CREATE DATABASE

Creates a new database.

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SQL Server

Overview

In SQL Server, this statement creates a new database and the files used and their filegroups. It can also be used to create a database snapshot, or attach database files to create a database from the detached files of another database.

Syntax

Create a database.

CREATE DATABASE database_name   
[ CONTAINMENT = { NONE | PARTIAL } ]  
[ ON   
      [ PRIMARY ] <filespec> [ ,...n ]   
      [ , <filegroup> [ ,...n ] ]   
      [ LOG ON <filespec> [ ,...n ] ]   
]   
[ COLLATE collation_name ]  
[ WITH  <option> [,...n ] ]  
[;]  

<option> ::=  
{  
      FILESTREAM ( <filestream_option> [,...n ] )  
    | DEFAULT_FULLTEXT_LANGUAGE = { lcid | language_name | language_alias }  
    | DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = { lcid | language_name | language_alias }  
    | NESTED_TRIGGERS = { OFF | ON }  
    | TRANSFORM_NOISE_WORDS = { OFF | ON}  
    | TWO_DIGIT_YEAR_CUTOFF = <two_digit_year_cutoff>   
    | DB_CHAINING { OFF | ON }  
    | TRUSTWORTHY { OFF | ON }
    | PERSISTENT_LOG_BUFFER=ON ( DIRECTORY_NAME='<Filepath to folder on DAX formatted volume>' )
}  

<filestream_option> ::=  
{  
      NON_TRANSACTED_ACCESS = { OFF | READ_ONLY | FULL }  
    | DIRECTORY_NAME = 'directory_name'   
}  

<filespec> ::=   
{  
(  
    NAME = logical_file_name ,  
    FILENAME = { 'os_file_name' | 'filestream_path' }   
    [ , SIZE = size [ KB | MB | GB | TB ] ]   
    [ , MAXSIZE = { max_size [ KB | MB | GB | TB ] | UNLIMITED } ]   
    [ , FILEGROWTH = growth_increment [ KB | MB | GB | TB | % ] ]  
)  
}  

<filegroup> ::=   
{  
FILEGROUP filegroup name [ [ CONTAINS FILESTREAM ] [ DEFAULT ] | CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA ]  
    <filespec> [ ,...n ]  
}  

<service_broker_option> ::=  
{  
    ENABLE_BROKER  
  | NEW_BROKER  
  | ERROR_BROKER_CONVERSATIONS  
}  

Attach a database

CREATE DATABASE database_name   
    ON <filespec> [ ,...n ]   
    FOR { { ATTACH [ WITH <attach_database_option> [ , ...n ] ] }  
        | ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG }  
[;]  

<attach_database_option> ::=  
{  
      <service_broker_option>  
    | RESTRICTED_USER  
    | FILESTREAM ( DIRECTORY_NAME = { 'directory_name' | NULL } )  
}   

Create a database snapshot

CREATE DATABASE database_snapshot_name   
    ON   
    (  
        NAME = logical_file_name,  
        FILENAME = 'os_file_name'   
    ) [ ,...n ]   
    AS SNAPSHOT OF source_database_name  
[;]  

Arguments

database_name
Is the name of the new database. Database names must be unique within an instance of SQL Server and comply with the rules for identifiers.

database_name can be a maximum of 128 characters, unless a logical name is not specified for the log file. If a logical log file name is not specified, SQL Server generates the logical_file_name and the os_file_name for the log by appending a suffix to database_name. This limits database_name to 123 characters so that the generated logical file name is no more than 128 characters.

If data file name is not specified, SQL Server uses database_name as both the logical_file_name and as the os_file_name. The default path is obtained from the registry. The default path can be changed by using the Server Properties (Database Settings Page) in Management Studio. Changing the default path requires restarting SQL Server.

CONTAINMENT = { NONE | PARTIAL }

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

Specifies the containment status of the database. NONE = non-contained database. PARTIAL = partially contained database.

ON
Specifies that the disk files used to store the data sections of the database, data files, are explicitly defined. ON is required when followed by a comma-separated list of <filespec> items that define the data files for the primary filegroup. The list of files in the primary filegroup can be followed by an optional, comma-separated list of <filegroup> items that define user filegroups and their files.

PRIMARY
Specifies that the associated <filespec> list defines the primary file. The first file specified in the <filespec> entry in the primary filegroup becomes the primary file. A database can have only one primary file. For more information, see Database Files and Filegroups.

If PRIMARY is not specified, the first file listed in the CREATE DATABASE statement becomes the primary file.

LOG ON
Specifies that the disk files used to store the database log, log files, are explicitly defined. LOG ON is followed by a comma-separated list of <filespec> items that define the log files. If LOG ON is not specified, one log file is automatically created, which has a size that is 25 percent of the sum of the sizes of all the data files for the database, or 512 KB, whichever is larger. This file is placed in the default log-file location. For information about this location, see View or Change the Default Locations for Data and Log Files (SQL Server Management Studio).

LOG ON cannot be specified on a database snapshot.

COLLATE collation_name
Specifies the default collation for the database. Collation name can be either a Windows collation name or a SQL collation name. If not specified, the database is assigned the default collation of the instance of SQL Server. A collation name cannot be specified on a database snapshot.

A collation name cannot be specified with the FOR ATTACH or FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG clauses. For information about how to change the collation of an attached database, visit this Microsoft Web site.

For more information about the Windows and SQL collation names, see COLLATE (Transact-SQL).

Note

Contained databases are collated differently than non-contained databases. Please see Contained Database Collations for more information.

WITH <option>

  • <filestream_options>

    NON_TRANSACTED_ACCESS = { OFF | READ_ONLY | FULL }
    Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017.

    Specifies the level of non-transactional FILESTREAM access to the database.

    Value Description
    OFF Non-transactional access is disabled.
    READONLY FILESTREAM data in this database can be read by non-transactional processes.
    FULL Full non-transactional access to FILESTREAM FileTables is enabled.

    DIRECTORY_NAME = <directory_name> Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

    A windows-compatible directory name. This name should be unique among all the Database_Directory names in the SQL Server instance. Uniqueness comparison is case-insensitive, regardless of SQL Server collation settings. This option should be set before creating a FileTable in this database.

    The following options are allowable only when CONTAINMENT has been set to PARTIAL. If CONTAINMENT is set to NONE, errors will occur.

  • DEFAULT_FULLTEXT_LANGUAGE = <lcid> | <language name> | <language alias>

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

 See [Configure the default full-text language Server Configuration Option](../../database-engine/configure-windows/configure-the-default-full-text-language-server-configuration-option.md) for a full description of this option.  
  • DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = <lcid> | <language name> | <language alias>

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

 See [Configure the default language Server Configuration Option](../../database-engine/configure-windows/configure-the-default-language-server-configuration-option.md) for a full description of this option.  
  • NESTED_TRIGGERS = { OFF | ON}

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

 See [Configure the nested triggers Server Configuration Option](../../database-engine/configure-windows/configure-the-nested-triggers-server-configuration-option.md) for a full description of this option.  
  • TRANSFORM_NOISE_WORDS = { OFF | ON}

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) through SQL Server 2017

 See [transform noise words Server Configuration Option](../../database-engine/configure-windows/transform-noise-words-server-configuration-option.md)for a full description of this option.  
  • TWO_DIGIT_YEAR_CUTOFF = { 2049 | <any year between 1753 and 9999> }

    Four digits representing a year. 2049 is the default value. See Configure the two digit year cutoff Server Configuration Option for a full description of this option.

  • DB_CHAINING { OFF | ON }

    When ON is specified, the database can be the source or target of a cross-database ownership chain.

    When OFF, the database cannot participate in cross-database ownership chaining. The default is OFF.

    Important

    The instance of SQL Server will recognize this setting when the cross db ownership chaining server option is 0 (OFF). When cross db ownership chaining is 1 (ON), all user databases can participate in cross-database ownership chains, regardless of the value of this option. This option is set by using sp_configure.

    To set this option, requires membership in the sysadmin fixed server role. The DB_CHAINING option cannot be set on these system databases: master, model, tempdb.

