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* SQL Server *   SQL Database
managed instance
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SQL Server and SQL Database managed instance

Creates a Resource Governor workload group and associates the workload group with a Resource Governor resource pool. Resource Governor is not available in every edition of MicrosoftSQL Server. For a list of features that are supported by the editions of SQL Server, see Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server 2016.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions.


    ( [ IMPORTANCE = { LOW | MEDIUM | HIGH } ]
      [ [ , ] REQUEST_MAX_MEMORY_GRANT_PERCENT = value ]
      [ [ , ] REQUEST_MAX_CPU_TIME_SEC = value ]
      [ [ , ] REQUEST_MEMORY_GRANT_TIMEOUT_SEC = value ]
      [ [ , ] MAX_DOP = value ]
      [ [ , ] GROUP_MAX_REQUESTS = value ] )
    [ pool_name | "default" ]
    [ [ , ] EXTERNAL external_pool_name | "default" ] ]
    } ]
[ ; ]


group_name Is the user-defined name for the workload group. group_name is alphanumeric, can be up to 128 characters, must be unique within an instance of SQL Server, and must comply with the rules for identifiers.

IMPORTANCE = { LOW | MEDIUM | HIGH } Specifies the relative importance of a request in the workload group. Importance is one of the following, with MEDIUM being the default:

  • LOW
  • MEDIUM (default)
  • HIGH


Internally each importance setting is stored as a number that is used for calculations.

IMPORTANCE is local to the resource pool; workload groups of different importance inside the same resource pool affect each other, but do not affect workload groups in another resource pool.

REQUEST_MAX_MEMORY_GRANT_PERCENT = value Specifies the maximum amount of memory that a single request can take from the pool. value is a percentage relative to the resource pool size specified by MAX_MEMORY_PERCENT.

value is an integer up to SQL Server 2017 (14.x) and a float starting with SQL Server 2019 (15.x). Default value is 25. The allowed range for value is from 1 through 100.


The amount specified only refers to query execution grant memory.

Setting value to 0 prevents queries with SORT and HASH JOIN operations in user-defined workload groups from running.

It is not recommended to set value greater than 70 because the server may be unable to set aside enough free memory if other concurrent queries are running. This may eventually lead to query time-out error 8645.

If the query memory requirements exceed the limit that is specified by this parameter, the server does the following:

  • For user-defined workload groups, the server tries to reduce the query degree of parallelism until the memory requirement falls under the limit, or until the degree of parallelism equals 1. If the query memory requirement is still greater than the limit, error 8657 occurs.

  • For internal and default workload groups, the server permits the query to obtain the required memory.

Be aware that both cases are subject to time-out error 8645 if the server has insufficient physical memory.

REQUEST_MAX_CPU_TIME_SEC = value Specifies the maximum amount of CPU time, in seconds, that a request can use. value must be 0 or a positive integer. The default setting for value is 0, which means unlimited.


By default, Resource Governor will not prevent a request from continuing if the maximum time is exceeded. However, an event will be generated. For more information, see CPU Threshold Exceeded Event Class.


Starting with SQL Server 2016 (13.x) SP2 and SQL Server 2017 (14.x) CU3, and using trace flag 2422, Resource Governor will abort a request when the maximum time is exceeded.

REQUEST_MEMORY_GRANT_TIMEOUT_SEC = value Specifies the maximum time, in seconds, that a query can wait for a memory grant (work buffer memory) to become available. value must be 0 or a positive integer. The default setting for value, 0, uses an internal calculation based on query cost to determine the maximum time.


A query does not always fail when memory grant time-out is reached. A query will only fail if there are too many concurrent queries running. Otherwise, the query may only get the minimum memory grant, resulting in reduced query performance.

MAX_DOP = value Specifies the maximum degree of parallelism (MAXDOP) for parallel query execution. value must be 0 or a positive integer. The allowed range for value is from 0 through 64. The default setting for value, 0, uses the global setting. MAX_DOP is handled as follows:


Workload group MAX_DOP overrides the server configuration for max degree of parallelism and the MAXDOP database scoped configuration.


