GRANT Database Permissions (Transact-SQL)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Grants permissions on a database in SQL Server.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax


GRANT <permission> [ ,...n ]    
    TO <database_principal> [ ,...n ] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]  
    [ AS <database_principal> ]  

<permission>::=    
permission | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ]  

<database_principal> ::=   
    Database_user   
  | Database_role   
  | Application_role   
  | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User   
  | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group   
  | Database_user_mapped_to_certificate   
  | Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key   
  | Database_user_with_no_login    

Arguments

permission
Specifies a permission that can be granted on a database. For a list of the permissions, see the Remarks section later in this topic.

ALL
This option does not grant all possible permissions. Granting ALL is equivalent to granting the following permissions: BACKUP DATABASE, BACKUP LOG, CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE FUNCTION, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, and CREATE VIEW.

PRIVILEGES
Included for ISO compliance. Does not change the behavior of ALL.

WITH GRANT OPTION
Indicates that the principal will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

AS <database_principal> Specifies a principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

Database_user
Specifies a database user.

Database_role
Specifies a database role.

Application_role
Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017, SQL Database

Specifies an application role.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User
Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows user.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group
Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows group.

Database_user_mapped_to_certificate
Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017

Specifies a database user mapped to a certificate.

Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key
Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017

Specifies a database user mapped to an asymmetric key.

Database_user_with_no_login
Specifies a database user with no corresponding server-level principal.

Remarks

Important

A combination of ALTER and REFERENCE permissions in some cases could allow the grantee to view data or execute unauthorized functions. For example: A user with ALTER permission on a table and REFERENCE permission on a function can create a computed column over a function and have it be executed. In this case, the user must also have SELECT permission on the computed column.

A database is a securable contained by the server that is its parent in the permissions hierarchy. The most specific and limited permissions that can be granted on a database are listed in the following table, together with the more general permissions that include them by implication.

Database permission Implied by database permission Implied by server permission
ADMINISTER DATABASE BULK OPERATIONS
Applies to: SQL Database.
CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER CONTROL ALTER ANY DATABASE
ALTER ANY APPLICATION ROLE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY COLUMN ENCRYPTION KEY ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY COLUMN MASTER KEY DEFINITION ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY CONTRACT ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY DATABASE AUDIT ALTER ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT
ALTER ANY DATABASE DDL TRIGGER ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT NOTIFICATION ALTER ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION
ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT SESSION
Applies to: SQL Database.
ALTER ALTER ANY EVENT SESSION
ALTER ANY DATABASE SCOPED CONFIGURATION
Applies to: SQL Server 2016 through SQL Server 2017, SQL Database.
CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY DATASPACE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY EXTERNAL DATA SOURCE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY EXTERNAL FILE FORMAT ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY EXTERNAL LIBRARY
Applies to: SQL Server 2017.
CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY MASK CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY ROLE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY ROUTE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SCHEMA ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SECURITY POLICY
Applies to: Azure SQL Database.
CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SERVICE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY ALTER CONTROL SERVER
ALTER ANY USER ALTER CONTROL SERVER
AUTHENTICATE CONTROL AUTHENTICATE SERVER
BACKUP DATABASE CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
BACKUP LOG CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
CHECKPOINT CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
CONNECT CONNECT REPLICATION CONTROL SERVER
CONNECT REPLICATION CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
CREATE AGGREGATE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE ASSEMBLY ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY CONTROL SERVER
CREATE ASYMMETRIC KEY ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY CONTROL SERVER
CREATE CERTIFICATE ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE CONTROL SERVER
CREATE CONTRACT ALTER ANY CONTRACT CONTROL SERVER
CREATE DATABASE CONTROL CREATE ANY DATABASE
CREATE DATABASE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT NOTIFICATION CREATE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION
CREATE DEFAULT ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE FULLTEXT CATALOG ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG CONTROL SERVER
CREATE FUNCTION ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE MESSAGE TYPE ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE CONTROL SERVER
CREATE PROCEDURE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE QUEUE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE REMOTE SERVICE BINDING ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING CONTROL SERVER
CREATE ROLE ALTER ANY ROLE CONTROL SERVER
CREATE ROUTE ALTER ANY ROUTE CONTROL SERVER
CREATE RULE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE SCHEMA ALTER ANY SCHEMA CONTROL SERVER
CREATE SERVICE ALTER ANY SERVICE CONTROL SERVER
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY CONTROL SERVER
CREATE SYNONYM ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE TABLE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE TYPE ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE VIEW ALTER CONTROL SERVER
CREATE XML SCHEMA COLLECTION ALTER CONTROL SERVER
DELETE CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
EXECUTE CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
EXECUTE ANY EXTERNAL SCRIPT
Applies to: SQL Server 2016.
CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
INSERT CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
KILL DATABASE CONNECTION
Applies to: Azure SQL Database.
CONTROL ALTER ANY CONNECTION
REFERENCES CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
SELECT CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
SHOWPLAN CONTROL ALTER TRACE
SUBSCRIBE QUERY NOTIFICATIONS CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
TAKE OWNERSHIP CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
UNMASK CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
UPDATE CONTROL CONTROL SERVER
VIEW ANY COLUMN ENCRYPTION KEY DEFINITION CONTROL VIEW ANY DEFINITION
VIEW ANY COLUMN MASTER KEY DEFINITION CONTROL VIEW ANY DEFINITION
VIEW DATABASE STATE CONTROL VIEW SERVER STATE
VIEW DEFINITION CONTROL VIEW ANY DEFINITION

Permissions

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION, or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted.

If you are using the AS option, the following additional requirements apply.

AS granting_principal Additional permission required
Database user IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a Windows login IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a Windows Group Membership in the Windows group, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a certificate Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to an asymmetric key Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user not mapped to any server principal IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database role ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Application role ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Object owners can grant permissions on the objects they own. Principals that have CONTROL permission on a securable can grant permission on that securable.

Grantees of CONTROL SERVER permission, such as members of the sysadmin fixed server role, can grant any permission on any securable in the server.

Examples

A. Granting permission to create tables

The following example grants CREATE TABLE permission on the AdventureWorks database to user MelanieK.

USE AdventureWorks;  
GRANT CREATE TABLE TO MelanieK;  
GO  

B. Granting SHOWPLAN permission to an application role

The following example grants SHOWPLAN permission on the AdventureWorks2012 database to application role AuditMonitor.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2017, SQL Database

USE AdventureWorks2012;  
GRANT SHOWPLAN TO AuditMonitor;  
GO  

C. Granting CREATE VIEW with GRANT OPTION

The following example grants CREATE VIEW permission on the AdventureWorks2012 database to user CarmineEs with the right to grant CREATE VIEW to other principals.

USE AdventureWorks2012;  
GRANT CREATE VIEW TO CarmineEs WITH GRANT OPTION;  
GO  

See Also

sys.database_permissions (Transact-SQL)
sys.database_principals (Transact-SQL)
CREATE DATABASE (SQL Server Transact-SQL)
GRANT (Transact-SQL)
Permissions (Database Engine)
Principals (Database Engine)