  • TRUSTWORTHY { OFF | ON }

    When ON is specified, database modules (for example, views, user-defined functions, or stored procedures) that use an impersonation context can access resources outside the database.

    When OFF, database modules in an impersonation context cannot access resources outside the database. The default is OFF.

    TRUSTWORTHY is set to OFF whenever the database is attached.

    By default, all system databases except the msdb database have TRUSTWORTHY set to OFF. The value cannot be changed for the model and tempdb databases. We recommend that you never set the TRUSTWORTHY option to ON for the master database.

  • PERSISTENT_LOG_BUFFER=ON ( DIRECTORY_NAME='' )

    When this option is specified, the transaction log buffer is created on a volume that is located on a disk device backed by Storage Class Memory (NVDIMM-N nonvolatile storage) - also known as a persistent log buffer. For more information, see Transaction Commit latency acceleration using Storage Class Memory. Applies to: SQL Server 2017 (14.x) and newer.

    FOR ATTACH [ WITH < attach_database_option > ] Specifies that the database is created by attaching an existing set of operating system files. There must be a <filespec> entry that specifies the primary file. The only other <filespec> entries required are those for any files that have a different path from when the database was first created or last attached. A <filespec> entry must be specified for these files.

    FOR ATTACH requires the following:

  • All data files (MDF and NDF) must be available.

  • If multiple log files exist, they must all be available.

    If a read/write database has a single log file that is currently unavailable, and if the database was shut down with no users or open transactions before the attach operation, FOR ATTACH automatically rebuilds the log file and updates the primary file. In contrast, for a read-only database, the log cannot be rebuilt because the primary file cannot be updated. Therefore, when you attach a read-only database with a log that is unavailable, you must provide the log files, or the files in the FOR ATTACH clause.

Note

A database created by a more recent version of SQL Server cannot be attached in earlier versions.

In SQL Server, any full-text files that are part of the database that is being attached will be attached with the database. To specify a new path of the full-text catalog, specify the new location without the full-text operating system file name. For more information, see the Examples section.

Attaching a database that contains a FILESTREAM option of "Directory name", into a SQL Server instance will prompt SQL Server to verify that the Database_Directory name is unique. If it is not, the attach operation fails with the error, "FILESTREAM Database_Directory name <name> is not unique in this SQL Server instance". To avoid this error, the optional parameter, directory_name, should be passed in to this operation.

FOR ATTACH cannot be specified on a database snapshot.

FOR ATTACH can specify the RESTRICTED_USER option. RESTRICTED_USER allows for only members of the db_owner fixed database role and dbcreator and sysadmin fixed server roles to connect to the database, but does not limit their number. Attempts by unqualified users are refused.

If the database uses Service Broker, use the WITH <service_broker_option> in your FOR ATTACH clause:

<service_broker_option> Controls Service Broker message delivery and the Service Broker identifier for the database. Service Broker options can only be specified when the FOR ATTACH clause is used.

ENABLE_BROKER
Specifies that Service Broker is enabled for the specified database. That is, message delivery is started, and is_broker_enabled is set to true in the sys.databases catalog view. The database retains the existing Service Broker identifier.

NEW_BROKER
Creates a new service_broker_guid value in both sys.databases and the restored database and ends all conversation endpoints with clean up. The broker is enabled, but no message is sent to the remote conversation endpoints. Any route that references the old Service Broker identifier must be re-created with the new identifier.

ERROR_BROKER_CONVERSATIONS
Ends all conversations with an error stating that the database is attached or restored. The broker is disabled until this operation is completed and then enabled. The database retains the existing Service Broker identifier.

When you attach a replicated database that was copied instead of being detached, consider the following:

  • If you attach the database to the same server instance and version as the original database, no additional steps are required.

  • If you attach the database to the same server instance but with an upgraded version, you must execute sp_vupgrade_replication to upgrade replication after the attach operation is complete.

  • If you attach the database to a different server instance, regardless of version, you must execute sp_removedbreplication to remove replication after the attach operation is complete.

Note

Attach works with the vardecimal storage format, but the SQL Server Database Engine must be upgraded to at least SQL Server 2005 (9.x) SP2. You cannot attach a database using vardecimal storage format to an earlier version of SQL Server. For more information about the vardecimal storage format, see Data Compression.

When a database is first attached or restored to a new instance of SQL Server, a copy of the database master key (encrypted by the service master key) is not yet stored in the server. You must use the OPEN MASTER KEY statement to decrypt the database master key (DMK). Once the DMK has been decrypted, you have the option of enabling automatic decryption in the future by using the ALTER MASTER KEY REGENERATE statement to provision the server with a copy of the DMK, encrypted with the service master key (SMK). When a database has been upgraded from an earlier version, the DMK should be regenerated to use the newer AES algorithm. For more information about regenerating the DMK, see ALTER MASTER KEY (Transact-SQL). The time required to regenerate the DMK key to upgrade to AES depends upon the number of objects protected by the DMK. Regenerating the DMK key to upgrade to AES is only necessary once, and has no impact on future regenerations as part of a key rotation strategy. For information about how to upgrade a database by using attach, see Upgrade a Database Using Detach and Attach (Transact-SQL).

Important

We recommend that you do not attach databases from unknown or untrusted sources. Such databases could contain malicious code that might execute unintended Transact-SQL code or cause errors by modifying the schema or the physical database structure. Before you use a database from an unknown or untrusted source, run DBCC CHECKDB on the database on a nonproduction server, and also examine the code, such as stored procedures or other user-defined code, in the database.

Note

The TRUSTWORTHY and DB_CHAINING options have no affect when attaching a database.

FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG
Specifies that the database is created by attaching an existing set of operating system files. This option is limited to read/write databases. There must be a <filespec> entry specifying the primary file. If one or more transaction log files are missing, the log file is rebuilt. The ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG automatically creates a new, 1 MB log file. This file is placed in the default log-file location. For information about this location, see View or Change the Default Locations for Data and Log Files (SQL Server Management Studio).

Note

If the log files are available, the Database Engine uses those files instead of rebuilding the log files.

FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG requires the following:

  • A clean shutdown of the database.

  • All data files (MDF and NDF) must be available.

Important

This operation breaks the log backup chain. We recommend that a full database backup be performed after the operation is completed. For more information, see BACKUP (Transact-SQL).

Typically, FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG is used when you copy a read/write database with a large log to another server where the copy will be used mostly, or only, for read operations, and therefore requires less log space than the original database.

FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG cannot be specified on a database snapshot.

For more information about attaching and detaching databases, see Database Detach and Attach (SQL Server).

<filespec>
Controls the file properties.

NAME logical_file_name
Specifies the logical name for the file. NAME is required when FILENAME is specified, except when specifying one of the FOR ATTACH clauses. A FILESTREAM filegroup cannot be named PRIMARY.

logical_file_name
Is the logical name used in SQL Server when referencing the file. Logical_file_name must be unique in the database and comply with the rules for identifiers. The name can be a character or Unicode constant, or a regular or delimited identifier.

FILENAME { 'os_file_name' | 'filestream_path' }
Specifies the operating system (physical) file name.

' os_file_name '
Is the path and file name used by the operating system when you create the file. The file must reside on one of the following devices: the local server on which SQL Server is installed, a Storage Area Network [SAN], or an iSCSI-based network. The specified path must exist before executing the CREATE DATABASE statement. For more information, see "Database Files and Filegroups" in the Remarks section.

SIZE, MAXSIZE, and FILEGROWTH parameters can be set when a UNC path is specified for the file.

If the file is on a raw partition, os_file_name must specify only the drive letter of an existing raw partition. Only one data file can be created on each raw partition.

Data files should not be put on compressed file systems unless the files are read-only secondary files, or the database is read-only. Log files should never be put on compressed file systems.

' filestream_path '
For a FILESTREAM filegroup, FILENAME refers to a path where FILESTREAM data will be stored. The path up to the last folder must exist, and the last folder must not exist. For example, if you specify the path C:\MyFiles\MyFilestreamData, C:\MyFiles must exist before you run ALTER DATABASE, but the MyFilestreamData folder must not exist.