To accomplish this at the query level, use the MAXDOP query hint. Setting the maximum degree of parallelism as a query hint is effective as long as it does not exceed the workload group MAX_DOP. If the MAXDOP query hint value exceeds the value that is configured by using the Resource Governor, the SQL Server Database Engine uses the Resource Governor MAX_DOP value. The MAXDOP query hint always overrides the server configuration for max degree of parallelism.

To accomplish this at the database level, use the MAXDOP database scoped configuration.

To accomplish this at the server level, use the max degree of parallelism (MAXDOP) server configuration option.

GROUP_MAX_REQUESTS = value Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous requests that are allowed to execute in the workload group. value must be a 0 or a positive integer. The default setting for value is 0, and allows unlimited requests. When the maximum concurrent requests are reached, a user in that group can log in, but is placed in a wait state until concurrent requests are dropped below the value specified.

USING { pool_name | "default" } Associates the workload group with the user-defined resource pool identified by pool_name. This in effect puts the workload group in the resource pool. If pool_name is not provided, or if the USING argument is not used, the workload group is put in the predefined Resource Governor default pool.

"default" is a reserved word and when used with USING, must be enclosed by quotation marks ("") or brackets ([]).


Predefined workload groups and resource pools all use lower case names, such as "default". This should be taken into account for servers that use case-sensitive collation. Servers with case-insensitive collation, such as SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS, will treat "default" and "Default" as the same.

EXTERNAL external_pool_name | "default" Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 (13.x) and later).

Workload group can specify an external resource pool. You can define a workload group and associate with two pools:


When REQUEST_MEMORY_GRANT_PERCENT is used, index creation is allowed to use more workspace memory than what is initially granted for improved performance. This special handling is supported by Resource Governor in SQL Server 2019 (15.x). However, the initial grant and any additional memory grant are limited by resource pool and workload group settings.

The MAX_DOP limit is set per task. It is not a per request or per query limit. This means that during a parallel query execution, a single request can spawn multiple tasks which are assigned to a scheduler. For more information, see the Thread and Task Architecture Guide.

When MAX_DOP is used and a query is marked as serial at compile time, it cannot be changed back to parallel at run time regardless of the workload group or server configuration setting. After MAX_DOP is configured, it can only be lowered due to memory pressure. Workload group reconfiguration is not visible while waiting in the grant memory queue.

Index Creation on a Partitioned Table

The memory consumed by index creation on non-aligned partitioned table is proportional to the number of partitions involved. If the total required memory exceeds the per-query limit REQUEST_MAX_MEMORY_GRANT_PERCENT imposed by the Resource Governor workload group setting, this index creation may fail to execute. Because the "default" workload group allows a query to exceed the per-query limit with the minimum required memory, the user may be able to run the same index creation in "default" workload group, if the "default" resource pool has enough total memory configured to run such query.


Requires CONTROL SERVER permission.


Create a workload group named newReports which uses the Resource Governor default settings, and is in the Resource Governor default pool. The example specifies the default pool, but this is not required.

    USING "default" ;

See Also

SQL Server SQL Database
managed instance
* Azure Synapse
Analytics *


Azure Synapse Analytics (preview)

Creates a workload group. Workload groups are containers for a set of requests and are the basis for how workload management is configured on a system. Workload groups provide the ability to reserve resources for workload isolation, contain resources, define resources per request, and adhere to execution rules. Once the statement completes, the settings are in effect.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions.

  [ [ , ] QUERY_EXECUTION_TIMEOUT_SEC = value ] )
  [ ; ]

Specifies the name by which the workload group is identified. group_name is a sysname. It can be up to 128 characters long and must be unique within the instance.

Specifies a guaranteed minimum resource allocation for this workload group that is not shared with other workload groups. value is an integer range from 0 to 100. The sum of min_percentage_resource across all workload groups cannot exceed 100. The value for min_percentage_resource cannot be greater than cap_percentage_resource. There are minimum effective values allowed per service level. See Effective Values for more details.

Specifies the maximum resource utilization for all requests in a workload group. The allowed integer range for value is 1 through 100. The value for cap_percentage_resource must be greater than min_percentage_resource. The effective value for cap_percentage_resource can be reduced if min_percentage_resource is configured greater than zero in other workload groups.

Sets the minimum amount of resources allocated per request. value is a required parameter with a decimal range between 0.75 to 100.00. The value for request_min_resource_grant_percent must be a multiple of 0.25, must be a factor of min_percentage_resource, and be less than cap_percentage_resource. There are minimum effective values allowed per service level. See Effective Values for more details.

