQL Server logins. If this option is included, SQL Server will prompt for an updated password the first time the altered login is used.

NAME = login_name
The new name of the login that is being renamed. If the login is a Windows login, the SID of the Windows principal corresponding to the new name must match the SID associated with the login in SQL Server. The new name of a SQL Server login cannot contain a backslash character (\).

CHECK_EXPIRATION = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies whether password expiration policy should be enforced on this login. The default value is OFF.

CHECK_POLICY = { ON | OFF }
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that the Windows password policies of the computer on which SQL Server is running should be enforced on this login. The default value is ON.

UNLOCK
Applies only to SQL Server logins. Specifies that a login that is locked out should be unlocked.

Remarks

When CHECK_POLICY is set to ON, the HASHED argument cannot be used.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to ON, the following behavior occurs:

  • The password history is initialized with the value of the current password hash.

When CHECK_POLICY is changed to OFF, the following behavior occurs:

  • CHECK_EXPIRATION is also set to OFF.

  • The password history is cleared.

  • The value of lockout_time is reset.

If MUST_CHANGE is specified, CHECK_EXPIRATION and CHECK_POLICY must be set to ON. Otherwise, the statement will fail.

If CHECK_POLICY is set to OFF, CHECK_EXPIRATION cannot be set to ON. An ALTER LOGIN statement that has this combination of options will fail.

You cannot use ALTER_LOGIN with the DISABLE argument to deny access to a Windows group. This is by design. For example, ALTER_LOGIN [domain\group] DISABLE will return the following error message:

"Msg 15151, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 "Cannot alter the login '*Domain\Group*', because it does not exist or you do not have permission."

In SQL Database, login data required to authenticate a connection and server-level firewall rules are temporarily cached in each database. This cache is periodically refreshed. To force a refresh of the authentication cache and make sure that a database has the latest version of the logins table, execute DBCC FLUSHAUTHCACHE (Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY LOGIN permission.

If the CREDENTIAL option is used, also requires ALTER ANY CREDENTIAL permission.

If the login that is being changed is a member of the sysadmin fixed server role or a grantee of CONTROL SERVER permission, also requires CONTROL SERVER permission when making the following changes:

  • Resetting the password without supplying the old password.

  • Enabling MUST_CHANGE, CHECK_POLICY, or CHECK_EXPIRATION.

  • Changing the login name.

  • Enabling or disabling the login.

  • Mapping the login to a different credential.

A principal can change the password, default language, and default database for its own login.

Examples

These examples also include examples for using other SQL products. Please see which arguments are supported above.

A. Enabling a disabled login

The following example enables the login Mary5.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 ENABLE;  

B. Changing the password of a login

The following example changes the password of login Mary5 to a strong password.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH PASSWORD = '<enterStrongPasswordHere>';  

C. Changing the name of a login

The following example changes the name of login Mary5 to John2.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5 WITH NAME = John2;  

D. Mapping a login to a credential

The following example maps the login John2 to the credential Custodian04.

ALTER LOGIN John2 WITH CREDENTIAL = Custodian04;  

E. Mapping a login to an Extensible Key Management credential

The following example maps the login Mary5 to the EKM credential EKMProvider1.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN Mary5  
ADD CREDENTIAL EKMProvider1;  
GO  

F. Unlocking a login

To unlock a SQL Server login, execute the following statement, replacing **** with the desired account password.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH PASSWORD = '****' UNLOCK ;  

GO  

To unlock a login without changing the password, turn the check policy off and then on again.

ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF;  
ALTER LOGIN [Mary5] WITH CHECK_POLICY = ON;  
GO  

G. Changing the password of a login using HASHED

The following example changes the password of the TestUser login to an already hashed value.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017.

ALTER LOGIN TestUser WITH   
PASSWORD = 0x01000CF35567C60BFB41EBDE4CF700A985A13D773D6B45B90900 HASHED ;  
GO  

See Also

Credentials (Database Engine)
CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
DROP LOGIN (Transact-SQL)
CREATE CREDENTIAL (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
Extensible Key Management (EKM)