The filegroup and file (<filespec>) must be created in the same statement.

The SIZE and FILEGROWTH properties do not apply to a FILESTREAM filegroup.

SIZE size
Specifies the size of the file.

SIZE cannot be specified when the os_file_name is specified as a UNC path. SIZE does not apply to a FILESTREAM filegroup.

size
Is the initial size of the file.

When size is not supplied for the primary file, the Database Engine uses the size of the primary file in the model database. The default size of model is 8 MB (beginning with SQL Server 2016 (13.x)) or 1 MB (for earlier versions). When a secondary data file or log file is specified, but size is not specified for the file, the Database Engine makes the file 8 MB (beginning with SQL Server 2016 (13.x)) or 1 MB (for earlier versions). The size specified for the primary file must be at least as large as the primary file of the model database.

The kilobyte (KB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB), or terabyte (TB) suffixes can be used. The default is MB. Specify a whole number; do not include a decimal. Size is an integer value. For values greater than 2147483647, use larger units.

MAXSIZE max_size
Specifies the maximum size to which the file can grow. MAXSIZE cannot be specified when the os_file_name is specified as a UNC path.

max_size
Is the maximum file size. The KB, MB, GB, and TB suffixes can be used. The default is MB. Specify a whole number; do not include a decimal. If max_size is not specified, the file grows until the disk is full. Max_size is an integer value. For values greater than 2147483647, use larger units.

UNLIMITED
Specifies that the file grows until the disk is full. In SQL Server, a log file specified with unlimited growth has a maximum size of 2 TB, and a data file has a maximum size of 16 TB.

Note

There is no maximum size when this option is specified for a FILESTREAM container. It continues to grow until the disk is full.

FILEGROWTH growth_increment
Specifies the automatic growth increment of the file. The FILEGROWTH setting for a file cannot exceed the MAXSIZE setting. FILEGROWTH cannot be specified when the os_file_name is specified as a UNC path. FILEGROWTH does not apply to a FILESTREAM filegroup.

growth_increment
Is the amount of space added to the file every time new space is required.

The value can be specified in MB, KB, GB, TB, or percent (%). If a number is specified without an MB, KB, or % suffix, the default is MB. When % is specified, the growth increment size is the specified percentage of the size of the file at the time the increment occurs. The size specified is rounded to the nearest 64 KB, and the minimum value is 64 KB.

A value of 0 indicates that automatic growth is off and no additional space is allowed.

If FILEGROWTH is not specified, the default values are:

Version Default values
Beginning SQL Server 2016 (13.x) Data 64 MB. Log files 64 MB.
Beginning SQL Server 2005 (9.x) Data 1 MB. Log files 10%.
Prior to SQL Server 2005 (9.x) Data 10%. Log files 10%.

<filegroup>
Controls the filegroup properties. Filegroup cannot be specified on a database snapshot.

FILEGROUP filegroup_name
Is the logical name of the filegroup.

filegroup_name
filegroup_name must be unique in the database and cannot be the system-provided names PRIMARY and PRIMARY_LOG. The name can be a character or Unicode constant, or a regular or delimited identifier. The name must comply with the rules for identifiers.

CONTAINS FILESTREAM
Specifies that the filegroup stores FILESTREAM binary large objects (BLOBs) in the file system.

CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 (12.x) through SQL Server 2017

Specifies that the filegroup stores memory_optimized data in the file system. For more information, see In-Memory OLTP (In-Memory Optimization). Only one MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA filegroup is allowed per database. For code samples that create a filegroup to store memory-optimized data, see Creating a Memory-Optimized Table and a Natively Compiled Stored Procedure.

DEFAULT
Specifies the named filegroup is the default filegroup in the database.

database_snapshot_name
Is the name of the new database snapshot. Database snapshot names must be unique within an instance of SQL Server and comply with the rules for identifiers. database_snapshot_name can be a maximum of 128 characters.

ON ( NAME =logical_file_name, FILENAME ='os_file_name') [ ,... n ]
For creating a database snapshot, specifies a list of files in the source database. For the snapshot to work, all the data files must be specified individually. However, log files are not allowed for database snapshots. FILESTREAM filegroups are not supported by database snapshots. If a FILESTREAM data file is included in a CREATE DATABASE ON clause, the statement will fail and an error will be raised.

For descriptions of NAME and FILENAME and their values see the descriptions of the equivalent <filespec> values.

Note

When you create a database snapshot, the other <filespec> options and the keyword PRIMARY are disallowed.

AS SNAPSHOT OF source_database_name
Specifies that the database being created is a database snapshot of the source database specified by source_database_name. The snapshot and source database must be on the same instance.

For more information, see "Database Snapshots" in the Remarks section.

Remarks

The master database should be backed up whenever a user database is created, modified, or dropped.

The CREATE DATABASE statement must run in autocommit mode (the default transaction management mode) and is not allowed in an explicit or implicit transaction.

You can use one CREATE DATABASE statement to create a database and the files that store the database. SQL Server implements the CREATE DATABASE statement by using the following steps:

  1. The SQL Server uses a copy of the model database to initialize the database and its metadata.

  2. A service broker GUID is assigned to the database.

  3. The Database Engine then fills the rest of the database with empty pages, except for pages that have internal data that records how the space is used in the database.

    A maximum of 32,767 databases can be specified on an instance of SQL Server.

    Each database has an owner that can perform special activities in the database. The owner is the user that creates the database. The database owner can be changed by using sp_changedbowner.

Some database features depend on features or capabilities present in the file system for full functionality of a database. Some examples of features that depend on file system feature set include:

  • DBCC CHECKDB
  • FileStream
  • Online backups using VSS and file snapshots
  • Database snapshot creation
  • Memory Optimized Data filegroup

Database Files and Filegroups

Every database has at least two files, a primary file and a transaction log file, and at least one filegroup. A maximum of 32,767 files and 32,767 filegroups can be specified for each database.

When you create a database, make the data files as large as possible based on the maximum amount of data you expect in the database

We recommend that you use a Storage Area Network (SAN), iSCSI-based network, or locally attached disk for the storage of your SQL Server database files, because this configuration optimizes SQL Server performance and reliability.

Database Snapshots

You can use the CREATE DATABASE statement to create a read-only, static view, a database snapshot of the source database. A database snapshot is transactionally consistent with the source database as it existed at the time when the snapshot was created. A source database can have multiple snapshots.

Note

When you create a database snapshot, the CREATE DATABASE statement cannot reference log files, offline files, restoring files, and defunct files.

If creating a database snapshot fails, the snapshot becomes suspect and must be deleted. For more information, see DROP DATABASE (Transact-SQL).

Each snapshot persists until it is deleted by using DROP DATABASE.

For more information, see Database Snapshots (SQL Server).

Database Options

Several database options are automatically set whenever you create a database. For a list of these options, see ALTER DATABASE SET Options (Transact-SQL).

The model Database and Creating New Databases

All user-defined objects in the model database are copied to all newly created databases. You can add any objects, such as tables, views, stored procedures, data types, and so on, to the model database to be included in all newly created databases.

When a CREATE DATABASE database_name statement is specified without additional size parameters, the primary data file is made the same size as the primary file in the model database.

Unless FOR ATTACH is specified, each new database inherits the database option settings from the model database. For example, the database option auto shrink is set to true in model and in any new databases you create. If you change the options in the model database, these new option settings are used in any new databases you create. Changing operations in the model database does not affect existing databases. If FOR ATTACH is specified on the CREATE DATABASE statement, the new database inherits the database option settings of the original database.

Viewing Database Information

You can use catalog views, system functions, and system stored procedures to return information about databases, files, and filegroups. For more information, see System Views (Transact-SQL).

Permissions

Requires CREATE DATABASE, CREATE ANY DATABASE, or ALTER ANY DATABASE permission.

To maintain control over disk use on an instance of SQL Server, permission to create databases is typically limited to a few login accounts.

The following example provides the permission to create a database to the database user Fay.