For example:

( MIN_PERCENTAGE_RESOURCE = 26              -- integer value
 ,REQUEST_MIN_RESOURCE_GRANT_PERCENT = 3.25 -- factor of 26 (guaranteed a minimum of 8 concurrency)

Consider the values that are used for resource classes as a guideline for request_min_resource_grant_percent. The table below contains resource allocations for Gen2.

Resource Class Percent of Resources
Smallrc 3%
Mediumrc 10%
Largerc 22%
Xlargerc 70%

Sets the maximum amount of resources allocated per request. value is an optional decimal parameter with a default value equal to the request_min_resource_grant_percent. value must be greater than or equal to request_min_resource_grant_percent. When the value of request_max_resource_grant_percent is greater than request_min_resource_grant_percent and system resources are available, additional resources are allocated to a request.

Specifies the default importance of a request for the workload group. Importance is one of the following, with NORMAL being the default:

  • LOW
  • NORMAL (default)
  • HIGH

Importance set at the workload group is a default importance for all requests in the workload group. A user can also set importance at the classifier level, which can override the workload group importance setting. This allows for differentiation of importance for requests within a workload group to get access to non-reserved resources quicker. When the sum of min_percentage_resource across workload groups is less than 100, there are non-reserved resources that are assigned on a basis of importance.

Specifies the maximum time, in seconds, that a query can execute before it is canceled. value must be 0 or a positive integer. The default setting for value is 0, which the query never times out. QUERY_EXECUTION_TIMEOUT_SEC counts once the query is in running state, not when the query is queued.


Workload groups corresponding to resource classes are created automatically for backward compatibility. These system defined workload groups cannot be dropped. An additional 8 user defined workload groups can be created.

If a workload group is created with min_percentage_resource greater than zero, the CREATE WORKLOAD GROUP statement will queue until there are enough resources to create the workload group.

Effective Values

The parameters min_percentage_resource, cap_percentage_resource, request_min_resource_grant_percent and request_max_resource_grant_percent have effective values that are adjusted in the context of the current service level and the configuration of other workload groups.

The supported concurrency per service level remains the same as when resource classes were used to define resource grants per query, hence, the supported values for request_min_resource_grant_percent is dependent on the service level the instance is set to. At the lowest service level, DW100c, a minimum 25% resources per request is needed. At DW100c, the effective request_min_resource_grant_percent for a configured workload group can be 25% or higher. See the below table for further details on how effective values are derived.

Service Level Lowest effective value for REQUEST_MIN_RESOURCE_GRANT_PERCENT Maximum concurrent queries
DW100c 25% 4
DW200c 12.5% 8
DW300c 8% 12
DW400c 6.25% 16
DW500c 5% 20
DW1000c 3% 32
DW1500c 3% 32
DW2000c 2% 48
DW2500c 2% 48
DW3000c 1.5% 64
DW5000c 1.5% 64
DW6000c 0.75% 128
DW7500c 0.75% 128
DW10000c 0.75% 128
DW15000c 0.75% 128
DW30000c 0.75% 128

Similarly, request_min_resource_grant_percent, min_percentage_resource must be greater than or equal to the effective request_min_resource_grant_percent. A workload group with min_percentage_resource configured that is less than effective min_percentage_resource has the value adjusted to zero at run time. When this happens, the resources configured for min_percentage_resource are sharable across all workload groups. For example, the workload group wgAdHoc with a min_percentage_resource of 10% running at DW1000c would have an effective min_percentage_resource of 10% (3.25% is the minimum supported value at DW1000c). wgAdhoc at DW100c would have an effective min_percentage_resource of 0%. The 10% configured for wgAdhoc would be shared across all workload groups.

Cap_percentage_resource also has an effective value. If a workload group wgAdhoc is configured with a cap_percentage_resource of 100% and another workload group wgDashboards is created with 25% min_percentage_resource, the effective cap_percentage_resource for wgAdhoc becomes 75%.

The easiest way to understand the run-time values for your workload groups is to query the system view sys.dm_workload_management_workload_groups_stats.


Requires CONTROL DATABASE permission

See also