USE master;  
GO  
GRANT CREATE DATABASE TO [Fay];  
GO  

Permissions on Data and Log Files

In SQL Server, certain permissions are set on the data and log files of each database. The following permissions are set whenever the following operations are applied to a database:

Created Modified to add a new file
Attached Backed up
Detached Restored

The permissions prevent the files from being accidentally tampered with if they reside in a directory that has open permissions.

Note

Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition does not set data and log file permissions.

Examples

A. Creating a database without specifying files

The following example creates the database mytest and creates a corresponding primary and transaction log file. Because the statement has no <filespec> items, the primary database file is the size of the model database primary file. The transaction log is set to the larger of these values: 512KB or 25% the size of the primary data file. Because MAXSIZE is not specified, the files can grow to fill all available disk space. This example also demonstrates how to drop the database named mytest if it exists, before creating the mytest database.

USE master;  
GO  
IF DB_ID (N'mytest') IS NOT NULL
DROP DATABASE mytest;
GO
CREATE DATABASE mytest;  
GO  
-- Verify the database files and sizes  
SELECT name, size, size*1.0/128 AS [Size in MBs]   
FROM sys.master_files  
WHERE name = N'mytest';  
GO  

B. Creating a database that specifies the data and transaction log files

The following example creates the database Sales. Because the keyword PRIMARY is not used, the first file (Sales_dat) becomes the primary file. Because neither MB nor KB is specified in the SIZE parameter for the Sales_dat file, it uses MB and is allocated in megabytes. The Sales_log file is allocated in megabytes because the MB suffix is explicitly stated in the SIZE parameter.

USE master;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE Sales  
ON   
( NAME = Sales_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\saledat.mdf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5 )  
LOG ON  
( NAME = Sales_log,  
    FILENAME = 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\salelog.ldf',  
    SIZE = 5MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 25MB,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5MB ) ;  
GO  

C. Creating a database by specifying multiple data and transaction log files

The following example creates the database Archive that has three 100-MB data files and two 100-MB transaction log files. The primary file is the first file in the list and is explicitly specified with the PRIMARY keyword. The transaction log files are specified following the LOG ON keywords. Note the extensions used for the files in the FILENAME option: .mdf is used for primary data files, .ndf is used for the secondary data files, and .ldf is used for transaction log files. This example places the database on the D: drive instead of with the master database.

USE master;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE Archive   
ON  
PRIMARY    
    (NAME = Arch1,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archdat1.mdf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 200,  
    FILEGROWTH = 20),  
    ( NAME = Arch2,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archdat2.ndf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 200,  
    FILEGROWTH = 20),  
    ( NAME = Arch3,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archdat3.ndf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 200,  
    FILEGROWTH = 20)  
LOG ON   
   (NAME = Archlog1,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archlog1.ldf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 200,  
    FILEGROWTH = 20),  
   (NAME = Archlog2,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archlog2.ldf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 200,  
    FILEGROWTH = 20) ;  
GO  

D. Creating a database that has filegroups

The following example creates the database Sales that has the following filegroups:

  • The primary filegroup with the files Spri1_dat and Spri2_dat. The FILEGROWTH increments for these files are specified as 15%.

  • A filegroup named SalesGroup1 with the files SGrp1Fi1 and SGrp1Fi2.

  • A filegroup named SalesGroup2 with the files SGrp2Fi1 and SGrp2Fi2.

    This example places the data and log files on different disks to improve performance.

USE master;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE Sales  
ON PRIMARY  
( NAME = SPri1_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SPri1dat.mdf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 15% ),  
( NAME = SPri2_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SPri2dt.ndf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 15% ),  
FILEGROUP SalesGroup1  
( NAME = SGrp1Fi1_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG1Fi1dt.ndf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5 ),  
( NAME = SGrp1Fi2_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG1Fi2dt.ndf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5 ),  
FILEGROUP SalesGroup2  
( NAME = SGrp2Fi1_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG2Fi1dt.ndf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5 ),  
( NAME = SGrp2Fi2_dat,  
    FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG2Fi2dt.ndf',  
    SIZE = 10,  
    MAXSIZE = 50,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5 )  
LOG ON  
( NAME = Sales_log,  
    FILENAME = 'E:\SalesLog\salelog.ldf',  
    SIZE = 5MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 25MB,  
    FILEGROWTH = 5MB ) ;  
GO  

E. Attaching a database

The following example detaches the database Archive created in example D, and then attaches it by using the FOR ATTACH clause. Archive was defined to have multiple data and log files. However, because the location of the files has not changed since they were created, only the primary file has to be specified in the FOR ATTACH clause. Beginning with SQL Server 2005 (9.x), any full-text files that are part of the database that is being attached will be attached with the database.

USE master;  
GO  
sp_detach_db Archive;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE Archive  
      ON (FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\archdat1.mdf')   
      FOR ATTACH ;  
GO  

F. Creating a database snapshot

The following example creates the database snapshot sales_snapshot0600. Because a database snapshot is read-only, a log file cannot be specified. In conformance with the syntax, every file in the source database is specified, and filegroups are not specified.

The source database for this example is the Sales database created in example D.

USE master;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE sales_snapshot0600 ON  
    ( NAME = SPri1_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SPri1dat_0600.ss'),  
    ( NAME = SPri2_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SPri2dt_0600.ss'),  
    ( NAME = SGrp1Fi1_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG1Fi1dt_0600.ss'),  
    ( NAME = SGrp1Fi2_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG1Fi2dt_0600.ss'),  
    ( NAME = SGrp2Fi1_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG2Fi1dt_0600.ss'),  
    ( NAME = SGrp2Fi2_dat, FILENAME = 'D:\SalesData\SG2Fi2dt_0600.ss')  
AS SNAPSHOT OF Sales ;  
GO  

G. Creating a database and specifying a collation name and options

The following example creates the database MyOptionsTest. A collation name is specified and the TRUSTYWORTHY and DB_CHAINING options are set to ON.

USE master;  
GO  
IF DB_ID (N'MyOptionsTest') IS NOT NULL  
DROP DATABASE MyOptionsTest;  
GO  
CREATE DATABASE MyOptionsTest  
COLLATE French_CI_AI  
WITH TRUSTWORTHY ON, DB_CHAINING ON;  
GO  
--Verifying collation and option settings.  
SELECT name, collation_name, is_trustworthy_on, is_db_chaining_on  
FROM sys.databases  
WHERE name = N'MyOptionsTest';  
GO  

H. Attaching a full-text catalog that has been moved

The following example attaches the full-text catalog AdvWksFtCat along with the AdventureWorks2012 data and log files. In this example, the full-text catalog is moved from its default location to a new location c:\myFTCatalogs. The data and log files remain in their default locations.

USE master;  
GO  
--Detach the AdventureWorks2012 database  
sp_detach_db AdventureWorks2012;  
GO  
-- Physically move the full text catalog to the new location.  
--Attach the AdventureWorks2012 database and specify the new location of the full-text catalog.  
CREATE DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 ON   
    (FILENAME = 'c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Data\AdventureWorks2012_data.mdf'),   
    (FILENAME = 'c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Data\AdventureWorks2012_log.ldf'),  
    (FILENAME = 'c:\myFTCatalogs\AdvWksFtCat')  
FOR ATTACH;  
GO  

I. Creating a database that specifies a row filegroup and two FILESTREAM filegroups

The following example creates the FileStreamDB database. The database is created with one row filegroup and two FILESTREAM filegroups. Each filegroup contains one file:

  • FileStreamDB_data contains row data. It contains one file, FileStreamDB_data.mdf with the default path.

  • FileStreamPhotos contains FILESTREAM data. It contains two FILESTREAM data containers, FSPhotos, located at C:\MyFSfolder\Photos and FSPhotos2, located at D:\MyFSfolder\Photos. It is marked as the default FILESTREAM filegroup.

  • FileStreamResumes contains FILESTREAM data. It contains one FILESTREAM data container, FSResumes, located at C:\MyFSfolder\Resumes.

USE master;  
GO  
-- Get the SQL Server data path.  
DECLARE @data_path nvarchar(256);  
SET @data_path = (SELECT SUBSTRING(physical_name, 1, CHARINDEX(N'master.mdf', LOWER(physical_name)) - 1)  
                  FROM master.sys.master_files  
                  WHERE database_id = 1 AND file_id = 1);  

 -- Execute the CREATE DATABASE statement.   
EXECUTE ('CREATE DATABASE FileStreamDB  
ON PRIMARY   
    (  
    NAME = FileStreamDB_data   
    ,FILENAME = ''' + @data_path + 'FileStreamDB_data.mdf''  
    ,SIZE = 10MB  
    ,MAXSIZE = 50MB  
    ,FILEGROWTH = 15%  
    ),  
FILEGROUP FileStreamPhotos CONTAINS FILESTREAM DEFAULT  
    (  
    NAME = FSPhotos  
    ,FILENAME = ''C:\MyFSfolder\Photos''  
-- SIZE and FILEGROWTH should not be specified here.  
-- If they are specified an error will be raised.  
, MAXSIZE = 5000 MB  
    ),  
    (  
      NAME = FSPhotos2  
      , FILENAME = ''D:\MyFSfolder\Photos''  
      , MAXSIZE = 10000 MB  
     ),  
FILEGROUP FileStreamResumes CONTAINS FILESTREAM  
    (  
    NAME = FileStreamResumes  
    ,FILENAME = ''C:\MyFSfolder\Resumes''  
    )   
LOG ON  
    (  
    NAME = FileStream_log  
    ,FILENAME = ''' + @data_path + 'FileStreamDB_log.ldf''  
    ,SIZE = 5MB  
    ,MAXSIZE = 25MB  
    ,FILEGROWTH = 5MB  
    )'  
);  
GO  

J. Creating a database that has a FILESTREAM filegroup with multiple files

The following example creates the BlobStore1 database. The database is created with one row filegroup and one FILESTREAM filegroup, FS. The FILESTREAM filegroup contains two files, FS1 and FS2. Then the database is altered by adding a third file, FS3, to the FILESTREAM filegroup.

USE master;  
GO  

CREATE DATABASE [BlobStore1]  
CONTAINMENT = NONE  
ON PRIMARY   
(   
    NAME = N'BlobStore1',   
    FILENAME = N'C:\BlobStore\BlobStore1.mdf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = UNLIMITED,  
    FILEGROWTH = 1MB  
),   
FILEGROUP [FS] CONTAINS FILESTREAM DEFAULT   
(  
    NAME = N'FS1',  
    FILENAME = N'C:\BlobStore\FS1',  
    MAXSIZE = UNLIMITED  
),   
(  
    NAME = N'FS2',  
    FILENAME = N'C:\BlobStore\FS2',  
    MAXSIZE = 100MB  
)  
LOG ON   
(  
    NAME = N'BlobStore1_log',  
    FILENAME = N'C:\BlobStore\BlobStore1_log.ldf',  
    SIZE = 100MB,  
    MAXSIZE = 1GB,  
    FILEGROWTH = 1MB  
);  
GO  

ALTER DATABASE [BlobStore1]  
ADD FILE  
(  
    NAME = N'FS3',  
    FILENAME = N'C:\BlobStore\FS3',  
    MAXSIZE = 100MB  
)  
TO FILEGROUP [FS];  
GO  

See Also

ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL)
Database Detach and Attach (SQL Server)
DROP DATABASE (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)
sp_changedbowner (Transact-SQL)
sp_detach_db (Transact-SQL)
sp_removedbreplication (Transact-SQL)
Database Snapshots (SQL Server)
Move Database Files
Databases
Binary Large Object (Blob) Data (SQL Server)

 

Azure SQL Database logical server

Overview

In Azure SQL Database logical server, this statement can be used with an Azure SQL server to create a single database or a database in an elastic pool. With this statement, you specify the database name, collation, maximum size, edition, service objective, and, if applicable, the elastic pool for the new database. It can also be used to create the database in an elastic pool. Additionally, it can be used to create a copy of the database on another logical server.

Syntax

Create a database

CREATE DATABASE database_name [ COLLATE collation_name ]  
{  
   (<edition_options> [, ...n]) 
}  
[ WITH CATALOG_COLLATION = { DATABASE_DEFAULT | SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS }  ]
[;] 

<edition_options> ::= 
{  

  MAXSIZE = { 100 MB | 250 MB | 500 MB | 1 … 1024 … 4096 GB }  
  | ( EDITION = {  'basic' | 'standard' | 'premium' | 'GeneralPurpose' | 'BusinessCritical' | 'Hyperscale' } 
  | SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = 
    {  'basic' | 'S0' | 'S1' | 'S2' | 'S3' | 'S4'| 'S6'| 'S7'| 'S9'| 'S12' | 
      | 'P1' | 'P2' | 'P4'| 'P6' | 'P11'  | 'P15'  
      | 'GP_GEN4_1' | 'GP_GEN4_2' | 'GP_GEN4_4' | 'GP_GEN4_8' | 'GP_GEN4_16' | 'GP_GEN4_24' |
      | 'BC_GEN4_1' | 'BC_GEN4_2' | 'BC_GEN4_4' | 'BC_GEN4_8' | 'BC_GEN4_16' | 'BC_GEN4_24' |
      | 'HS_GEN4_1' | 'HS_GEN4_2' | 'HS_GEN4_4' | 'HS_GEN4_8' | 'HS_GEN4_16' | 'HS_GEN4_24' |
      | 'GP_GEN5_2' | 'GP_GEN5_4' | 'GP_GEN5_8' | 'GP_GEN5_16' | 'GP_GEN5_24' | 'GP_GEN5_32' | 'GP_GEN5_48' | 'GP_GEN5_80' |
      | 'BC_GEN5_2' | 'BC_GEN5_4' | 'BC_GEN5_8' | 'BC_GEN5_16' | 'BC_GEN5_24' | 'BC_GEN5_32' | 'BC_GEN5_48' | 'BC_GEN5_80' |
      | 'HS_GEN5_2' | 'HS_GEN5_4' | 'HS_GEN5_8' | 'HS_GEN5_16' | 'HS_GEN5_24' | 'HS_GEN5_32' | 'HS_GEN5_48' | 'HS_GEN5_80' |
      | { ELASTIC_POOL(name = <elastic_pool_name>) } }  ) 
}

Copy a database

CREATE DATABASE database_name  
    AS COPY OF [source_server_name.] source_database_name  
    [ ( SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = 
      {  'basic' | 'S0' | 'S1' | 'S2' | 'S3' | 'S4'| 'S6'| 'S7'| 'S9'| 'S12' |  
      | 'GP_GEN4_1' | 'GP_GEN4_2' | 'GP_GEN4_4' | 'GP_GEN4_8' | 'GP_GEN4_16' | 'GP_GEN4_24' |
      | 'BC_GEN4_1' | 'BC_GEN4_2' | 'BC_GEN4_4' | 'BC_GEN4_8' | 'BC_GEN4_16' | 'BC_GEN4_24' |
      | 'HS_GEN4_1' | 'HS_GEN4_2' | 'HS_GEN4_4' | 'HS_GEN4_8' | 'HS_GEN4_16' | 'HS_GEN4_24' |
      | 'GP_GEN5_2' | 'GP_GEN5_4' | 'GP_GEN5_8' | 'GP_GEN5_16' | 'GP_GEN5_24' | 'GP_GEN5_32' | 'GP_GEN5_48' | 'GP_GEN5_80' |
      | 'BC_GEN5_2' | 'BC_GEN5_4' | 'BC_GEN5_8' | 'BC_GEN5_16' | 'BC_GEN5_24' | 'BC_GEN5_32' | 'BC_GEN5_48' | 'BC_GEN5_80' |
      | 'HS_GEN5_2' | 'HS_GEN5_4' | 'HS_GEN5_8' | 'HS_GEN5_16' | 'HS_GEN5_24' | 'HS_GEN5_32' | 'HS_GEN5_48' | 'HS_GEN5_80' |
        | { ELASTIC_POOL(name = <elastic_pool_name>) } } )  
   ]  
[;] 

Arguments

database_name

The name of the new database. This name must be unique on the SQL server and comply with the SQL Server rules for identifiers. For more information, see Identifiers.

Collation_name

Specifies the default collation for the database. Collation name can be either a Windows collation name or a SQL collation name. If not specified, the database is assigned the default collation, which is SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS.

For more information about the Windows and SQL collation names, COLLATE (Transact-SQL).

CATALOG_COLLATION

Specifies the default collation for the metadata catalog. DATABASE_DEFAULT specifies that the metadata catalog used for system views and system tables be collated to match the default collation for the database. This is the behavior found in SQL Server.

SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS specifies that the metadata catalog used for system views and tables be collated to a fixed SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS collation. This is the default setting on Azure SQL Database if unspecified.

EDITION

Specifies the service tier of the database.

Single and pooled databases on a logical server. The available values are: 'basic', 'standard', 'premium', 'GeneralPurpose', 'BusinessCritical', and 'Hyperscale'.

When EDITION is specified but MAXSIZE is not specified, MAXSIZE is set to the most restrictive size that the edition supports.

MAXSIZE

Specifies the maximum size of the database. MAXSIZE must be valid for the specified EDITION (service tier) Following are the supported MAXSIZE values and defaults (D) for the service tiers.

Note

The MAXSIZE argument does not apply to single databases in the Hyperscale service tier. Hyperscale tier databases grow as needed, up to 100 TB. The SQL Database service adds storage automatically - you do not need to set a maximum size.

DTU-based model for single and pooled databases on a logical server

MAXSIZE Basic S0-S2 S3-S12 P1-P6 P11-P15
100 MB
250 MB
500 MB
1 GB
2 GB √ (D)
5 GB N/A
10 GB N/A
20 GB N/A
30 GB N/A
40 GB N/A
50 GB N/A
100 GB N/A
150 GB N/A
200 GB N/A
250 GB N/A √ (D) √ (D)
300 GB N/A N/A
400 GB N/A N/A
500 GB N/A N/A √ (D)
750 GB N/A N/A
1024 GB N/A N/A √ (D)
From 1024 GB up to 4096 GB in increments of 256 GB* N/A N/A N/A N/A

* P11 and P15 allow MAXSIZE up to 4 TB with 1024 GB being the default size. P11 and P15 can use up to 4 TB of included storage at no additional charge. In the Premium tier, MAXSIZE greater than 1 TB is currently available in the following regions: US East2, West US, US Gov Virginia, West Europe, Germany Central, South East Asia, Japan East, Australia East, Canada Central, and Canada East. For additional details regarding resource limitations for the DTU-based model, see DTU-based resource limits.

The MAXSIZE value for the DTU-based model, if specified, has to be a valid value shown in the table above for the service tier specified.

vCore-based model for single and pooled databases on a logical server

General Purpose service tier - Generation 4 compute platform

MAXSIZE GP_Gen4_1 GP_Gen4_2 GP_Gen4_4 GP_Gen4_8 GP_Gen4_16 GP4_24
Max data size (GB) 1024 1024 1536 3072 4096 4096

General Purpose service tier - Generation 5 compute platform

MAXSIZE GP_Gen5_2 GP_Gen5_4 GP_Gen5_8 GP_Gen5_16 GP_Gen5_24 GP_Gen5_32 GP_Gen5_48 GP_Gen5_80
Max data size (GB) 1024 1024 1536 3072 4096 4096 4096 4096

Business Critical service tier - Generation 4 compute platform

Performance level BC_Gen4_1 BC_Gen4_2 BC_Gen4_4 BC_Gen4_8 BC_Gen4_16
Max data size (GB) 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024

Business Critical service tier - Generation 5 compute platform

MAXSIZE BC_Gen5_2 BC_Gen5_4 BC_Gen5_8 BC_Gen5_16 BC_Gen5_24 BC_Gen5_32 BC_Gen5_48 BC_Gen5_80
Max data size (GB) 1024 1024 1024 1024 2048 4096 4096 4096

If no MAXSIZEvalue is set when using the vCore model, the default is 32 GB. For additional details regarding resource limitations for vCore-based model, see vCore-based resource limits.

vCore-based model for databases in a managed instance

General Purpose service tier - Generation 4 compute platform |MAXSIZE|GP_Gen4_8|GP_Gen4_16|GP4_24| |:--- | --: |--: | |Max data size (TB)|8|8|8|

General Purpose service tier - Generation 5 compute platform

MAXSIZE GP_Gen5_8 GP_Gen5_16 GP_Gen5_24 GP_Gen5_32 GP_Gen5_40
Max data size (TB) 8 8 8 8 8

The following rules apply to MAXSIZE and EDITION arguments:

  • If EDITION is specified but MAXSIZE is not specified, the default value for the edition is used. For example, if the EDITION is set to Standard, and the MAXSIZE is not specified, then the MAXSIZE is automatically set to 250 MB.
  • If neither MAXSIZE nor EDITION is specified, the EDITION is set to Standard (S0), and MAXSIZE is set to 250 GB.

SERVICE_OBJECTIVE

  • For single and pooled databases on a logical server

    • Specifies the performance level. Available values for service objective are: S0, S1, S2, S3, S4, S6, S7, S9, S12, P1, P2, P4, P6, P11, P15, GP_GEN4_1, GP_GEN4_2, GP_GEN4_4, GP_GEN4_8, GP_GEN4_16, GP_GEN4_24, BC_GEN4_1 BC_GEN4_2 BC_GEN4_4 BC_GEN4_8 BC_GEN4_16, BC_GEN4_24, GP_Gen5_2, GP_Gen5_4, GP_Gen5_8, GP_Gen5_16, GP_Gen5_24, GP_Gen5_32, GP_Gen5_48, GP_Gen5_80, BC_Gen5_2, BC_Gen5_4, BC_Gen5_8, BC_Gen5_16, BC_Gen5_24, BC_Gen5_32, BC_Gen5_48, BC_Gen5_80.
    • For single databases on a logical server in the Hyperscale service tier Specifies the performance level. Available values for service objective are: HS_GEN4_1 HS_GEN4_2 HS_GEN4_4 HS_GEN4_8 HS_GEN4_16, HS_GEN4_24, HS_Gen5_2, HS_Gen5_4, HS_Gen5_8, HS_Gen5_16, HS_Gen5_24, HS_Gen5_32, HS_Gen5_48, HS_Gen5_80.
  • For databases on a Managed Instance

    Specifies the performance level. Available values for service objective are: GP_GEN4_8, GP_GEN4_16, GP_Gen5_8, GP_Gen5_16, GP_Gen5_24, GP_Gen5_32, GP_Gen5_40.

For service objective descriptions and more information about the size, editions, and the service objectives combinations, see Azure SQL Database Service Tiers. If the specified SERVICE_OBJECTIVE is not supported by the EDITION, you receive an error. To change the SERVICE_OBJECTIVE value from one tier to another (for example from S1 to P1), you must also change the EDITION value. For service objective descriptions and more information about the size, editions, and the service objectives combinations, see Azure SQL Database Service Tiers and Performance Levels, DTU-based resource limits and vCore-based resource limits. Support for PRS service objectives have been removed. For questions, use this e-mail alias: premium-rs@microsoft.com.

ELASTIC_POOL (name = <elastic_pool_name>)

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only. Does not apply to databases in the Hyperscale service tier.

To create a new database in an elastic database pool, set the SERVICE_OBJECTIVE of the database to ELASTIC_POOL and provide the name of the pool. For more information, see Create and manage a SQL Database elastic pool.

AS COPY OF [source_server_name.]source_database_name

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

For copying a database to the same or a different SQL Database server.

source_server_name

The name of the SQL Database server where the source database is located. This parameter is optional when the source database and the destination database are to be located on the same SQL Database server.

Note

The AS COPY OF argument does not support the fully qualified unique domain names. In other words, if your server's fully qualified domain name is serverName.database.windows.net, use only serverName during database copy.

source_database_name

The name of the database that is to be copied.

Remarks

Databases in Azure SQL Database have several default settings that are set when the database is created. For more information about these default settings, see the list of values in DATABASEPROPERTYEX.

MAXSIZE provides the ability to limit the size of the database. If the size of the database reaches its MAXSIZE, you receive error code 40544. When this occurs, you cannot insert or update data, or create new objects (such as tables, stored procedures, views, and functions). However, you can still read and delete data, truncate tables, drop tables and indexes, and rebuild indexes. You can then update MAXSIZE to a value larger than your current database size or delete some data to free storage space. There may be as much as a fifteen-minute delay before you can insert new data.

Important

The CREATE DATABASE statement must be the only statement in a Transact-SQL batch.

To change the size, edition, or service objective values later, use ALTER DATABASE (Azure SQL Database).

The CATALOG_COLLATION argument is only available during database creation.

Database Copies

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

Copying a database using the CREATE DATABASE statement is an asynchronous operation. Therefore, a connection to the SQL Database server is not needed for the full duration of the copy process. The CREATE DATABASE statement returns control to the user after the entry in sys.databases is created but before the database copy operation is complete. In other words, the CREATE DATABASE statement returns successfully when the database copy is still in progress.

  • Monitoring the copy process on an SQL Database server: Query the percentage_complete or replication_state_desc columns in the dm_database_copies or the state column in the sys.databases view. The sys.dm_operation_status view can be used as well as it returns the status of database operations including database copy.

At the time the copy process completes successfully, the destination database is transactionally consistent with the source database.

The following syntax and semantic rules apply to your use of the AS COPY OF argument:

  • The source server name and the server name for the copy target may be the same or different. When they are the same, this parameter is optional and the server context of the current session is used by default.

  • The source and destination database names must be specified, unique, and comply with the SQL Server rules for identifiers. For more information, see Identifiers.

  • The CREATE DATABASE statement must be executed within the context of the master database of the SQL Database server where the new database will be created.

  • After the copying completes, the destination database must be managed as an independent database. You can execute the ALTER DATABASE and DROP DATABASE statements against the new database independently of the source database. You can also copy the new database to another new database.

  • The source database may continue to be accessed while the database copy is in progress.

    For more information, see Create a copy of an Azure SQL database using Transact-SQL.

Permissions

To create a database, a login must be one of the following:

  • The server-level principal login

  • The Azure AD administrator for the local Azure SQL Server

  • A login that is a member of the dbmanager database role
    Additional requirements for using CREATE DATABASE ... AS COPY OF syntax: The login executing the statement on the local server must also be at least the db_owner on the source server. If the login is based on SQL Server authentication, the login executing the statement on the local server must have a matching login on the source SQL Database server, with an identical name and password.

Examples

Simple Example

A simple example for creating a database.

CREATE DATABASE TestDB1;  

Simple Example with Edition

A simple example for creating a standard database.

CREATE DATABASE TestDB2  
( EDITION = 'GeneralPurpose' );  

Example with Additional Options

An example using multiple options.

CREATE DATABASE hito 
COLLATE Japanese_Bushu_Kakusu_100_CS_AS_KS_WS 
( MAXSIZE = 500 MB, EDITION = 'GeneralPurpose', SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = 'GP_GEN4_8' ) ;  

Creating a Copy

An example creating a copy of a database.

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

CREATE DATABASE escuela 
AS COPY OF school;  

Creating a Database in an Elastic Pool

Creates new database in pool named S3M100:

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

CREATE DATABASE db1 ( SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = ELASTIC_POOL ( name = S3M100 ) ) ;  

Creating a Copy of a Database on Another Server

The following example creates a copy of the db_original database, named db_copy in the P2 performance level for a single database. This is true regardless of whether db_original is in an elastic pool or a performance level for a single database.

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

CREATE DATABASE db_copy 
  AS COPY OF ozabzw7545.db_original ( SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = 'P2' )  ;  

The following example creates a copy of the db_original database, named db_copy in an elastic pool named ep1. This is true regardless of whether db_original is in an elastic pool or a performance level for a single database. If db_original is in an elastic pool with a different name, then db_copy is still created in ep1.

Applies to: Single and pooled databases only.

CREATE DATABASE db_copy 
  AS COPY OF ozabzw7545.db_original 
  (SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = ELASTIC_POOL( name = ep1 ) ) ;  

Create database with specified catalog collation value

The following example sets the catalog collation to DATABASE_DEFAULT during database creation, which sets the catalog collation to be the same as the database collation.

CREATE DATABASE TestDB3 COLLATE Japanese_XJIS_140  (MAXSIZE = 100 MB, EDITION = ‘basic’)  
  WITH CATALOG_COLLATION = DATABASE_DEFAULT 

See also

SQL Server SQL Database
logical server
* SQL Database
Managed Instance *
SQL Data
Warehouse

 

Azure SQL Database Managed Instance

Overview

In Azure SQL Database Managed Instance, this statement is used to create a database. When creating a database on a Managed Instance, you specify the database name and collation.

Syntax

CREATE DATABASE database_name [ COLLATE collation_name ]  
[;]  

Important

To add files or set containment for a database in a Managed Instance, use the ALTER DATABASE statement.

Arguments

database_name

The name of the new database. This name must be unique on the SQL server and comply with the SQL Server rules for identifiers. For more information, see Identifiers.

Collation_name

Specifies the default collation for the database. Collation name can be either a Windows collation name or a SQL collation name. If not specified, the database is assigned the default collation, which is SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS.

For more information about the Windows and SQL collation names, COLLATE (Transact-SQL).

Remarks

Databases in Azure SQL Database have several default settings that are set when the database is created. For more information about these default settings, see the list of values in DATABASEPROPERTYEX.

Important

The CREATE DATABASE statement must be the only statement in a Transact-SQL batch.

The following are CREATE DATABASE limitations:

  • Files and filegroups cannot be defined.
  • WITHoptions are not supported.

    Tip

    As workaround, use ALTER DATABASE. after CREATE DATABASE to set database options and to add files.

Permissions

To create a database, a login must be one of the following:

  • The server-level principal login
  • The Azure AD administrator for the local Azure SQL Server
  • A login that is a member of the dbmanager database role

Examples

Simple Example

A simple example for creating a database.

CREATE DATABASE TestDB1;  

See also

See ALTER DATABASE

 

Azure SQL Data Warehouse

Overview

In Azure SQL Data Warehouse, this statement can be used with an Azure SQL logical server to create a SQL Data Warehouse database. With this statement, you specify the database name, collation, maximum size, edition, and service objective.

Syntax

CREATE DATABASE database_name [ COLLATE collation_name ]  
(  
    [ MAXSIZE = { 
          250 | 500 | 750 | 1024 | 5120 | 10240 | 20480 | 30720 
        | 40960 | 51200 | 61440 | 71680 | 81920 | 92160 | 102400 
        | 153600 | 204800 | 245760 
      } GB ,
    ]  
    EDITION = 'datawarehouse',  
    SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = { 
         'DW100' | 'DW200' | 'DW300' | 'DW400' | 'DW500' | 'DW600' 
        | 'DW1000' | 'DW1200' | 'DW1500' | 'DW2000' | 'DW3000' | 'DW6000' 
        | 'DW1000c' | 'DW1500c' | 'DW2000c' | 'DW2500c' | 'DW3000c' | 'DW5000c' 
        | 'DW6000c' | 'DW7500c' | 'DW10000c' | 'DW15000c' | 'DW30000c'
    }  
)  
[;]  

Arguments

database_name
The name of the new database. This name must be unique on the SQL server, which can host both Azure SQL Database databases and SQL Data Warehouse databases, and comply with the SQL Server rules for identifiers. For more information, see Identifiers.

collation_name
Specifies the default collation for the database. Collation name can be either a Windows collation name or a SQL collation name. If not specified, the database is assigned the default collation, which is SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS.

For more information about the Windows and SQL collation names, see COLLATE (Transact-SQL).

EDITION
Specifies the service tier of the database. For SQL Data Warehouse use 'datawarehouse' .

MAXSIZE
The default is 245,760 GB (240 TB).

Applies to: Optimized for Elasticity performance tier

The maximum allowable size for the database. The database cannot grow beyond MAXSIZE.

Applies to: Optimized for Compute performance tier

The maximum allowable size for rowstore data in the database. Data stored in rowstore tables, a columnstore index's deltastore, or a nonclustered index on a clustered columnstore index cannot grow beyond MAXSIZE. Data compressed into columnstore format does not have a size limit and is not constrained by MAXSIZE.

SERVICE_OBJECTIVE
Specifies the performance level. For more information about service objectives for SQL Data Warehouse, see Performance Tiers.

General Remarks

Use DATABASEPROPERTYEX (Transact-SQL) to see the database properties.

Use ALTER DATABASE (Azure SQL Data Warehouse) to change the max size, or service objective values later.

SQL Data Warehouse is set to COMPATIBILITY_LEVEL 130 and cannot be changed. For more details, see Improved Query Performance with Compatibility Level 130 in Azure SQL Database.

Permissions

Required permissions:

  • Server level principal login, created by the provisioning process, or

  • Member of the dbmanager database role.

Error Handling

If the size of the database reaches MAXSIZE you will receive error code 40544. When this occurs, you cannot insert and update data, or create new objects (such as tables, stored procedures, views, and functions). You can still read and delete data, truncate tables, drop tables and indexes, and rebuild indexes. You can then update MAXSIZE to a value larger than your current database size or delete some data to free storage space. There may be as much as a fifteen-minute delay before you can insert new data.

Limitations and Restrictions

You must be connected to the master database to create a new database.

The CREATE DATABASE statement must be the only statement in a Transact-SQL batch.

You cannot change the database collation after the database is created.

Examples: Azure SQL Data Warehouse

A. Simple example

A simple example for creating a data warehouse database. This creates the database with the smallest max size which is 10240 GB, the default collation which is SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS, and the smallest compute power which is DW100.

CREATE DATABASE TestDW  
(EDITION = 'datawarehouse', SERVICE_OBJECTIVE='DW100');  

B. Create a data warehouse database with all the options

An example of creating a 10 terabyte data warehouse using all the options.

CREATE DATABASE TestDW COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS  
(MAXSIZE = 10240 GB, EDITION = 'datawarehouse', SERVICE_OBJECTIVE = 'DW1000');  

See Also

ALTER DATABASE (Azure SQL Data Warehouse( CREATE TABLE (Azure SQL Data Warehouse) DROP DATABASE (Transact-SQL(

 

Parallel Data Warehouse

Overview

In Parallel Data Warehouse, this statement is used to create a new database on a Parallel Data Warehouse appliance. Use this statement to create all files associated with an appliance database and to set maximum size and auto-growth options for the database tables and transaction log.

Syntax

CREATE DATABASE database_name   
WITH (   
    [ AUTOGROW = ON | OFF , ]   
    REPLICATED_SIZE = replicated_size [ GB ] ,  
    DISTRIBUTED_SIZE = distributed_size [ GB ] ,  
    LOG_SIZE = log_size [ GB ] )  
[;]  

Arguments

database_name
The name of the new database. For more information on permitted database names, see "Object Naming Rules" and "Reserved Database Names" in the Parallel Data Warehouse product documentation.

AUTOGROW = ON | OFF
Specifies whether the replicated_size, distributed_size, and log_size parameters for this database will automatically grow as needed beyond their specified sizes. Default value is OFF.

If AUTOGROW is ON, replicated_size, distributed_size, and log_size will grow as required (not in blocks of the initial specified size) with each data insert, update, or other action that requires more storage than has already been allocated.

If AUTOGROW is OFF, the sizes will not grow automatically. Parallel Data Warehouse will return an error when attempting an action that requires replicated_size, distributed_size, or log_size to grow beyond their specified value.

AUTOGROW is either ON for all sizes or OFF for all sizes. For example, it is not possible to set AUTOGROW ON for log_size, but not set it for replicated_size.

replicated_size [ GB ]
A positive number. Sets the size (in integer or decimal gigabytes) for the total space allocated to replicated tables and corresponding data on each Compute node. For minimum and maximum replicated_size requirements, see "Minimum and Maximum Values" in the Parallel Data Warehouse product documentation.

If AUTOGROW is ON, replicated tables will be permitted to grow beyond this limit.

If AUTOGROW is OFF, an error will be returned if a user attempts to create a new replicated table, insert data into an existing replicated table, or update an existing replicated table in a manner that would increase the size beyond replicated_size.

distributed_size [ GB ]
A positive number. The size, in integer or decimal gigabytes, for the total space allocated to distributed tables (and corresponding data) across the appliance. For minimum and maximum distributed_size requirements, see "Minimum and Maximum Values" in the Parallel Data Warehouse product documentation.

If AUTOGROW is ON, distributed tables will be permitted to grow beyond this limit.

If AUTOGROW is OFF, an error will be returned if a user attempts to create a new distributed table, insert data into an existing distributed table, or update an existing distributed table in a manner that would increase the size beyond distributed_size.

log_size [ GB ]
A positive number. The size (in integer or decimal gigabytes) for the transaction log across the appliance.

For minimum and maximum log_size requirements, see "Minimum and Maximum Values" in the Parallel Data Warehouse product documentation.

If AUTOGROW is ON, the log file is permitted to grow beyond this limit. Use the DBCC SHRINKLOG (Azure SQL Data Warehouse) statement to reduce the size of the log files to their original size.

If AUTOGROW is OFF, an error will be returned to the user for any action that would increase the log size on an individual Compute node beyond log_size.

Permissions

Requires the CREATE ANY DATABASE permission in the master database, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

The following example provides the permission to create a database to the database user Fay.

USE master;  
GO  
GRANT CREATE ANY DATABASE TO [Fay];  
GO  

General Remarks

Databases are created with database compatibility level 120, which is the compatibility level for SQL Server 2014 (12.x). This ensures the database will be able to use all of the SQL Server 2014 (12.x) functionality that PDW uses.

Limitations and Restrictions

The CREATE DATABASE statement is not allowed in an explicit transaction. For more information, see Statements.

For information on minimum and maximum constraints on databases, see "Minimum and Maximum Values" in the Parallel Data Warehouse product documentation.

At the time a database is created, there must be enough available free space on each Compute node to allocate the combined total of the following sizes:

  • SQL Server database with tables the size of replicated_table_size.

  • SQL Server database with tables the size of (distributed_table_size / number of Compute nodes ).

  • SQL Server logs the size of (log_size / number of Compute nodes).

Locking

Takes a shared lock on the DATABASE object.

Metadata

After this operation succeeds, an entry for this database will appear in the sys.databases (Transact-SQL) and sys.objects (Transact-SQL)metadata views.

Examples: Parallel Data Warehouse

A. Basic database creation examples

The following example creates the database mytest with a storage allocation of 100 GB per Compute node for replicated tables, 500 GB per appliance for distributed tables, and 100 GB per appliance for the transaction log. In this example, AUTOGROW is off by default.

CREATE DATABASE mytest  
   WITH   
   (REPLICATED_SIZE = 100 GB,  
   DISTRIBUTED_SIZE = 500 GB,  
   LOG_SIZE = 100 GB );  

The following example creates the database mytest with the same parameters as above, except that AUTOGROW is turned on. This allows the database to grow outside the specified size parameters.

CREATE DATABASE mytest  
   WITH   
   (AUTOGROW = ON,  
   REPLICATED_SIZE = 100 GB,  
   DISTRIBUTED_SIZE = 500 GB,  
   LOG_SIZE = 100 GB);  

B. Creating a database with partial gigabyte sizes

The following example creates the database mytest, with AUTOGROW off, a storage allocation of 1.5 GB per Compute node for replicated tables, 5.25 GB per appliance for distributed tables, and 10 GB per appliance for the transaction log.

CREATE DATABASE mytest  
   WITH   
   (REPLICATED_SIZE = 1.5 GB,  
   DISTRIBUTED_SIZE = 5.25 GB,  
   LOG_SIZE = 10 GB);  

See Also

ALTER DATABASE (Parallel Data Warehouse)
DROP DATABASE (Transact-SQL)